Abstract

Now that excimer laser systems can be programmed to correct complex aberrations of the eye on the basis of wave-front measurements, a method is needed to test the accuracy of the system from measurement through treatment. A closed-loop test method was developed to ensure that treatment plans generated by a wave-front measuring system were accurately transferred to and executed by the excimer laser. A surface was analytically defined, and a Shack–Hartmann-based wave-front system was used to formulate a treatment plan, which was downloaded to an excimer laser system. A plastic lens was ablated by the laser and then returned to the wave-front device, where it was measured and compared with the analytically defined wave-front surface. The two surfaces agreed up to 6th-order Zernike terms, validating the accuracy of the system.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goeiz, J. Bille, “Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann–Shack wave-front sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1–9 (1994).
  2. R. Applegate, L. Thibos, G. Hilmantel, “Optics of aberroscopy and super vision,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 1093–1107 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Watson, J. Shimmick, B. Cutrer, E. Gross, J. Wong, L. Bechtel, C. Harner, “Method for wavefront driven custom ablations,” in New Frontiers in Vision and Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery, J. Bille, C. Harner, F. Loesel, eds. (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, in press), pp. 85–101.
  4. J. Shimmick, K. Yee, B. Cutrer, “The VISX STAR S3 ActiveTrak eye tracker,” in New Frontiers in Vision and Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery, J. Bille, C. Harner, F. Loesel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, in press), pp. 71–83.
  5. D. Iskander, M. Collins, B. Davis, “Optimal modeling of corneal surfaces with Zernike polynomials,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 70–73 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Harner, “New VISX technology,” presented at the annual meeting of American Society of Refractive and Cataract Surgeons, April 28–May 1, 2001, San Diego, California.
  7. S. Bara, T. Mancebo, E. Moreno-Barriuso, “Positioning tolerances for phase plates compensating aberrations of the human eye,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3413–3420 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Guirao, D. Williams, I. Cox, “Effect of rotation and translation on the expected benefit of an ideal method to correct the eye’s higher-order aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1003–1015 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Dai, W. Huff, J. Liang, “Calibration of wavefront devices for measurement of high order aberrations in human eyes,” ARVO meeting poster, May 3–9, 2003, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
  10. X. Hong, L. Thibos, “Longitudinal evaluation of optical aberrations following laser in situ keratomileusis surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S647–S650 (2001).
  11. C. Kraff, “Results of wavefront-guided LASIK studies,” manuscript available from the author: Coleman Kraff, Kraff Eye Institute, 25 East Washington Street, Ste. 606, Chicago, Illinois 60602.

2001 (4)

R. Applegate, L. Thibos, G. Hilmantel, “Optics of aberroscopy and super vision,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 1093–1107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Iskander, M. Collins, B. Davis, “Optimal modeling of corneal surfaces with Zernike polynomials,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 70–73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Hong, L. Thibos, “Longitudinal evaluation of optical aberrations following laser in situ keratomileusis surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S647–S650 (2001).

A. Guirao, D. Williams, I. Cox, “Effect of rotation and translation on the expected benefit of an ideal method to correct the eye’s higher-order aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1003–1015 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1994 (1)

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goeiz, J. Bille, “Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann–Shack wave-front sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1–9 (1994).

Applegate, R.

R. Applegate, L. Thibos, G. Hilmantel, “Optics of aberroscopy and super vision,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 1093–1107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bara, S.

Bechtel, L.

J. Watson, J. Shimmick, B. Cutrer, E. Gross, J. Wong, L. Bechtel, C. Harner, “Method for wavefront driven custom ablations,” in New Frontiers in Vision and Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery, J. Bille, C. Harner, F. Loesel, eds. (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, in press), pp. 85–101.

Bille, J.

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goeiz, J. Bille, “Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann–Shack wave-front sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1–9 (1994).

Collins, M.

D. Iskander, M. Collins, B. Davis, “Optimal modeling of corneal surfaces with Zernike polynomials,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 70–73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cox, I.

Cutrer, B.

J. Shimmick, K. Yee, B. Cutrer, “The VISX STAR S3 ActiveTrak eye tracker,” in New Frontiers in Vision and Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery, J. Bille, C. Harner, F. Loesel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, in press), pp. 71–83.

J. Watson, J. Shimmick, B. Cutrer, E. Gross, J. Wong, L. Bechtel, C. Harner, “Method for wavefront driven custom ablations,” in New Frontiers in Vision and Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery, J. Bille, C. Harner, F. Loesel, eds. (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, in press), pp. 85–101.

Dai, G.

G. Dai, W. Huff, J. Liang, “Calibration of wavefront devices for measurement of high order aberrations in human eyes,” ARVO meeting poster, May 3–9, 2003, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

Davis, B.

D. Iskander, M. Collins, B. Davis, “Optimal modeling of corneal surfaces with Zernike polynomials,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 70–73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goeiz, S.

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goeiz, J. Bille, “Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann–Shack wave-front sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1–9 (1994).

Grimm, B.

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goeiz, J. Bille, “Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann–Shack wave-front sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1–9 (1994).

Gross, E.

J. Watson, J. Shimmick, B. Cutrer, E. Gross, J. Wong, L. Bechtel, C. Harner, “Method for wavefront driven custom ablations,” in New Frontiers in Vision and Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery, J. Bille, C. Harner, F. Loesel, eds. (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, in press), pp. 85–101.

Guirao, A.

Harner, C.

J. Watson, J. Shimmick, B. Cutrer, E. Gross, J. Wong, L. Bechtel, C. Harner, “Method for wavefront driven custom ablations,” in New Frontiers in Vision and Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery, J. Bille, C. Harner, F. Loesel, eds. (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, in press), pp. 85–101.

C. Harner, “New VISX technology,” presented at the annual meeting of American Society of Refractive and Cataract Surgeons, April 28–May 1, 2001, San Diego, California.

Hilmantel, G.

R. Applegate, L. Thibos, G. Hilmantel, “Optics of aberroscopy and super vision,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 1093–1107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hong, X.

X. Hong, L. Thibos, “Longitudinal evaluation of optical aberrations following laser in situ keratomileusis surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S647–S650 (2001).

Huff, W.

G. Dai, W. Huff, J. Liang, “Calibration of wavefront devices for measurement of high order aberrations in human eyes,” ARVO meeting poster, May 3–9, 2003, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

Iskander, D.

D. Iskander, M. Collins, B. Davis, “Optimal modeling of corneal surfaces with Zernike polynomials,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 70–73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kraff, C.

C. Kraff, “Results of wavefront-guided LASIK studies,” manuscript available from the author: Coleman Kraff, Kraff Eye Institute, 25 East Washington Street, Ste. 606, Chicago, Illinois 60602.

Kraff, Coleman

C. Kraff, “Results of wavefront-guided LASIK studies,” manuscript available from the author: Coleman Kraff, Kraff Eye Institute, 25 East Washington Street, Ste. 606, Chicago, Illinois 60602.

Liang, J.

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goeiz, J. Bille, “Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann–Shack wave-front sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1–9 (1994).

G. Dai, W. Huff, J. Liang, “Calibration of wavefront devices for measurement of high order aberrations in human eyes,” ARVO meeting poster, May 3–9, 2003, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

Mancebo, T.

Moreno-Barriuso, E.

Shimmick, J.

J. Shimmick, K. Yee, B. Cutrer, “The VISX STAR S3 ActiveTrak eye tracker,” in New Frontiers in Vision and Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery, J. Bille, C. Harner, F. Loesel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, in press), pp. 71–83.

J. Watson, J. Shimmick, B. Cutrer, E. Gross, J. Wong, L. Bechtel, C. Harner, “Method for wavefront driven custom ablations,” in New Frontiers in Vision and Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery, J. Bille, C. Harner, F. Loesel, eds. (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, in press), pp. 85–101.

Thibos, L.

X. Hong, L. Thibos, “Longitudinal evaluation of optical aberrations following laser in situ keratomileusis surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S647–S650 (2001).

R. Applegate, L. Thibos, G. Hilmantel, “Optics of aberroscopy and super vision,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 1093–1107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Watson, J.

J. Watson, J. Shimmick, B. Cutrer, E. Gross, J. Wong, L. Bechtel, C. Harner, “Method for wavefront driven custom ablations,” in New Frontiers in Vision and Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery, J. Bille, C. Harner, F. Loesel, eds. (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, in press), pp. 85–101.

Williams, D.

Wong, J.

J. Watson, J. Shimmick, B. Cutrer, E. Gross, J. Wong, L. Bechtel, C. Harner, “Method for wavefront driven custom ablations,” in New Frontiers in Vision and Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery, J. Bille, C. Harner, F. Loesel, eds. (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, in press), pp. 85–101.

Yee, K.

J. Shimmick, K. Yee, B. Cutrer, “The VISX STAR S3 ActiveTrak eye tracker,” in New Frontiers in Vision and Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery, J. Bille, C. Harner, F. Loesel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, in press), pp. 71–83.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

D. Iskander, M. Collins, B. Davis, “Optimal modeling of corneal surfaces with Zernike polynomials,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 70–73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Cataract Refractive Surg. (1)

R. Applegate, L. Thibos, G. Hilmantel, “Optics of aberroscopy and super vision,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 1093–1107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

A. Guirao, D. Williams, I. Cox, “Effect of rotation and translation on the expected benefit of an ideal method to correct the eye’s higher-order aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1003–1015 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goeiz, J. Bille, “Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann–Shack wave-front sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1–9 (1994).

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

X. Hong, L. Thibos, “Longitudinal evaluation of optical aberrations following laser in situ keratomileusis surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S647–S650 (2001).

Other (5)

C. Kraff, “Results of wavefront-guided LASIK studies,” manuscript available from the author: Coleman Kraff, Kraff Eye Institute, 25 East Washington Street, Ste. 606, Chicago, Illinois 60602.

J. Watson, J. Shimmick, B. Cutrer, E. Gross, J. Wong, L. Bechtel, C. Harner, “Method for wavefront driven custom ablations,” in New Frontiers in Vision and Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery, J. Bille, C. Harner, F. Loesel, eds. (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, in press), pp. 85–101.

J. Shimmick, K. Yee, B. Cutrer, “The VISX STAR S3 ActiveTrak eye tracker,” in New Frontiers in Vision and Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery, J. Bille, C. Harner, F. Loesel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, in press), pp. 71–83.

C. Harner, “New VISX technology,” presented at the annual meeting of American Society of Refractive and Cataract Surgeons, April 28–May 1, 2001, San Diego, California.

G. Dai, W. Huff, J. Liang, “Calibration of wavefront devices for measurement of high order aberrations in human eyes,” ARVO meeting poster, May 3–9, 2003, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flow chart of the closed-loop test system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ablated bas-relief profile of Abraham Lincoln copied from penny demonstrates ability of a VISX STAR™ laser system with Variable Spot Scanning (VSS™) to create minutely complex ablations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Test device used to provide an artificial retina and hold it in the pupil plane of the WaveScan refractor.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Synthetic spot pattern corresponding to Z3-3 with amplitude of 1 µm based on a 6-mm aperture.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical and measured wave fronts, pattern S1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Theoretical and measured wave fronts, pattern S2.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Input and Output Zernike Coefficients for Surfaces S1 and S2

Tables Icon

Table 2 Theoretical Coefficient Values for Surface S1 Compared with the Measured Values for the Computed Values for a Translation of dx=0.05 mm, dy=-0.05 mm, and a Rotation of -2 dega

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S1=0.6*Z5-1+1.0*Z62(Fig. 5),
S2=0.6*Z3-3+1.0*Z5-1(Fig. 6).
A*f(r)* cos(θ+δ)=A*f(r)*[cos(δ)cos(θ)-sin(δ)* sin(θ)],
A*f(r)* sin(θ+δ)=A*f(r)*[cos(δ)sin(θ)+sin(δ)* cos(θ)].

Metrics