Abstract

We describe a new semiautomatic image processing method for detecting the cartilage boundaries in optical coherence tomography (OCT). In particular, we focus on rabbit cartilage since this is an important animal model for testing both chondroprotective agents and cartilage repair techniques. The novel boundary-detection system presented here consists of (1) an adaptive filtering technique for image enhancement and speckle reduction, (2) edge detection, and (3) edge linking by graph searching. The procedure requires several steps and can be automated. The quantitative measurements of cartilage thickness on OCT images correlated well with measurements from histology.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Rogowska, M. E. Brezinski, “Image processing techniques for noise removal, enhancement and segmentation of cartilage OCT images,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 641–655 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging in cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28, 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

D. Koozekanani, K. Boyer, C. Roberts, “Retinal thickness measurements from Optical Coherence Tomography using a Markov boundary model,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 900–914 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

C. G. Peterfy, “Scratching the surface. Articular cartilage disorders of the knee,” MRI Clin. N. Am. 8, 409–430 (2000).

J. Rogowska, M. E. Brezinski, “Evaluation of the adaptive speckle suppression filter for coronary optical coherence tomography imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19, 1261–1266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

K. M. Yung, S. L. Lee, J. M. Schmitt, “Phase-domain processing of optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 125–136 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage with optical coherence tomography,” J. Rheumatol. 26, 627–635 (1999).
[PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, “Restoration of optical coherence images of living tissue using the CLEAN algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 66–75 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (4)

M. D. Kulkarni, C. W. Thomas, J. A. Izatt, “Image enhancement in optical coherence tomography using deconvolution,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1365–1367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–404 (1997).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sonka, G. K. Reddy, M. D. Winniford, S. M. Collins, “Adaptive approach to accurate analysis of small-diameter vessels in cineangiograms,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 87–95 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93, 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (6)

S. L. Myers, K. Dines, D. A. Brandt, K. D. Brandt, M. E. Albrecht, “Experimental assessment by high frequency ultrasound of articular cartilage thickness and osteoarthritic changes,” J. Rheumatol. 22, 109–116 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. A. Tyler, P. J. Watson, H. L. Herrod, M. Robson, L. D. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive cartilage degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthoped. Scand. Suppl. 266, 130–138 (1995).

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. Izatt, E. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Thedens, D. J. Skorton, S. R. Feagle, “Methods of graph searching for border detection in image sequences with applications to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 14, 42–55 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by  optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Sonka, X. Zhang, M. Siebes, M. S. Bissing, S. C. DeJong, S. M. Collins, C. R. McKay, “Segmentation of intravascular ultrasound images: a knowledge-based approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 14, 719–731 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

W. P. Chan, P. Lang, M. P. Stevens, K. Sack, S. Majumdar, D. W. Stoller, C. Basch, H. K. Genant, “Osteoarthritis of the knee: comparison of radiology, CT, and MR imaging to assess extent and severity,” Am. J. Res. 157, 799–806 (1991).

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

Y.-K. Lee, W. T. Rhodes, “Nonlinear image processing by a rotating kernel transformation,” Opt. Lett. 15, 43–46 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

M. Forman, R. Malamet, D. Kaplan, “A survey of osteoarthritis of the knee in the elderly,” J. Rheumatol. 10, 282–287 (1983).
[PubMed]

1978 (1)

L. M. Lester, H. A. Williams, B. A. Weintraub, J. F. Brenner, “Two graph searching techniques for boundary finding in white blood cell images,” Comput. Biol. Med. 8, 293–308 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

A. Martelli, “An application of heuristic search methods to edge and contour detection,” Commun. ACM 19, 73–83 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

A. Martelli, “Edge detection using heuristic search,” Comput. Graphics Image Process. 1, 169–182 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, M. E.

S. L. Myers, K. Dines, D. A. Brandt, K. D. Brandt, M. E. Albrecht, “Experimental assessment by high frequency ultrasound of articular cartilage thickness and osteoarthritic changes,” J. Rheumatol. 22, 109–116 (1995).
[PubMed]

Ballard, D. G.

D. G. Ballard, C. M. Brown, Computer Vision (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1982).

Basch, C.

W. P. Chan, P. Lang, M. P. Stevens, K. Sack, S. Majumdar, D. W. Stoller, C. Basch, H. K. Genant, “Osteoarthritis of the knee: comparison of radiology, CT, and MR imaging to assess extent and severity,” Am. J. Res. 157, 799–806 (1991).

Bissing, M. S.

M. Sonka, X. Zhang, M. Siebes, M. S. Bissing, S. C. DeJong, S. M. Collins, C. R. McKay, “Segmentation of intravascular ultrasound images: a knowledge-based approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 14, 719–731 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

J. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage with optical coherence tomography,” J. Rheumatol. 26, 627–635 (1999).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–404 (1997).
[PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

J. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage with optical coherence tomography,” J. Rheumatol. 26, 627–635 (1999).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–404 (1997).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93, 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by  optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, K.

D. Koozekanani, K. Boyer, C. Roberts, “Retinal thickness measurements from Optical Coherence Tomography using a Markov boundary model,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 900–914 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyle, R.

M. Sonka, V. Hlavac, R. Boyle, Image Processing, Analysis, and Machine Vision (PWS, Pacific Grove, Calif., 1999).

Brandt, D. A.

S. L. Myers, K. Dines, D. A. Brandt, K. D. Brandt, M. E. Albrecht, “Experimental assessment by high frequency ultrasound of articular cartilage thickness and osteoarthritic changes,” J. Rheumatol. 22, 109–116 (1995).
[PubMed]

Brandt, K. D.

S. L. Myers, K. Dines, D. A. Brandt, K. D. Brandt, M. E. Albrecht, “Experimental assessment by high frequency ultrasound of articular cartilage thickness and osteoarthritic changes,” J. Rheumatol. 22, 109–116 (1995).
[PubMed]

Brenner, J. F.

L. M. Lester, H. A. Williams, B. A. Weintraub, J. F. Brenner, “Two graph searching techniques for boundary finding in white blood cell images,” Comput. Biol. Med. 8, 293–308 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

J. Rogowska, M. E. Brezinski, “Image processing techniques for noise removal, enhancement and segmentation of cartilage OCT images,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 641–655 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging in cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28, 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. Rogowska, M. E. Brezinski, “Evaluation of the adaptive speckle suppression filter for coronary optical coherence tomography imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19, 1261–1266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage with optical coherence tomography,” J. Rheumatol. 26, 627–635 (1999).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–404 (1997).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93, 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by  optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Rogowska, M. E. Brezinski, “Evaluation of rotational kernel transformation technique for enhancement of coronary optical coherence tomography images,” in Image Reconstruction from Incomplete Data, M. A. Fiddy, R. P. Milane, eds., Proc. SPIE4123, 285–293 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Rogowska, M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomography image enhancement using sticks technique,” in Medical and Biological Applications: Optical Coherence Tomography, Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2000 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.,2000), pp. 418–419.

Brown, C. M.

D. G. Ballard, C. M. Brown, Computer Vision (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1982).

Castleman, K. R.

K. R. Castleman, Digital Image Processing (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1979).

Chan, W. P.

W. P. Chan, P. Lang, M. P. Stevens, K. Sack, S. Majumdar, D. W. Stoller, C. Basch, H. K. Genant, “Osteoarthritis of the knee: comparison of radiology, CT, and MR imaging to assess extent and severity,” Am. J. Res. 157, 799–806 (1991).

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, S. M.

M. Sonka, G. K. Reddy, M. D. Winniford, S. M. Collins, “Adaptive approach to accurate analysis of small-diameter vessels in cineangiograms,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 87–95 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sonka, X. Zhang, M. Siebes, M. S. Bissing, S. C. DeJong, S. M. Collins, C. R. McKay, “Segmentation of intravascular ultrasound images: a knowledge-based approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 14, 719–731 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cormen, T.

T. Cormen, C. Leiserson, R. Rivest, Introduction to Algorithms (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1990).

DeJong, S. C.

M. Sonka, X. Zhang, M. Siebes, M. S. Bissing, S. C. DeJong, S. M. Collins, C. R. McKay, “Segmentation of intravascular ultrasound images: a knowledge-based approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 14, 719–731 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dines, K.

S. L. Myers, K. Dines, D. A. Brandt, K. D. Brandt, M. E. Albrecht, “Experimental assessment by high frequency ultrasound of articular cartilage thickness and osteoarthritic changes,” J. Rheumatol. 22, 109–116 (1995).
[PubMed]

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging in cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28, 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Feagle, S. R.

D. R. Thedens, D. J. Skorton, S. R. Feagle, “Methods of graph searching for border detection in image sequences with applications to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 14, 42–55 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forman, M.

M. Forman, R. Malamet, D. Kaplan, “A survey of osteoarthritis of the knee in the elderly,” J. Rheumatol. 10, 282–287 (1983).
[PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging in cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28, 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage with optical coherence tomography,” J. Rheumatol. 26, 627–635 (1999).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
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M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–404 (1997).
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J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. Izatt, E. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
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M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–404 (1997).
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J. A. Tyler, P. J. Watson, H. L. Herrod, M. Robson, L. D. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive cartilage degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthoped. Scand. Suppl. 266, 130–138 (1995).

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J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. Izatt, E. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
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W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging in cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28, 1311–1318 (2001).
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W. P. Chan, P. Lang, M. P. Stevens, K. Sack, S. Majumdar, D. W. Stoller, C. Basch, H. K. Genant, “Osteoarthritis of the knee: comparison of radiology, CT, and MR imaging to assess extent and severity,” Am. J. Res. 157, 799–806 (1991).

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J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. Izatt, E. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
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J. A. Tyler, P. J. Watson, H. L. Herrod, M. Robson, L. D. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive cartilage degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthoped. Scand. Suppl. 266, 130–138 (1995).

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Saunders, K.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging in cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28, 1311–1318 (2001).
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J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. Izatt, E. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
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M. Sonka, X. Zhang, M. Siebes, M. S. Bissing, S. C. DeJong, S. M. Collins, C. R. McKay, “Segmentation of intravascular ultrasound images: a knowledge-based approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 14, 719–731 (1995).
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D. R. Thedens, D. J. Skorton, S. R. Feagle, “Methods of graph searching for border detection in image sequences with applications to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 14, 42–55 (1995).
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M. Sonka, G. K. Reddy, M. D. Winniford, S. M. Collins, “Adaptive approach to accurate analysis of small-diameter vessels in cineangiograms,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 87–95 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sonka, X. Zhang, M. Siebes, M. S. Bissing, S. C. DeJong, S. M. Collins, C. R. McKay, “Segmentation of intravascular ultrasound images: a knowledge-based approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 14, 719–731 (1995).
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M. Sonka, V. Hlavac, R. Boyle, Image Processing, Analysis, and Machine Vision (PWS, Pacific Grove, Calif., 1999).

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–404 (1997).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93, 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by  optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stamper, D.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging in cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28, 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

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W. P. Chan, P. Lang, M. P. Stevens, K. Sack, S. Majumdar, D. W. Stoller, C. Basch, H. K. Genant, “Osteoarthritis of the knee: comparison of radiology, CT, and MR imaging to assess extent and severity,” Am. J. Res. 157, 799–806 (1991).

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoller, D. W.

W. P. Chan, P. Lang, M. P. Stevens, K. Sack, S. Majumdar, D. W. Stoller, C. Basch, H. K. Genant, “Osteoarthritis of the knee: comparison of radiology, CT, and MR imaging to assess extent and severity,” Am. J. Res. 157, 799–806 (1991).

Swanson, E.

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. Izatt, E. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–404 (1997).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93, 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–404 (1997).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93, 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by  optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thedens, D. R.

D. R. Thedens, D. J. Skorton, S. R. Feagle, “Methods of graph searching for border detection in image sequences with applications to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 14, 42–55 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, C. W.

M. D. Kulkarni, C. W. Thomas, J. A. Izatt, “Image enhancement in optical coherence tomography using deconvolution,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1365–1367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, J. A.

J. A. Tyler, P. J. Watson, H. L. Herrod, M. Robson, L. D. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive cartilage degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthoped. Scand. Suppl. 266, 130–138 (1995).

Watson, P. J.

J. A. Tyler, P. J. Watson, H. L. Herrod, M. Robson, L. D. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive cartilage degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthoped. Scand. Suppl. 266, 130–138 (1995).

Weintraub, B. A.

L. M. Lester, H. A. Williams, B. A. Weintraub, J. F. Brenner, “Two graph searching techniques for boundary finding in white blood cell images,” Comput. Biol. Med. 8, 293–308 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weissman, N. J.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–404 (1997).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Original OCT image of the cartilage with anatomical features labeled.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Set of kernels of size K=7 and thickness T=1. The coefficients of the templates have values of 0 and 1, where 1 corresponds to the location of the line segment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Search area for various values of the edge-linking-parameter exponent: A, test image with an edge in red, and search areas for B, exponent=1; C, exponent=2; and D, exponent=4. Please note that the search area decreases as the exponent increases.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of the RKT: A, original image; B, RKT with K=11; C, RKT with K=31.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plots of cross-sectional profiles along a vertical line through the center of the image shown in Fig. 4. The intensity values are drawn for A, original image; B, image processed by using RKT with K=11; and C, image processed by using RKT with K=31. The arrow on plot C indicates the position of the cartilage–bone boundary.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Results of application of our algorithm to the original image: A, two cartilage borders, outer (green), and inner (red); B, corresponding cost image used in graph searching.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

A, Cartilage–bone edge (red) found by application of our algorithm to the RKT-processed image (K=11, T=5) and B, corresponding cost image used in graph searching; C, cartilage–bone edge (red) found by application of our algorithm to the RKT-processed image (K=31, T=5); and D, corresponding cost image used in graph searching.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

A, Edges of the cartilage–air (green) and cartilage–bone (red) interfaces, superimposed on the original image. The cartilage–air boundary was detected by applying our algorithm to the original image and the cartilage–bone boundary edge by applying our algorithm to the RKT-processed (K=31, T=5) image. B, Plot of cartilage thickness.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

A, Cartilage boundaries detected by using our algorithm on an OCT image; B, plot of cartilage thickness measured on the OCT image shown in A; C, histological image of the cartilage corresponding to the OCT image in A.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Outline of Individual Steps of Our Algorithm for Cartilage Thickness Measurement

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Table 2 Average Cartilage Thickness Measurements on OCT and Histology Images

Equations (2)

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c(n)=max(magnitude)-magnitude(n),
c(n)=c(n)exponent.

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