Abstract

A high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) imaging technology has been developed, which is a combination of x-ray holography and computerized tomography (CT) technology called holographic computerized tomography (HCT). The theory and experimental techniques on biological specimens with the use of synchrotron radiation are discussed. Projections at different angles are reconstructed with the numerical method of in-line holography, and then the reconstructed data with a higher lateral resolution are used to restore the 3D image by the CT technique. With this method, the degradation caused by the diffraction of x rays is canceled, and 3D images with high resolution of micrometer magnitude in both the lateral and the longitudinal directions are obtained.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2000 (3)

Y. Wang, C. Jacobsen, J. Maser, A. Osanna, “Soft x-ray microscopy with a cryo scanning transmission x-ray microscope: II. Tomography,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 197, 80–93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy 84, 185–197 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. X. Zhang, S. P. Jiang, X. Y. Zhang, “Calibration of the soft x-ray linear monochromator,” J. Univ. Sci. Technol. China 30 (Suppl.), 186–188 (2000).

1999 (2)

C. Jacobsen, “Soft x-ray microscopy,” Trends Cell Biol. 9, 44–47 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Spanne, C. Raven, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, “In-line holography and phase-contrast microtomography with high energy x-rays,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 741–749 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

N. Watanabe, S. Aoki, “Three-dimensional tomography using a soft x-ray holographic microscope and CCD camera,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 1088–1089 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, “Cryo x-ray microscopy,” Synchrotron Radiat. News, March1995, pp. 19–28.

1994 (2)

I. McNulty, “The future of x-ray holography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 347, 170–176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Haddad, I. McNulty, J. E. Trebes, E. H. Anderson, R. A. Levesque, L. Yang, “Ultrahigh-resolution x-ray tomography,” Science 266, 1213–1215 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

C. Jacobsen, M. R. Howells, J. Kirz, S. Rothman, “X-ray holographic microscopy using photoresists,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1847–1861 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Howells, C. J. Jacobsen, “X-ray holography,” Synchrotron Radiat. NewsMarch1990, pp. 23–28.

1989 (1)

Y. G. Su, Y. L. Hong, S. J. Fu, X. M. Tao, Y. W. Zhang, “Design and fabrication of condenser zone plates for a soft x-ray microscopy beamline in Hefei,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2041–2043 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. Rarback, D. Shu, S. C. Feng, H. Ade, J. Kirz, I. McNulty, D. P. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, Y. Vladimirsky, N. Iskander, D. Attwood, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Scanning x-ray microscope with 75-nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 52–59 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

L. Onural, P. D. Scott, “Digital decoding of in-line holograms,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1124–1132 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

P. C. Cheng, R. Feder, D. M. Shinozaki, K. H. Tan, R. W. Eason, A. Michette, R. J. Rosser, “Soft x-ray contact microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 668–674 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1977 (1)

D. Sayer, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, “Potential operating region for ultrasoft x-ray microscopy of biological materials,” Science 196, 1339–1340 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (3)

R. Gordon, “A tutorial on ART,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-21, 78–93 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Budinger, G. T. Gullberg, “Three-dimensional reconstruction in nuclear medicine emission imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-21, 2–20 (1974).
[CrossRef]

B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, “Soft x-ray imaging zone plates with large zone numbers for microscopic and spectroscopicapplications,” Opt. Commun. 12, 160–163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

Ade, H.

H. Rarback, D. Shu, S. C. Feng, H. Ade, J. Kirz, I. McNulty, D. P. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, Y. Vladimirsky, N. Iskander, D. Attwood, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Scanning x-ray microscope with 75-nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 52–59 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E. H.

W. S. Haddad, I. McNulty, J. E. Trebes, E. H. Anderson, R. A. Levesque, L. Yang, “Ultrahigh-resolution x-ray tomography,” Science 266, 1213–1215 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. McNulty, J. Trebes, J. Brase, T. J. Yorkey, R. Levesque, H. Szoke, E. H. Anderson, C. Jacobsen, D. Kern, “Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography,” in Soft X-ray Microscopy, J. Jacobsen, J. E. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 78–84 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, S.

N. Watanabe, S. Aoki, “Three-dimensional tomography using a soft x-ray holographic microscope and CCD camera,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 1088–1089 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

H. Rarback, D. Shu, S. C. Feng, H. Ade, J. Kirz, I. McNulty, D. P. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, Y. Vladimirsky, N. Iskander, D. Attwood, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Scanning x-ray microscope with 75-nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 52–59 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Baez, A. V.

Brase, J.

I. McNulty, J. Trebes, J. Brase, T. J. Yorkey, R. Levesque, H. Szoke, E. H. Anderson, C. Jacobsen, D. Kern, “Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography,” in Soft X-ray Microscopy, J. Jacobsen, J. E. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 78–84 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Budinger, T. F.

T. F. Budinger, G. T. Gullberg, “Three-dimensional reconstruction in nuclear medicine emission imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-21, 2–20 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. H. P.

H. Rarback, D. Shu, S. C. Feng, H. Ade, J. Kirz, I. McNulty, D. P. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, Y. Vladimirsky, N. Iskander, D. Attwood, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Scanning x-ray microscope with 75-nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 52–59 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, P. C.

P. C. Cheng, R. Feder, D. M. Shinozaki, K. H. Tan, R. W. Eason, A. Michette, R. J. Rosser, “Soft x-ray contact microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 668–674 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Eason, R. W.

P. C. Cheng, R. Feder, D. M. Shinozaki, K. H. Tan, R. W. Eason, A. Michette, R. J. Rosser, “Soft x-ray contact microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 668–674 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Feder, R.

P. C. Cheng, R. Feder, D. M. Shinozaki, K. H. Tan, R. W. Eason, A. Michette, R. J. Rosser, “Soft x-ray contact microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 668–674 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. Sayer, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, “Potential operating region for ultrasoft x-ray microscopy of biological materials,” Science 196, 1339–1340 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Feng, S. C.

H. Rarback, D. Shu, S. C. Feng, H. Ade, J. Kirz, I. McNulty, D. P. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, Y. Vladimirsky, N. Iskander, D. Attwood, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Scanning x-ray microscope with 75-nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 52–59 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fienup, J. R.

Fu, S. J.

Y. G. Su, Y. L. Hong, S. J. Fu, X. M. Tao, Y. W. Zhang, “Design and fabrication of condenser zone plates for a soft x-ray microscopy beamline in Hefei,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2041–2043 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

R. Gordon, “A tutorial on ART,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-21, 78–93 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Gullberg, G. T.

T. F. Budinger, G. T. Gullberg, “Three-dimensional reconstruction in nuclear medicine emission imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-21, 2–20 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Guttmann, P.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy 84, 185–197 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, “Cryo x-ray microscopy,” Synchrotron Radiat. News, March1995, pp. 19–28.

Haddad, W. S.

W. S. Haddad, I. McNulty, J. E. Trebes, E. H. Anderson, R. A. Levesque, L. Yang, “Ultrahigh-resolution x-ray tomography,” Science 266, 1213–1215 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, Y. L.

Y. G. Su, Y. L. Hong, S. J. Fu, X. M. Tao, Y. W. Zhang, “Design and fabrication of condenser zone plates for a soft x-ray microscopy beamline in Hefei,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2041–2043 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Howells, M. R.

M. R. Howells, C. J. Jacobsen, “X-ray holography,” Synchrotron Radiat. NewsMarch1990, pp. 23–28.

C. Jacobsen, M. R. Howells, J. Kirz, S. Rothman, “X-ray holographic microscopy using photoresists,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1847–1861 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Iskander, N.

H. Rarback, D. Shu, S. C. Feng, H. Ade, J. Kirz, I. McNulty, D. P. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, Y. Vladimirsky, N. Iskander, D. Attwood, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Scanning x-ray microscope with 75-nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 52–59 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, C.

Y. Wang, C. Jacobsen, J. Maser, A. Osanna, “Soft x-ray microscopy with a cryo scanning transmission x-ray microscope: II. Tomography,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 197, 80–93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacobsen, “Soft x-ray microscopy,” Trends Cell Biol. 9, 44–47 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jacobsen, M. R. Howells, J. Kirz, S. Rothman, “X-ray holographic microscopy using photoresists,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1847–1861 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. McNulty, J. Trebes, J. Brase, T. J. Yorkey, R. Levesque, H. Szoke, E. H. Anderson, C. Jacobsen, D. Kern, “Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography,” in Soft X-ray Microscopy, J. Jacobsen, J. E. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 78–84 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, C. J.

M. R. Howells, C. J. Jacobsen, “X-ray holography,” Synchrotron Radiat. NewsMarch1990, pp. 23–28.

Jiang, S. P.

Y. X. Zhang, S. P. Jiang, X. Y. Zhang, “Calibration of the soft x-ray linear monochromator,” J. Univ. Sci. Technol. China 30 (Suppl.), 186–188 (2000).

Kern, D.

I. McNulty, J. Trebes, J. Brase, T. J. Yorkey, R. Levesque, H. Szoke, E. H. Anderson, C. Jacobsen, D. Kern, “Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography,” in Soft X-ray Microscopy, J. Jacobsen, J. E. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 78–84 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kern, D. P.

H. Rarback, D. Shu, S. C. Feng, H. Ade, J. Kirz, I. McNulty, D. P. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, Y. Vladimirsky, N. Iskander, D. Attwood, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Scanning x-ray microscope with 75-nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 52–59 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. M.

D. Sayer, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, “Potential operating region for ultrasoft x-ray microscopy of biological materials,” Science 196, 1339–1340 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kirz, J.

C. Jacobsen, M. R. Howells, J. Kirz, S. Rothman, “X-ray holographic microscopy using photoresists,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1847–1861 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Rarback, D. Shu, S. C. Feng, H. Ade, J. Kirz, I. McNulty, D. P. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, Y. Vladimirsky, N. Iskander, D. Attwood, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Scanning x-ray microscope with 75-nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 52–59 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Sayer, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, “Potential operating region for ultrasoft x-ray microscopy of biological materials,” Science 196, 1339–1340 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Levesque, R.

I. McNulty, J. Trebes, J. Brase, T. J. Yorkey, R. Levesque, H. Szoke, E. H. Anderson, C. Jacobsen, D. Kern, “Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography,” in Soft X-ray Microscopy, J. Jacobsen, J. E. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 78–84 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Levesque, R. A.

W. S. Haddad, I. McNulty, J. E. Trebes, E. H. Anderson, R. A. Levesque, L. Yang, “Ultrahigh-resolution x-ray tomography,” Science 266, 1213–1215 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maser, J.

Y. Wang, C. Jacobsen, J. Maser, A. Osanna, “Soft x-ray microscopy with a cryo scanning transmission x-ray microscope: II. Tomography,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 197, 80–93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McNulty, I.

I. McNulty, “The future of x-ray holography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 347, 170–176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Haddad, I. McNulty, J. E. Trebes, E. H. Anderson, R. A. Levesque, L. Yang, “Ultrahigh-resolution x-ray tomography,” Science 266, 1213–1215 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rarback, D. Shu, S. C. Feng, H. Ade, J. Kirz, I. McNulty, D. P. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, Y. Vladimirsky, N. Iskander, D. Attwood, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Scanning x-ray microscope with 75-nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 52–59 (1988).
[CrossRef]

I. McNulty, J. Trebes, J. Brase, T. J. Yorkey, R. Levesque, H. Szoke, E. H. Anderson, C. Jacobsen, D. Kern, “Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography,” in Soft X-ray Microscopy, J. Jacobsen, J. E. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 78–84 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McQuaid, K.

H. Rarback, D. Shu, S. C. Feng, H. Ade, J. Kirz, I. McNulty, D. P. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, Y. Vladimirsky, N. Iskander, D. Attwood, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Scanning x-ray microscope with 75-nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 52–59 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Michette, A.

P. C. Cheng, R. Feder, D. M. Shinozaki, K. H. Tan, R. W. Eason, A. Michette, R. J. Rosser, “Soft x-ray contact microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 668–674 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Niemann, B.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy 84, 185–197 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, “Cryo x-ray microscopy,” Synchrotron Radiat. News, March1995, pp. 19–28.

B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, “Soft x-ray imaging zone plates with large zone numbers for microscopic and spectroscopicapplications,” Opt. Commun. 12, 160–163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Onural, L.

L. Onural, P. D. Scott, “Digital decoding of in-line holograms,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1124–1132 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Osanna, A.

Y. Wang, C. Jacobsen, J. Maser, A. Osanna, “Soft x-ray microscopy with a cryo scanning transmission x-ray microscope: II. Tomography,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 197, 80–93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rarback, H.

H. Rarback, D. Shu, S. C. Feng, H. Ade, J. Kirz, I. McNulty, D. P. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, Y. Vladimirsky, N. Iskander, D. Attwood, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Scanning x-ray microscope with 75-nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 52–59 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Raven, C.

P. Spanne, C. Raven, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, “In-line holography and phase-contrast microtomography with high energy x-rays,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 741–749 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosser, R. J.

P. C. Cheng, R. Feder, D. M. Shinozaki, K. H. Tan, R. W. Eason, A. Michette, R. J. Rosser, “Soft x-ray contact microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 668–674 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, S.

C. Jacobsen, M. R. Howells, J. Kirz, S. Rothman, “X-ray holographic microscopy using photoresists,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1847–1861 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Rarback, D. Shu, S. C. Feng, H. Ade, J. Kirz, I. McNulty, D. P. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, Y. Vladimirsky, N. Iskander, D. Attwood, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Scanning x-ray microscope with 75-nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 52–59 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, D.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy 84, 185–197 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, “Cryo x-ray microscopy,” Synchrotron Radiat. News, March1995, pp. 19–28.

B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, “Soft x-ray imaging zone plates with large zone numbers for microscopic and spectroscopicapplications,” Opt. Commun. 12, 160–163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sayer, D.

D. Sayer, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, “Potential operating region for ultrasoft x-ray microscopy of biological materials,” Science 196, 1339–1340 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Schmahl, G.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy 84, 185–197 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, “Cryo x-ray microscopy,” Synchrotron Radiat. News, March1995, pp. 19–28.

B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, “Soft x-ray imaging zone plates with large zone numbers for microscopic and spectroscopicapplications,” Opt. Commun. 12, 160–163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, G.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy 84, 185–197 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, “Cryo x-ray microscopy,” Synchrotron Radiat. News, March1995, pp. 19–28.

Scott, P. D.

L. Onural, P. D. Scott, “Digital decoding of in-line holograms,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1124–1132 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shinozaki, D. M.

P. C. Cheng, R. Feder, D. M. Shinozaki, K. H. Tan, R. W. Eason, A. Michette, R. J. Rosser, “Soft x-ray contact microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 668–674 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shu, D.

H. Rarback, D. Shu, S. C. Feng, H. Ade, J. Kirz, I. McNulty, D. P. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, Y. Vladimirsky, N. Iskander, D. Attwood, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Scanning x-ray microscope with 75-nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 52–59 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Snigirev, A.

P. Spanne, C. Raven, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, “In-line holography and phase-contrast microtomography with high energy x-rays,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 741–749 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snigireva, I.

P. Spanne, C. Raven, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, “In-line holography and phase-contrast microtomography with high energy x-rays,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 741–749 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spanne, P.

P. Spanne, C. Raven, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, “In-line holography and phase-contrast microtomography with high energy x-rays,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 741–749 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spiller, E.

D. Sayer, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, “Potential operating region for ultrasoft x-ray microscopy of biological materials,” Science 196, 1339–1340 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. G.

Y. G. Su, Y. L. Hong, S. J. Fu, X. M. Tao, Y. W. Zhang, “Design and fabrication of condenser zone plates for a soft x-ray microscopy beamline in Hefei,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2041–2043 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Szoke, H.

I. McNulty, J. Trebes, J. Brase, T. J. Yorkey, R. Levesque, H. Szoke, E. H. Anderson, C. Jacobsen, D. Kern, “Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography,” in Soft X-ray Microscopy, J. Jacobsen, J. E. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 78–84 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tan, K. H.

P. C. Cheng, R. Feder, D. M. Shinozaki, K. H. Tan, R. W. Eason, A. Michette, R. J. Rosser, “Soft x-ray contact microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 668–674 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tao, X. M.

Y. G. Su, Y. L. Hong, S. J. Fu, X. M. Tao, Y. W. Zhang, “Design and fabrication of condenser zone plates for a soft x-ray microscopy beamline in Hefei,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2041–2043 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Trebes, J.

I. McNulty, J. Trebes, J. Brase, T. J. Yorkey, R. Levesque, H. Szoke, E. H. Anderson, C. Jacobsen, D. Kern, “Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography,” in Soft X-ray Microscopy, J. Jacobsen, J. E. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 78–84 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Trebes, J. E.

W. S. Haddad, I. McNulty, J. E. Trebes, E. H. Anderson, R. A. Levesque, L. Yang, “Ultrahigh-resolution x-ray tomography,” Science 266, 1213–1215 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vladimirsky, Y.

H. Rarback, D. Shu, S. C. Feng, H. Ade, J. Kirz, I. McNulty, D. P. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, Y. Vladimirsky, N. Iskander, D. Attwood, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Scanning x-ray microscope with 75-nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 52–59 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, C. Jacobsen, J. Maser, A. Osanna, “Soft x-ray microscopy with a cryo scanning transmission x-ray microscope: II. Tomography,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 197, 80–93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, N.

N. Watanabe, S. Aoki, “Three-dimensional tomography using a soft x-ray holographic microscope and CCD camera,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 1088–1089 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, D.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy 84, 185–197 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

W. S. Haddad, I. McNulty, J. E. Trebes, E. H. Anderson, R. A. Levesque, L. Yang, “Ultrahigh-resolution x-ray tomography,” Science 266, 1213–1215 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yorkey, T. J.

I. McNulty, J. Trebes, J. Brase, T. J. Yorkey, R. Levesque, H. Szoke, E. H. Anderson, C. Jacobsen, D. Kern, “Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography,” in Soft X-ray Microscopy, J. Jacobsen, J. E. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 78–84 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. Y.

Y. X. Zhang, S. P. Jiang, X. Y. Zhang, “Calibration of the soft x-ray linear monochromator,” J. Univ. Sci. Technol. China 30 (Suppl.), 186–188 (2000).

Zhang, Y. W.

Y. G. Su, Y. L. Hong, S. J. Fu, X. M. Tao, Y. W. Zhang, “Design and fabrication of condenser zone plates for a soft x-ray microscopy beamline in Hefei,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2041–2043 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. X.

Y. X. Zhang, S. P. Jiang, X. Y. Zhang, “Calibration of the soft x-ray linear monochromator,” J. Univ. Sci. Technol. China 30 (Suppl.), 186–188 (2000).

Y. X. Zhang, “Study on x-ray 3D micro-imaging technology using synchrotron radiation,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China, 2000), Chap. 4.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (2)

R. Gordon, “A tutorial on ART,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-21, 78–93 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Budinger, G. T. Gullberg, “Three-dimensional reconstruction in nuclear medicine emission imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-21, 2–20 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (Oxford) (1)

Y. Wang, C. Jacobsen, J. Maser, A. Osanna, “Soft x-ray microscopy with a cryo scanning transmission x-ray microscope: II. Tomography,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 197, 80–93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

N. Watanabe, S. Aoki, “Three-dimensional tomography using a soft x-ray holographic microscope and CCD camera,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 1088–1089 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Univ. Sci. Technol. China (1)

Y. X. Zhang, S. P. Jiang, X. Y. Zhang, “Calibration of the soft x-ray linear monochromator,” J. Univ. Sci. Technol. China 30 (Suppl.), 186–188 (2000).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (2)

I. McNulty, “The future of x-ray holography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 347, 170–176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Cheng, R. Feder, D. M. Shinozaki, K. H. Tan, R. W. Eason, A. Michette, R. J. Rosser, “Soft x-ray contact microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 668–674 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, “Soft x-ray imaging zone plates with large zone numbers for microscopic and spectroscopicapplications,” Opt. Commun. 12, 160–163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

L. Onural, P. D. Scott, “Digital decoding of in-line holograms,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1124–1132 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

P. Spanne, C. Raven, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, “In-line holography and phase-contrast microtomography with high energy x-rays,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 741–749 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

H. Rarback, D. Shu, S. C. Feng, H. Ade, J. Kirz, I. McNulty, D. P. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, Y. Vladimirsky, N. Iskander, D. Attwood, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman, “Scanning x-ray microscope with 75-nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 52–59 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Su, Y. L. Hong, S. J. Fu, X. M. Tao, Y. W. Zhang, “Design and fabrication of condenser zone plates for a soft x-ray microscopy beamline in Hefei,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2041–2043 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

W. S. Haddad, I. McNulty, J. E. Trebes, E. H. Anderson, R. A. Levesque, L. Yang, “Ultrahigh-resolution x-ray tomography,” Science 266, 1213–1215 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sayer, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, “Potential operating region for ultrasoft x-ray microscopy of biological materials,” Science 196, 1339–1340 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Synchrotron Radiat. News (2)

G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, “Cryo x-ray microscopy,” Synchrotron Radiat. News, March1995, pp. 19–28.

M. R. Howells, C. J. Jacobsen, “X-ray holography,” Synchrotron Radiat. NewsMarch1990, pp. 23–28.

Trends Cell Biol. (1)

C. Jacobsen, “Soft x-ray microscopy,” Trends Cell Biol. 9, 44–47 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy 84, 185–197 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

A. K. Jain, ed., Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1989), Chap. 10, pp. 431–475.

I. McNulty, J. Trebes, J. Brase, T. J. Yorkey, R. Levesque, H. Szoke, E. H. Anderson, C. Jacobsen, D. Kern, “Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography,” in Soft X-ray Microscopy, J. Jacobsen, J. E. Trebes, eds., Proc. SPIE1741, 78–84 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Zhang, “Study on x-ray 3D micro-imaging technology using synchrotron radiation,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China, 2000), Chap. 4.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Recording of CT 2D projection with coherent illumination.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

ART simulations, projection range from -40° to +30°: (a) original cross-section, (b) reconstruction contour from 15 projections, (c) reconstruction contour from 4 projections.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CT projections under an optical microscope: (a) θ=0°, (b) θ=+30°, (c) θ=-30°, (d) θ=-40°. The white arrow in (a) indicates the direction of the rotation axis; the field of view is 180 µm×140 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reconstructed projections by the digital holographic method.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

High-resolution HCT 3D reconstructed cross sections; the field of view is 160 µm×160 µm.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δxλsinα,δzλsin2 α,δzδx1sinα,
Rλb,
δs=1.22ρfl,
δt=0.43Δλlfl-f,
δr=0.61l(l+f)N,
δ=δs2+δt2+δr2,
Uh(x, y)=iiλzexpi2πzλΣ[1-a(ξ, η)]×expiπλz[(x-ξ)2+(y-η)2]dξdη=[1-a(x, y)]*hz(x, y),
th(x, y)=A+BIz(x, y)=A+BUz(x, y)Uz*(x, y),
Ur(x, y)=th(x, y)*hz(x, y)=(A+B)+B[-a*(x, y)-a(x, y)*h2z(x, y)+|a(x, y)*hz(x, y)|2*hz(x, y)].
t(x, θn)|y=y0=-ln[aθn(x, y0)].
Ak+1(i, j)=Ak(i, j)t(x, θn)tk(x, θn),

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