Abstract

The apparent position, size, and shape of aerial objects viewed binocularly from water change as a result of the refraction of light at the water surface. Earlier studies of the refraction-distorted structure of the aerial binocular visual field of underwater observers were restricted to either vertically or horizontally oriented eyes. Here we calculate the position of the binocular image point of an aerial object point viewed by two arbitrarily positioned underwater eyes when the water surface is flat. Assuming that binocular image fusion is performed by appropriate vergent eye movements to bring the object’s image onto the foveae, the structure of the aerial binocular visual field is computed and visualized as a function of the relative positions of the eyes. We also analyze two erroneous representations of the underwater imaging of aerial objects that have occurred in the literature. It is demonstrated that the structure of the aerial binocular visual field of underwater observers distorted by refraction is more complex than has been thought previously.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Looking into the water with oblique head tilting: revision of the aerial binocular imaging of underwater objects

Gábor Horváth, Krisztián Buchta, and Dezsö Varjú
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(6) 1120-1131 (2003)

Experimental and theoretical study of skylight polarization transmitted through Snell's window of a flat water surface

Shai Sabbah, András Barta, József Gál, Gábor Horváth, and Nadav Shashar
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(8) 1978-1988 (2006)

Functional division of the retina and binocular correspondence

Lei Liu and Clifton M. Schor
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(7) 1740-1755 (1998)

References

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Figures (9)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Figure files are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Equations (1)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Equations are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Metrics

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Article level metrics are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription