S. Sotthivirat, J. A. Fessler, “Image recovery using partitioned-separable paraboloidal surrogate coordinate ascent algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11, 159–173 (2002).

A. R. D. Pierro, M. E. B. Yamagishi, “Fast EM-like methods for maximum ‘a posteriori’ estimates in emission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 280–288 (2001).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Markham, J. A. Conchello, “Parametric blind deconvolution: a robust method for the simultaneous estimation of image and blur,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2377–2391 (1999).

[CrossRef]

H. Erdoğan, J. A. Fessler, “Monotonic algorithms for transmission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18, 801–814 (1999).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Erdoğan, J. A. Fessler, “Ordered subsets algorithm for transmission tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2835–2851 (1999).

[CrossRef]

C. L. Byrne, “Accelerating the EMML algorithm and related iterative algorithms by rescaled block-iterative methods,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 100–109 (1998).

[CrossRef]

C. L. Byrne, “Convergent block-iterative algorithms for image reconstruction from inconsistent data,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 1296–1304 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. P. Bertsekas, “A new class of incremental gradient methods for least squares problems,” SIAM J. Optim. 7, 913–926 (1997).

[CrossRef]

A. R. De Pierro, “A modified expectation maximization algorithm for penalized likelihood estimation in emission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 14, 132–137 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. L. Snyder, C. W. Helstrom, A. D. Lanterman, M. Faisal, R. L. White, “Compensation for readout noise in CCD images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 272–283 (1995).

[CrossRef]

E. Thiébaut, J.-M. Conan, “Strict a priori constraints for maximum-likelihood blind deconvolution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 485–492 (1995).

[CrossRef]

H. M. Hudson, R. S. Larkin, “Accelerated image reconstruction using ordered subsets of projection data,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 13, 601–609 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Lange, “Convergence of EM image reconstruction algorithms with Gibbs smoothing,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 9, 439–446 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. P. Dempster, N. M. Laird, D. B. Rubin, “Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm,” J. R. Stat. Soc. B 39, 1–38 (1977).

S. Ahn, J. A. Fessler, “Globally convergent image reconstruction for emission tomography using relaxed ordered subsets algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (to be published).

S. Ahn, J. A. Fessler, “Globally convergent ordered subsets algorithms: application to tomography,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 1064–1068.

M. Bertero, P. Boccacci, “Application of the OS-EM method to the restoration of LBT images,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 144, 181–186 (2000).

[CrossRef]

D. P. Bertsekas, “A new class of incremental gradient methods for least squares problems,” SIAM J. Optim. 7, 913–926 (1997).

[CrossRef]

M. Bertero, P. Boccacci, “Application of the OS-EM method to the restoration of LBT images,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 144, 181–186 (2000).

[CrossRef]

J. A. Browne, A. R. D. Pierro, “A row-action alternative to the EM algorithm for maximizing likelihoods in emission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 15, 687–699 (1996).

[CrossRef]

C. L. Byrne, “Accelerating the EMML algorithm and related iterative algorithms by rescaled block-iterative methods,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 100–109 (1998).

[CrossRef]

C. L. Byrne, “Convergent block-iterative algorithms for image reconstruction from inconsistent data,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 1296–1304 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Markham, J. A. Conchello, “Parametric blind deconvolution: a robust method for the simultaneous estimation of image and blur,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2377–2391 (1999).

[CrossRef]

J. A. Conchello, J. G. McNally, “Fast regularization technique for expectation maximization algorithm for computational optical sectioning microscopy,” in Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing, C. J. Cogswell, G. S. Kino, T. Wilson, eds., Proc. SPIE2655, 199–208 (1996).

[CrossRef]

J. C. D. de Melo, “Partial FFT Evaluation,” in International Conference on Signal Processing Application and Technology (1996), Vol. 1, pp. 134–141, available at http://www.icspat.com/papers/234amfi.pdf .

A. R. De Pierro, “A modified expectation maximization algorithm for penalized likelihood estimation in emission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 14, 132–137 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. P. Dempster, N. M. Laird, D. B. Rubin, “Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm,” J. R. Stat. Soc. B 39, 1–38 (1977).

H. Erdoğan, J. A. Fessler, “Monotonic algorithms for transmission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18, 801–814 (1999).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Erdoğan, J. A. Fessler, “Ordered subsets algorithm for transmission tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2835–2851 (1999).

[CrossRef]

J. A. Fessler, H. Erdoğan, “A paraboloidal surrogates algorithm for convergent penalized-likelihood emission image reconstruction,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 1132–1135.

S. Sotthivirat, J. A. Fessler, “Image recovery using partitioned-separable paraboloidal surrogate coordinate ascent algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11, 159–173 (2002).

H. Erdoğan, J. A. Fessler, “Ordered subsets algorithm for transmission tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2835–2851 (1999).

[CrossRef]

H. Erdoğan, J. A. Fessler, “Monotonic algorithms for transmission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18, 801–814 (1999).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. A. Fessler, H. Erdoğan, “A paraboloidal surrogates algorithm for convergent penalized-likelihood emission image reconstruction,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 1132–1135.

S. Ahn, J. A. Fessler, “Globally convergent ordered subsets algorithms: application to tomography,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 1064–1068.

S. Ahn, J. A. Fessler, “Globally convergent image reconstruction for emission tomography using relaxed ordered subsets algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (to be published).

S. Sotthivirat, J. A. Fessler, “Relaxed ordered subsets algorithm for image restoration of confocal microscopy,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 1051–1054.

J. A. Fessler, “Grouped coordinate descent algorithms for robust edge-preserving image restoration,” in Image Reconstruction and Restoration II, T. J. Schulz, ed., Proc. SPIE3170, 184–194 (1997).

[CrossRef]

P. J. Huber, Robust Statistics (Wiley, New York, 1981).

H. M. Hudson, R. S. Larkin, “Accelerated image reconstruction using ordered subsets of projection data,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 13, 601–609 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. P. Dempster, N. M. Laird, D. B. Rubin, “Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm,” J. R. Stat. Soc. B 39, 1–38 (1977).

K. Lange, “Convergence of EM image reconstruction algorithms with Gibbs smoothing,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 9, 439–446 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. M. Hudson, R. S. Larkin, “Accelerated image reconstruction using ordered subsets of projection data,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 13, 601–609 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. A. Conchello, J. G. McNally, “Fast regularization technique for expectation maximization algorithm for computational optical sectioning microscopy,” in Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing, C. J. Cogswell, G. S. Kino, T. Wilson, eds., Proc. SPIE2655, 199–208 (1996).

[CrossRef]

S. K. Mitra, Digital Signal Processing: A Computer-Based Approach, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001).

A. R. D. Pierro, M. E. B. Yamagishi, “Fast EM-like methods for maximum ‘a posteriori’ estimates in emission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 280–288 (2001).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. A. Browne, A. R. D. Pierro, “A row-action alternative to the EM algorithm for maximizing likelihoods in emission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 15, 687–699 (1996).

[CrossRef]

A. P. Dempster, N. M. Laird, D. B. Rubin, “Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm,” J. R. Stat. Soc. B 39, 1–38 (1977).

D. L. Snyder, C. W. Helstrom, A. D. Lanterman, M. Faisal, R. L. White, “Compensation for readout noise in CCD images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 272–283 (1995).

[CrossRef]

D. L. Snyder, A. M. Hammoud, R. L. White, “Image recovery from data acquired with a charge-coupled-device camera,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1014–1023 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. Sotthivirat, J. A. Fessler, “Image recovery using partitioned-separable paraboloidal surrogate coordinate ascent algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11, 159–173 (2002).

S. Sotthivirat, J. A. Fessler, “Relaxed ordered subsets algorithm for image restoration of confocal microscopy,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 1051–1054.

D. L. Snyder, C. W. Helstrom, A. D. Lanterman, M. Faisal, R. L. White, “Compensation for readout noise in CCD images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 272–283 (1995).

[CrossRef]

D. L. Snyder, A. M. Hammoud, R. L. White, “Image recovery from data acquired with a charge-coupled-device camera,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1014–1023 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. R. D. Pierro, M. E. B. Yamagishi, “Fast EM-like methods for maximum ‘a posteriori’ estimates in emission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 280–288 (2001).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Bertero, P. Boccacci, “Application of the OS-EM method to the restoration of LBT images,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 144, 181–186 (2000).

[CrossRef]

C. L. Byrne, “Accelerating the EMML algorithm and related iterative algorithms by rescaled block-iterative methods,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 100–109 (1998).

[CrossRef]

C. L. Byrne, “Convergent block-iterative algorithms for image reconstruction from inconsistent data,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 1296–1304 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. Sotthivirat, J. A. Fessler, “Image recovery using partitioned-separable paraboloidal surrogate coordinate ascent algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11, 159–173 (2002).

K. Lange, “Convergence of EM image reconstruction algorithms with Gibbs smoothing,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 9, 439–446 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. A. Browne, A. R. D. Pierro, “A row-action alternative to the EM algorithm for maximizing likelihoods in emission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 15, 687–699 (1996).

[CrossRef]

A. R. D. Pierro, M. E. B. Yamagishi, “Fast EM-like methods for maximum ‘a posteriori’ estimates in emission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 280–288 (2001).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. R. De Pierro, “A modified expectation maximization algorithm for penalized likelihood estimation in emission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 14, 132–137 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. M. Hudson, R. S. Larkin, “Accelerated image reconstruction using ordered subsets of projection data,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 13, 601–609 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Erdoğan, J. A. Fessler, “Monotonic algorithms for transmission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18, 801–814 (1999).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. J. Holmes, “Maximum-likelihood image restoration adapted for noncoherent optical imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 666–673 (1988).

[CrossRef]

S. Joshi, M. I. Miller, “Maximum a posteriori estimation with Good’s roughness for three-dimensional optical-sectioning microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1078–1085 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. G. Lane, “Methods for maximum-likelihood deconvolution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1992–1998 (1996).

[CrossRef]

D. L. Snyder, A. M. Hammoud, R. L. White, “Image recovery from data acquired with a charge-coupled-device camera,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1014–1023 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. L. Snyder, C. W. Helstrom, A. D. Lanterman, M. Faisal, R. L. White, “Compensation for readout noise in CCD images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 272–283 (1995).

[CrossRef]

T. J. Holmes, “Blind deconvolution of quantum-limited incoherent imagery: maximum-likelihood approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1052–1061 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. Thiébaut, J.-M. Conan, “Strict a priori constraints for maximum-likelihood blind deconvolution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 485–492 (1995).

[CrossRef]

J. Markham, J. A. Conchello, “Parametric blind deconvolution: a robust method for the simultaneous estimation of image and blur,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2377–2391 (1999).

[CrossRef]

E. Y. Lam, J. W. Goodman, “Iterative statistical approach to blind image deconvolution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1177–1184 (2000).

[CrossRef]

A. P. Dempster, N. M. Laird, D. B. Rubin, “Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm,” J. R. Stat. Soc. B 39, 1–38 (1977).

H. Erdoğan, J. A. Fessler, “Ordered subsets algorithm for transmission tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2835–2851 (1999).

[CrossRef]

D. P. Bertsekas, “A new class of incremental gradient methods for least squares problems,” SIAM J. Optim. 7, 913–926 (1997).

[CrossRef]

S. Sotthivirat, J. A. Fessler, “Relaxed ordered subsets algorithm for image restoration of confocal microscopy,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 1051–1054.

S. Ahn, J. A. Fessler, “Globally convergent image reconstruction for emission tomography using relaxed ordered subsets algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (to be published).

S. Ahn, J. A. Fessler, “Globally convergent ordered subsets algorithms: application to tomography,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 1064–1068.

J. A. Conchello, J. G. McNally, “Fast regularization technique for expectation maximization algorithm for computational optical sectioning microscopy,” in Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing, C. J. Cogswell, G. S. Kino, T. Wilson, eds., Proc. SPIE2655, 199–208 (1996).

[CrossRef]

J. A. Fessler, H. Erdoğan, “A paraboloidal surrogates algorithm for convergent penalized-likelihood emission image reconstruction,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 1132–1135.

P. J. Huber, Robust Statistics (Wiley, New York, 1981).

J. A. Fessler, “Grouped coordinate descent algorithms for robust edge-preserving image restoration,” in Image Reconstruction and Restoration II, T. J. Schulz, ed., Proc. SPIE3170, 184–194 (1997).

[CrossRef]

J. C. D. de Melo, “Partial FFT Evaluation,” in International Conference on Signal Processing Application and Technology (1996), Vol. 1, pp. 134–141, available at http://www.icspat.com/papers/234amfi.pdf .

S. K. Mitra, Digital Signal Processing: A Computer-Based Approach, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001).

The XCOSM deconvolution package (online). Available at http://3dmicroscopy.wustl.edu/∼xcosm/ .