Abstract

We investigate a polarization state fixer that produces light with an arbitrary desired polarization state and constant power from an arbitrary elliptically polarized input light whose principal polarization axis fluctuates randomly. An example of such a device composed of a quarter-wave plate and a polarizer is proposed, and its characteristics at wavelengths of 633 nm and 1550 nm are demonstrated. We conclude that we cannot obtain a passive device that produces fixed-axis, linearly polarized light with a constant power level from an elliptically polarized light with a varying elliptical parameter.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Collett, Polarized Light Fundamentals and Application (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993), Chaps. 3, 10.
  2. E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-WesleyReading, Mass., 1987), Chap. 8.
  3. A. M. Smith, “Birefringence induced by bends and twists in single-mode optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2606–2611 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Zhang, “Flexible controller maintains fiber optic polarization,” Photonics Spectra, April1998 pp. 167–170.
  5. M. Tateda, M. Ikeda, “Polarization rotation device,” Japanese Patent No. 1287596.
  6. M. Tateda, T. Tawara, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, “Output polarization direction control with a constant power independent of input polarization direction,” in Technical Digest of Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (OECC’97) (OECC’97 Organizing Committee, Seoul, 1997, Paper 9EP-33.
  7. H. Nakajima, M. Tateda, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, “A device for controlling output polarization direction with a constant power independent of input polarization direction,” in Vol. 98, No. 37 (Institute of Electronics, Information, and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1998) Paper OFT98-5.

1998 (1)

S. Zhang, “Flexible controller maintains fiber optic polarization,” Photonics Spectra, April1998 pp. 167–170.

1980 (1)

Collett, E.

E. Collett, Polarized Light Fundamentals and Application (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993), Chaps. 3, 10.

Hasegawa, A.

M. Tateda, T. Tawara, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, “Output polarization direction control with a constant power independent of input polarization direction,” in Technical Digest of Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (OECC’97) (OECC’97 Organizing Committee, Seoul, 1997, Paper 9EP-33.

H. Nakajima, M. Tateda, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, “A device for controlling output polarization direction with a constant power independent of input polarization direction,” in Vol. 98, No. 37 (Institute of Electronics, Information, and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1998) Paper OFT98-5.

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-WesleyReading, Mass., 1987), Chap. 8.

Ikeda, M.

M. Tateda, M. Ikeda, “Polarization rotation device,” Japanese Patent No. 1287596.

Nakajima, H.

H. Nakajima, M. Tateda, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, “A device for controlling output polarization direction with a constant power independent of input polarization direction,” in Vol. 98, No. 37 (Institute of Electronics, Information, and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1998) Paper OFT98-5.

Omatsu, T.

H. Nakajima, M. Tateda, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, “A device for controlling output polarization direction with a constant power independent of input polarization direction,” in Vol. 98, No. 37 (Institute of Electronics, Information, and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1998) Paper OFT98-5.

M. Tateda, T. Tawara, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, “Output polarization direction control with a constant power independent of input polarization direction,” in Technical Digest of Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (OECC’97) (OECC’97 Organizing Committee, Seoul, 1997, Paper 9EP-33.

Smith, A. M.

Tateda, M.

M. Tateda, M. Ikeda, “Polarization rotation device,” Japanese Patent No. 1287596.

M. Tateda, T. Tawara, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, “Output polarization direction control with a constant power independent of input polarization direction,” in Technical Digest of Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (OECC’97) (OECC’97 Organizing Committee, Seoul, 1997, Paper 9EP-33.

H. Nakajima, M. Tateda, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, “A device for controlling output polarization direction with a constant power independent of input polarization direction,” in Vol. 98, No. 37 (Institute of Electronics, Information, and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1998) Paper OFT98-5.

Tawara, T.

M. Tateda, T. Tawara, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, “Output polarization direction control with a constant power independent of input polarization direction,” in Technical Digest of Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (OECC’97) (OECC’97 Organizing Committee, Seoul, 1997, Paper 9EP-33.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, “Flexible controller maintains fiber optic polarization,” Photonics Spectra, April1998 pp. 167–170.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Photonics Spectra (1)

S. Zhang, “Flexible controller maintains fiber optic polarization,” Photonics Spectra, April1998 pp. 167–170.

Other (5)

M. Tateda, M. Ikeda, “Polarization rotation device,” Japanese Patent No. 1287596.

M. Tateda, T. Tawara, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, “Output polarization direction control with a constant power independent of input polarization direction,” in Technical Digest of Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (OECC’97) (OECC’97 Organizing Committee, Seoul, 1997, Paper 9EP-33.

H. Nakajima, M. Tateda, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, “A device for controlling output polarization direction with a constant power independent of input polarization direction,” in Vol. 98, No. 37 (Institute of Electronics, Information, and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1998) Paper OFT98-5.

E. Collett, Polarized Light Fundamentals and Application (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993), Chaps. 3, 10.

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-WesleyReading, Mass., 1987), Chap. 8.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of a general polarization control system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of a polarization state fixer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Characteristics of a polarization state fixer: P, output intensity; φ, principal polarization axis direction of the input light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Setup for characterizing a polarization state fixer composed of bulk optical devices.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Characteristics of a polarization state fixer designed for a wavelength of 633 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Elliptical parameter dependence of the output power from the polarization state fixer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Characteristics of a polarization state fixer designed for a wavelength of a 1.55 µm.

Equations (34)

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Ein=cos φ-sin φsin φcos φcos αi sin α.
M=m1m2m3m4.
Eout=1000m1m2m3m4cos φ-sin φsin φcos φcos αi sin α=(m1 cos φ+m2 sin φ)cos α+i(-m1 sin φ+m2 cos φ)sin α)0
P=|Eout|2=(1/2)(|m1|2-|m2|2)cos 2φ cos 2α+|m1m2|(cos Ω sin 2φ cos 2α+sin Ω sin 2α)+(1/2)(|m1|2+|m2|2),
m1/m2=|m1/m2|exp(iΩ)for|m1m2|0.
δP/δφ=cos α[sin 2φ(|m2|2-|m1|2)+2 cos 2φ|m1m2|cos Ω].
|m2|=|m1|,
|m1m2|cos Ω=0.
P (δP/δφ=0)=|m1|2(1±sin 2α).
δP/δα=-[(|m1|2-|m2|2)cos 2φ+2|m1m2|×cos Ω sin 2φ]sin 2α+2|m1m2|sin Ω cos 2α.
|m2|=|m1|,
|m1m2|cos Ω=0,
|m1m2|sin Ω=0.
|m1|=|m2|=0
M±Q=cos π/4-sin π/4sin π/4cos π/4100±icos π/4sin π/4-sin π/4cos π/4=(1±i)/2(1±i)/2(1±i)/2(1±i)/2.
|m1|=|m2|=1/2,
m1/m2=exp(±iπ/2).
M±Q=cos θ-sin θsin θcos θ100exp(iψ)cos θsin θ-sin θcos θ=cos θ+sin θexp(iψ)cos θ sin θ[1-exp(iψ)]cos θ sin θ[1-exp(iψ)]cos θ+sin θ exp(iψ).
|m1|2=1-sin2 2θ sin2(ψ/2),
|m2|2=sin2 2θ sin2(ψ/2).
|m1m2|cos Ω=sin 2θ cos 2θ sin2(ψ/2),
|m1m2|sin Ω=sin 2θ cos(ψ/2)sin(ψ/2),
P=|Fout|2=1/2{1+sin ψ sin 2θ sin 2α+cos ψ sin 2θ×sin[2(θ-φ)]cos 2α+cos 2θ cos[2(θ-φ)]cos 2α},=P0+A cos[2(φ-θ+β)],
P0=(1/2)(1+sin ψ sin 2θ sin 2α)
A=(1/2)cos 2α(1-sin2 2θ sin2 ψ)1/2
β=(1/2)tan-1(tan 2θ cos ψ).
θ=π/4+Δθ,
ψ=π/2+Δψ,
|Δθ|1,
|Δψ|1;
P0=(1/2){1+sin 2α-[(Δψ/2)2+(Δθ)2]sin 2α},
A=cos 2α[(Δψ/2)2+(Δθ)2]1/2,
tan β=Δψ/4Δθ.
β=Δψ/4Δθ,

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