Abstract

Ink-jet printing quality is determined primarily by, among other factors, the printing engine and its inks. The printing engine controls the process of ink application and the scheme of ink mixing for the generation of secondary and tertiary colors. The inks selectively absorb different wavelengths from the illumination and result in the visible color output. Therefore characterizations of the output print in terms of ink distribution and volume, the scheme of ink mixing, light absorption, and light scattering are of essential importance in controlling and understanding the quality of the color reproduction. I present a method to characterize the ink volume and the properties of the ink by means of spectral reflectance measurements and simulations. The simulations are based on the Kubelka–Munk theory, whose applicability to ink-jet printing is also discussed.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. P. Le, “Progress and trends in ink-jet printing technology,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 42, 49–62 (1998).
  2. M. von Bahr, J. Kizling, B. Zhmud, F. Tiberg, “Spreading and penetration of aqueous solutions and waterborne inks in contact with paper and model substrates,” in Advances in Printing Science and Technology—Advances in Paper and Board Performance (Pira International, London, 2001), Vol. 27, pp. 87–102.
  3. G. L. Rogers, “Effect of light scatter on halftone color,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1813–1821 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. S. Arney, M. Alber, “Optical effects of ink spread and penetration on halftone printed by thermal ink jet,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 42, 331–334 (1998).
  5. L. Yang, R. Lenz, B. Kruse, “Light scattering and ink penetration effects on tone reproduction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 360–366 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Yang, B. Kruse, “Chromatic variation and color gamut reduction due to ink penetration,” in Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Conference of the Technical Association of the Graphic Arts (TAGA) (TAGA, Rochester, N.Y., 2001), pp. 399–407.
  7. L. Yang, B. Kruse, “Modelling ink penetration for ink-jet printing,” in Proceedings of NIP-17: IS&T’s International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 2001), pp. 731–734.
  8. S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1950).
  9. P. Kubelka, F. Munk, “Ein beitrag zur optik der farbanstriche,” Z. Tech. Phys. 12, 593–601 (1931).
  10. P. Kubelka, “New contribution to the optics of intensity light-scattering materials. Part I,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 448–457 (1948).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Kubelka, “New contribution to the optics of intensity light-scattering materials. Part II,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 330–335 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Yang, B. Kruse, “Ink penetration and its effect on printing,” in Color Imaging: Device-Independent Color, Color Hardcopy, and Graphic Arts V, R. Eschbach, G. G. Marcu, eds., Proc. SPIE3963, 365–375 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Pauler, “A model for the interaction between ink and paper,” in Advances in Printing Science and Technology, Proceeding of the 19th International Conference of Printing Research Institute, W. H. Banks, ed. (Pentech, London, 1987), pp. 116–136.
  14. J. H. Nobbs, “Kubelka–Munk theory and the prediction of reflectance,” Rev. Prog. Coloration 15, 66–75 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1998 (3)

H. P. Le, “Progress and trends in ink-jet printing technology,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 42, 49–62 (1998).

J. S. Arney, M. Alber, “Optical effects of ink spread and penetration on halftone printed by thermal ink jet,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 42, 331–334 (1998).

G. L. Rogers, “Effect of light scatter on halftone color,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1813–1821 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. H. Nobbs, “Kubelka–Munk theory and the prediction of reflectance,” Rev. Prog. Coloration 15, 66–75 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

1948 (1)

1931 (1)

P. Kubelka, F. Munk, “Ein beitrag zur optik der farbanstriche,” Z. Tech. Phys. 12, 593–601 (1931).

Alber, M.

J. S. Arney, M. Alber, “Optical effects of ink spread and penetration on halftone printed by thermal ink jet,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 42, 331–334 (1998).

Arney, J. S.

J. S. Arney, M. Alber, “Optical effects of ink spread and penetration on halftone printed by thermal ink jet,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 42, 331–334 (1998).

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1950).

Kizling, J.

M. von Bahr, J. Kizling, B. Zhmud, F. Tiberg, “Spreading and penetration of aqueous solutions and waterborne inks in contact with paper and model substrates,” in Advances in Printing Science and Technology—Advances in Paper and Board Performance (Pira International, London, 2001), Vol. 27, pp. 87–102.

Kruse, B.

L. Yang, R. Lenz, B. Kruse, “Light scattering and ink penetration effects on tone reproduction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 360–366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, B. Kruse, “Chromatic variation and color gamut reduction due to ink penetration,” in Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Conference of the Technical Association of the Graphic Arts (TAGA) (TAGA, Rochester, N.Y., 2001), pp. 399–407.

L. Yang, B. Kruse, “Ink penetration and its effect on printing,” in Color Imaging: Device-Independent Color, Color Hardcopy, and Graphic Arts V, R. Eschbach, G. G. Marcu, eds., Proc. SPIE3963, 365–375 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, B. Kruse, “Modelling ink penetration for ink-jet printing,” in Proceedings of NIP-17: IS&T’s International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 2001), pp. 731–734.

Kubelka, P.

Le, H. P.

H. P. Le, “Progress and trends in ink-jet printing technology,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 42, 49–62 (1998).

Lenz, R.

Munk, F.

P. Kubelka, F. Munk, “Ein beitrag zur optik der farbanstriche,” Z. Tech. Phys. 12, 593–601 (1931).

Nobbs, J. H.

J. H. Nobbs, “Kubelka–Munk theory and the prediction of reflectance,” Rev. Prog. Coloration 15, 66–75 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pauler, N.

N. Pauler, “A model for the interaction between ink and paper,” in Advances in Printing Science and Technology, Proceeding of the 19th International Conference of Printing Research Institute, W. H. Banks, ed. (Pentech, London, 1987), pp. 116–136.

Rogers, G. L.

Tiberg, F.

M. von Bahr, J. Kizling, B. Zhmud, F. Tiberg, “Spreading and penetration of aqueous solutions and waterborne inks in contact with paper and model substrates,” in Advances in Printing Science and Technology—Advances in Paper and Board Performance (Pira International, London, 2001), Vol. 27, pp. 87–102.

von Bahr, M.

M. von Bahr, J. Kizling, B. Zhmud, F. Tiberg, “Spreading and penetration of aqueous solutions and waterborne inks in contact with paper and model substrates,” in Advances in Printing Science and Technology—Advances in Paper and Board Performance (Pira International, London, 2001), Vol. 27, pp. 87–102.

Yang, L.

L. Yang, R. Lenz, B. Kruse, “Light scattering and ink penetration effects on tone reproduction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 360–366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, B. Kruse, “Chromatic variation and color gamut reduction due to ink penetration,” in Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Conference of the Technical Association of the Graphic Arts (TAGA) (TAGA, Rochester, N.Y., 2001), pp. 399–407.

L. Yang, B. Kruse, “Modelling ink penetration for ink-jet printing,” in Proceedings of NIP-17: IS&T’s International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 2001), pp. 731–734.

L. Yang, B. Kruse, “Ink penetration and its effect on printing,” in Color Imaging: Device-Independent Color, Color Hardcopy, and Graphic Arts V, R. Eschbach, G. G. Marcu, eds., Proc. SPIE3963, 365–375 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhmud, B.

M. von Bahr, J. Kizling, B. Zhmud, F. Tiberg, “Spreading and penetration of aqueous solutions and waterborne inks in contact with paper and model substrates,” in Advances in Printing Science and Technology—Advances in Paper and Board Performance (Pira International, London, 2001), Vol. 27, pp. 87–102.

J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (2)

J. S. Arney, M. Alber, “Optical effects of ink spread and penetration on halftone printed by thermal ink jet,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 42, 331–334 (1998).

H. P. Le, “Progress and trends in ink-jet printing technology,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 42, 49–62 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Rev. Prog. Coloration (1)

J. H. Nobbs, “Kubelka–Munk theory and the prediction of reflectance,” Rev. Prog. Coloration 15, 66–75 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tech. Phys. (1)

P. Kubelka, F. Munk, “Ein beitrag zur optik der farbanstriche,” Z. Tech. Phys. 12, 593–601 (1931).

Other (6)

L. Yang, B. Kruse, “Ink penetration and its effect on printing,” in Color Imaging: Device-Independent Color, Color Hardcopy, and Graphic Arts V, R. Eschbach, G. G. Marcu, eds., Proc. SPIE3963, 365–375 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Pauler, “A model for the interaction between ink and paper,” in Advances in Printing Science and Technology, Proceeding of the 19th International Conference of Printing Research Institute, W. H. Banks, ed. (Pentech, London, 1987), pp. 116–136.

M. von Bahr, J. Kizling, B. Zhmud, F. Tiberg, “Spreading and penetration of aqueous solutions and waterborne inks in contact with paper and model substrates,” in Advances in Printing Science and Technology—Advances in Paper and Board Performance (Pira International, London, 2001), Vol. 27, pp. 87–102.

L. Yang, B. Kruse, “Chromatic variation and color gamut reduction due to ink penetration,” in Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Conference of the Technical Association of the Graphic Arts (TAGA) (TAGA, Rochester, N.Y., 2001), pp. 399–407.

L. Yang, B. Kruse, “Modelling ink penetration for ink-jet printing,” in Proceedings of NIP-17: IS&T’s International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 2001), pp. 731–734.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1950).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scattering and absorption power of the primary inks obtained by fitting to the measured spectral reflectance values of samples printed at ink level 3 (specified by the printer-driving program).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated (solid curves) and measured (dotted curves) spectral reflectance values of samples printed at different ink levels specified by the printer-driving program.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Actual ink volumes α=zn/z1 versus specified ink volumes. The actual ink volume for the program-specified ink level 1, z1, has been set to unit for each color.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ink composition for secondary colors of different printing ink levels. The arrows point to the primary components (see the legend) of the secondary colors. The actual ink volume of the components has been normalized to z1, as defined for the primary colors (see Fig. 3).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scattering and absorption power of the secondary colors (ink level 3) obtained by applying the assumption of additivity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated and measured spectral reflectance values for samples in secondary colors, printed with program-specified ink level 3.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Quality Evaluation for the Simulated Spectra in Terms of Color Difference (ΔE) from the Experimental Values

Equations (9)

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Rq(λ, zq)=f(sq(λ)zq, kq(λ)zq).
f(sz, kz)=sz[A(kz, sz)-Rgsz]exp{-2[(kz)2+2kzsz]1/2}-A(kz, sz)[sz-RgA(kz, sz)]A(kz, sz)[A(kz, sz)-Rgsz]exp{-2[(kz)2+2kzsz]1/2}-sz[sz-RgA(kz, sz)],
A(kz, sz)=kz+sz-(kz2+2kzsz)1/2.
[sz-R2A(kz, sz)][A(kz, sz)-R2sz]=[sz-R1A(kz, sz)]2[A(kz, sz)-Rgsz][sz-RgA(kz, sz)][A(kz, sz)-R1sz]2.
 R1=sz[A(kz, sz)-Rgsz]exp{-2[(kz)2+2kzsz]1/2}-A(kz, sz)[sz-RgA(kz, sz)]A(kz, sz)[A(kz, sz]-Rgsz)exp{-2[(kz)2+2kzsz]1/2}-sz[sz-RgA(kz, sz)],
Δ=λ{[R1-f(sz, kz)]2+[R2-f(2kz, 2sz)]2}.
Rq(λ, αqzq)=f(αqsq(λ)zq, αqkq(λ)zq),
srzr=βrmsmzm+βrysyzy,
krzr=βrmkmzm+βrykyzy,

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