Abstract

To provide the fundamental data for a color zone map, the color appearances of nearly unique hue stimuli presented over the entire visual field were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated by hue and saturation judgments, blackness evaluation, and categorical color naming. The hue of red and green stimuli shifts toward a unique yellow, while that of yellow and blue does not change with an increase in eccentricity. The saturation of all the stimuli falls with an increase in the eccentricity in all directions. On the basis of the unique hue component, color zone maps for red, dark yellow, yellow, green, and blue stimuli are drawn. All the color zone maps extend over a wider region in the temporal and lower directions than in the nasal and upper directions of the visual field. The results are compared with the color zones of previous studies. The relationship between the color zones and the color categorization, as well as the underlying mechanisms of reduced saturation and hue shift, is discussed.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002 (4)

M. Sakurai, T. Koseki, H. Hayashi, M. Ayama, “Color appearance in peripheral vision: effects of test stimuli and surround luminance,” J. Light Visual Environ. 26, 9–18 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Okajima, A. R. Robertson, G. H. Fielder, “A quantitative network model for color categorization,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Mullen, F. A. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red–green and blue–yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Visual Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Knau, J. S. Werner, “Senescent changes in parafoveal color appearance: saturation as a function of stimulus area,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 208–214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (6)

S. S. Deeb, L. C. Diller, D. R. Williams, D. M. Dacey, “Interindividual and topographical variation of L:M cone ratios in monkey retinas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 538–544 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Otake, C. M. Cicerone, “L and M cone relative numerosity and red–green opponency from fovea to midperiphery in the human retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 615–627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Pearson, W. H. Swanson, “Chromatic contrast sensitivity: the role of absolute threshold and gain constant in differences between the fovea and the periphery,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 232–243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Koida, K. Uchikawa, “Multi-stage categorical color perception revealed with a color space classification method,” J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 84, 302–311 (2000) (in Japanese).

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vision Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ujiri, H. Sugiyama, Y. Nakashima, “Color appearance of surface colors in the horizontal retinal eccentricities at various illuminance levels: measurements for one subject,” Kogaku 29, 174–179 (2000) (in Japanese).

1999 (2)

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Rod–cone color mixture: effect of size and exposure time,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2638–2642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Segawa, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Categorical color perception in peripheral vision,” J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 83, 860–868 (1999) (in Japanese).

1998 (1)

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Mullen, F. A. A. Kingdom, “Losses in peripheral color sensitivity predicted from ‘hit & miss’ post-receptoral cone connections,” Vision Res. 36, 1995–2000 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

H. Hibino, “Red–green and yellow–blue opponent-color responses as a function of retinal eccentricity,” Vision Res. 32, 1955–1964 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance across the retina: effects of a white surround,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 195–202 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (4)

M. Takase, K. Uchikawa, “Appearance of colored lights in the light-adapted peripheral retina,” Kogaku 20, 521–529 (1991) (in Japanese).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Anderson, K. T. Mullen, R. F. Hess, “Human peripheral spatial resolution for achromatic and chromatic stimuli: Limits imposed by optical and retinal factors,” J. Physiol. (London) 442, 47–64 (1991).

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (3)

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5–25 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton, C. X. Olson, “Salience of chromatic basic color terms confirmed by three measures,” Vision Res. 30, 1311–1317 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

R. M. Boynton, R. E. MacLaury, K. Uchikawa, “Centroids of color categories compared by two methods,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 6–15 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Cowey, P. Stoerig, V. H. Perry, “Transneuronal retrograde degeneration of retinal ganglion cells after damage to striate cortex in macaque monkeys: selective loss of pβ cells,” Neuroscience (N.Y.) 29, 65–80 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

R. M. Boynton, C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 94–105 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825–1833 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

F. M. de Monasterio, E. P. McCrane, J. K. Newlander, S. J. Schein, “Density profile of blue-sensitive cones along the horizontal meridian of macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 289–302 (1985).

1983 (1)

N. Sekiguchi, M. Ikeda, “Color perimetry based on color appearance,” Jpn. Soc. Ophthalmol. Opt. 4, 122–127 (1983) (in Japanese).

1982 (2)

T. K. Kuyk, “Spectral sensitivity of the peripheral retina to large and small stimuli,” Vision Res. 22, 1293–1297 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, K. Uchikawa, “Color-discrimination perimetry,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 264–272 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (4)

J. S. Werner, B. R. Wooten, “Opponent chromatic mechanisms: relation to photopigments and hue naming,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 422–434 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Bezold–Brucke phenomenon of the extrafoveal retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1648–1652 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to change in hue with eccentricity,” Vision Res. 19, 1121–1125 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Change in hue with rod intrusion during dark-adaptation,” Vision Res. 19, 1127–1131 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

B. Stabell, J. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, M. E. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1959 (1)

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1924 (1)

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, “Effect of brightness of preexposure and surrounding field on breadth and shape of the color fields for stimuli of different sizes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 7, 843–850 (1924).

Abramov, I.

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5–25 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, S. J.

S. J. Anderson, K. T. Mullen, R. F. Hess, “Human peripheral spatial resolution for achromatic and chromatic stimuli: Limits imposed by optical and retinal factors,” J. Physiol. (London) 442, 47–64 (1991).

Ayama, M.

M. Sakurai, T. Koseki, H. Hayashi, M. Ayama, “Color appearance in peripheral vision: effects of test stimuli and surround luminance,” J. Light Visual Environ. 26, 9–18 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ayama, M. Sakurai, “Changes in the hue and saturation of chromatic lights presented in the peripheral visual field,” Color Res. Appl. (in press).

M. Ayama, M. Sakurai, “Effects of achromatic surround on color appearance in the peripheral retina,” in Proceedings of the 24th Session of the CIE (CIE Poland, Warsaw, Poland, 1999), pp. 120–122.

M. Ayama, N. Suda, T. Kumagai, “Quantitative evaluation of color appearance between different media and appearance modes,” in 9th Congress of the International Colour Association, R. Chung, A. Rodrigues, eds. Proc. SPIE4421, 591–594 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ayde, C. J.

Bechtold, J.

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vision Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, C. X. Olson, “Salience of chromatic basic color terms confirmed by three measures,” Vision Res. 30, 1311–1317 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton, R. E. MacLaury, K. Uchikawa, “Centroids of color categories compared by two methods,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 6–15 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton, C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 94–105 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825–1833 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, M. E. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buck, S. L.

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vision Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, H.

Cicerone, C. M.

Cowey, A.

A. Cowey, P. Stoerig, V. H. Perry, “Transneuronal retrograde degeneration of retinal ganglion cells after damage to striate cortex in macaque monkeys: selective loss of pβ cells,” Neuroscience (N.Y.) 29, 65–80 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, A.

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5–25 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dacey, D. M.

de Monasterio, F. M.

F. M. de Monasterio, E. P. McCrane, J. K. Newlander, S. J. Schein, “Density profile of blue-sensitive cones along the horizontal meridian of macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 289–302 (1985).

Deeb, S. S.

Diller, L. C.

Doyal, J. A.

Ferree, C. E.

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, “Effect of brightness of preexposure and surrounding field on breadth and shape of the color fields for stimuli of different sizes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 7, 843–850 (1924).

Fielder, G. H.

K. Okajima, A. R. Robertson, G. H. Fielder, “A quantitative network model for color categorization,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J.

Hagstrom, S. A.

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayashi, H.

M. Sakurai, T. Koseki, H. Hayashi, M. Ayama, “Color appearance in peripheral vision: effects of test stimuli and surround luminance,” J. Light Visual Environ. 26, 9–18 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, R. F.

S. J. Anderson, K. T. Mullen, R. F. Hess, “Human peripheral spatial resolution for achromatic and chromatic stimuli: Limits imposed by optical and retinal factors,” J. Physiol. (London) 442, 47–64 (1991).

Hibino, H.

H. Hibino, “Red–green and yellow–blue opponent-color responses as a function of retinal eccentricity,” Vision Res. 32, 1955–1964 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurley, J. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, M.

N. Sekiguchi, M. Ikeda, “Color perimetry based on color appearance,” Jpn. Soc. Ophthalmol. Opt. 4, 122–127 (1983) (in Japanese).

M. Ikeda, N. Sekiguchi, S. Shioiri, “Color perimetry with a color naming method,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Visual Field Symposium, A. Heijl, E. L. Greve, eds. (Junk, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1985), pp. 273–277.

Kaiser, P. K.

H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, K. Uchikawa, “Color-discrimination perimetry,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 264–272 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kambe, N.

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kingdom, F. A. A.

K. T. Mullen, F. A. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red–green and blue–yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Visual Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Mullen, F. A. A. Kingdom, “Losses in peripheral color sensitivity predicted from ‘hit & miss’ post-receptoral cone connections,” Vision Res. 36, 1995–2000 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klock, I. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knau, H.

Knight, R. F.

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vision Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koida, K.

K. Koida, K. Uchikawa, “Multi-stage categorical color perception revealed with a color space classification method,” J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 84, 302–311 (2000) (in Japanese).

Koseki, T.

M. Sakurai, T. Koseki, H. Hayashi, M. Ayama, “Color appearance in peripheral vision: effects of test stimuli and surround luminance,” J. Light Visual Environ. 26, 9–18 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, T.

M. Ayama, N. Suda, T. Kumagai, “Quantitative evaluation of color appearance between different media and appearance modes,” in 9th Congress of the International Colour Association, R. Chung, A. Rodrigues, eds. Proc. SPIE4421, 591–594 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuriki, I.

K. Segawa, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Categorical color perception in peripheral vision,” J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 83, 860–868 (1999) (in Japanese).

K. Segawa, I. Kuriki, K. Uchikawa, “Categorical color perception in peripheral visual field,” in Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC Color 97) (Color Science Association of Japan, Kyoto, Japan, 1997), pp. 243–246.

Kuyk, T. K.

T. K. Kuyk, “Spectral sensitivity of the peripheral retina to large and small stimuli,” Vision Res. 22, 1293–1297 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lerea, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacLaury, R. E.

R. M. Boynton, R. E. MacLaury, K. Uchikawa, “Centroids of color categories compared by two methods,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 6–15 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McCrane, E. P.

F. M. de Monasterio, E. P. McCrane, J. K. Newlander, S. J. Schein, “Density profile of blue-sensitive cones along the horizontal meridian of macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 289–302 (1985).

Milam, A. H.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Moreland, “Peripheral colour vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Vol. VII/4, pp. 517–536.

Mullen, K. T.

K. T. Mullen, F. A. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red–green and blue–yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Visual Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Mullen, F. A. A. Kingdom, “Losses in peripheral color sensitivity predicted from ‘hit & miss’ post-receptoral cone connections,” Vision Res. 36, 1995–2000 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Anderson, K. T. Mullen, R. F. Hess, “Human peripheral spatial resolution for achromatic and chromatic stimuli: Limits imposed by optical and retinal factors,” J. Physiol. (London) 442, 47–64 (1991).

Nagy, A. L.

Nakashima, Y.

A. Ujiri, H. Sugiyama, Y. Nakashima, “Color appearance of surface colors in the horizontal retinal eccentricities at various illuminance levels: measurements for one subject,” Kogaku 29, 174–179 (2000) (in Japanese).

Neitz, J.

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neitz, M.

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nerger, J. L.

Neun, M. E.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, M. E. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newlander, J. K.

F. M. de Monasterio, E. P. McCrane, J. K. Newlander, S. J. Schein, “Density profile of blue-sensitive cones along the horizontal meridian of macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 289–302 (1985).

Okajima, K.

K. Okajima, A. R. Robertson, G. H. Fielder, “A quantitative network model for color categorization,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Olson, C. X.

R. M. Boynton, C. X. Olson, “Salience of chromatic basic color terms confirmed by three measures,” Vision Res. 30, 1311–1317 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton, C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 94–105 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Otake, S.

Pearson, P. M.

Perry, V. H.

A. Cowey, P. Stoerig, V. H. Perry, “Transneuronal retrograde degeneration of retinal ganglion cells after damage to striate cortex in macaque monkeys: selective loss of pβ cells,” Neuroscience (N.Y.) 29, 65–80 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rand, G.

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, “Effect of brightness of preexposure and surrounding field on breadth and shape of the color fields for stimuli of different sizes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 7, 843–850 (1924).

Robertson, A. R.

K. Okajima, A. R. Robertson, G. H. Fielder, “A quantitative network model for color categorization,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sakurai, M.

M. Sakurai, T. Koseki, H. Hayashi, M. Ayama, “Color appearance in peripheral vision: effects of test stimuli and surround luminance,” J. Light Visual Environ. 26, 9–18 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ayama, M. Sakurai, “Effects of achromatic surround on color appearance in the peripheral retina,” in Proceedings of the 24th Session of the CIE (CIE Poland, Warsaw, Poland, 1999), pp. 120–122.

M. Ayama, M. Sakurai, “Changes in the hue and saturation of chromatic lights presented in the peripheral visual field,” Color Res. Appl. (in press).

Schafer, W.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, M. E. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schein, S. J.

F. M. de Monasterio, E. P. McCrane, J. K. Newlander, S. J. Schein, “Density profile of blue-sensitive cones along the horizontal meridian of macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 289–302 (1985).

Segawa, K.

K. Segawa, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Categorical color perception in peripheral vision,” J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 83, 860–868 (1999) (in Japanese).

K. Segawa, I. Kuriki, K. Uchikawa, “Categorical color perception in peripheral visual field,” in Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC Color 97) (Color Science Association of Japan, Kyoto, Japan, 1997), pp. 243–246.

Sekiguchi, N.

N. Sekiguchi, M. Ikeda, “Color perimetry based on color appearance,” Jpn. Soc. Ophthalmol. Opt. 4, 122–127 (1983) (in Japanese).

M. Ikeda, N. Sekiguchi, S. Shioiri, “Color perimetry with a color naming method,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Visual Field Symposium, A. Heijl, E. L. Greve, eds. (Junk, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1985), pp. 273–277.

Shioiri, S.

M. Ikeda, N. Sekiguchi, S. Shioiri, “Color perimetry with a color naming method,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Visual Field Symposium, A. Heijl, E. L. Greve, eds. (Junk, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1985), pp. 273–277.

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stabell, B.

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Rod–cone color mixture: effect of size and exposure time,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2638–2642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Change in hue with rod intrusion during dark-adaptation,” Vision Res. 19, 1127–1131 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Bezold–Brucke phenomenon of the extrafoveal retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1648–1652 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to change in hue with eccentricity,” Vision Res. 19, 1121–1125 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, J. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Stabell, J.

B. Stabell, J. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Stabell, U.

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Rod–cone color mixture: effect of size and exposure time,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2638–2642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to change in hue with eccentricity,” Vision Res. 19, 1121–1125 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Change in hue with rod intrusion during dark-adaptation,” Vision Res. 19, 1127–1131 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Bezold–Brucke phenomenon of the extrafoveal retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1648–1652 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoerig, P.

A. Cowey, P. Stoerig, V. H. Perry, “Transneuronal retrograde degeneration of retinal ganglion cells after damage to striate cortex in macaque monkeys: selective loss of pβ cells,” Neuroscience (N.Y.) 29, 65–80 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Suda, N.

M. Ayama, N. Suda, T. Kumagai, “Quantitative evaluation of color appearance between different media and appearance modes,” in 9th Congress of the International Colour Association, R. Chung, A. Rodrigues, eds. Proc. SPIE4421, 591–594 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, H.

A. Ujiri, H. Sugiyama, Y. Nakashima, “Color appearance of surface colors in the horizontal retinal eccentricities at various illuminance levels: measurements for one subject,” Kogaku 29, 174–179 (2000) (in Japanese).

Swanson, W. H.

Takase, M.

M. Takase, K. Uchikawa, “Appearance of colored lights in the light-adapted peripheral retina,” Kogaku 20, 521–529 (1991) (in Japanese).

M. Takase, “Color appearance of highly and moderately saturated lights in light-adapted peripheral retinas,” in Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC Color 97) (Color Science Association of Japan, Kyoto, Japan, 1997), pp. 251–254.

Uchikawa, H.

H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, K. Uchikawa, “Color-discrimination perimetry,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 264–272 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Uchikawa, K.

K. Koida, K. Uchikawa, “Multi-stage categorical color perception revealed with a color space classification method,” J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 84, 302–311 (2000) (in Japanese).

K. Segawa, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Categorical color perception in peripheral vision,” J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 83, 860–868 (1999) (in Japanese).

M. Takase, K. Uchikawa, “Appearance of colored lights in the light-adapted peripheral retina,” Kogaku 20, 521–529 (1991) (in Japanese).

R. M. Boynton, R. E. MacLaury, K. Uchikawa, “Centroids of color categories compared by two methods,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 6–15 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825–1833 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, K. Uchikawa, “Color-discrimination perimetry,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 264–272 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Segawa, I. Kuriki, K. Uchikawa, “Categorical color perception in peripheral visual field,” in Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC Color 97) (Color Science Association of Japan, Kyoto, Japan, 1997), pp. 243–246.

Ujiri, A.

A. Ujiri, H. Sugiyama, Y. Nakashima, “Color appearance of surface colors in the horizontal retinal eccentricities at various illuminance levels: measurements for one subject,” Kogaku 29, 174–179 (2000) (in Japanese).

Volbrecht, V. J.

Werner, J. S.

Williams, D. R.

Wooten, B. R.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, “Effect of brightness of preexposure and surrounding field on breadth and shape of the color fields for stimuli of different sizes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 7, 843–850 (1924).

Color Res. Appl. (6)

K. Okajima, A. R. Robertson, G. H. Fielder, “A quantitative network model for color categorization,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton, C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 94–105 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton, R. E. MacLaury, K. Uchikawa, “Centroids of color categories compared by two methods,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 6–15 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, K. Uchikawa, “Color-discrimination perimetry,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 264–272 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

F. M. de Monasterio, E. P. McCrane, J. K. Newlander, S. J. Schein, “Density profile of blue-sensitive cones along the horizontal meridian of macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 289–302 (1985).

J. Comp. Neurol. (3)

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5–25 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. (2)

K. Koida, K. Uchikawa, “Multi-stage categorical color perception revealed with a color space classification method,” J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 84, 302–311 (2000) (in Japanese).

K. Segawa, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Categorical color perception in peripheral vision,” J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 83, 860–868 (1999) (in Japanese).

J. Light Visual Environ. (1)

M. Sakurai, T. Koseki, H. Hayashi, M. Ayama, “Color appearance in peripheral vision: effects of test stimuli and surround luminance,” J. Light Visual Environ. 26, 9–18 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (9)

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Rod–cone color mixture: effect of size and exposure time,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2638–2642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, C. J. Ayde, “Unique hue judgements as a function of test size in the fovea and at 20-deg temporal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1225–1232 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance across the retina: effects of a white surround,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 195–202 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Deeb, L. C. Diller, D. R. Williams, D. M. Dacey, “Interindividual and topographical variation of L:M cone ratios in monkey retinas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 538–544 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Otake, C. M. Cicerone, “L and M cone relative numerosity and red–green opponency from fovea to midperiphery in the human retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 615–627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Knau, J. S. Werner, “Senescent changes in parafoveal color appearance: saturation as a function of stimulus area,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 208–214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Pearson, W. H. Swanson, “Chromatic contrast sensitivity: the role of absolute threshold and gain constant in differences between the fovea and the periphery,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 232–243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Nagy, J. A. Doyal, “Red–green color discrimination as a function of stimulus field size in peripheral vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1147–1156 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

S. J. Anderson, K. T. Mullen, R. F. Hess, “Human peripheral spatial resolution for achromatic and chromatic stimuli: Limits imposed by optical and retinal factors,” J. Physiol. (London) 442, 47–64 (1991).

Jpn. Soc. Ophthalmol. Opt. (1)

N. Sekiguchi, M. Ikeda, “Color perimetry based on color appearance,” Jpn. Soc. Ophthalmol. Opt. 4, 122–127 (1983) (in Japanese).

Kogaku (2)

M. Takase, K. Uchikawa, “Appearance of colored lights in the light-adapted peripheral retina,” Kogaku 20, 521–529 (1991) (in Japanese).

A. Ujiri, H. Sugiyama, Y. Nakashima, “Color appearance of surface colors in the horizontal retinal eccentricities at various illuminance levels: measurements for one subject,” Kogaku 29, 174–179 (2000) (in Japanese).

NeuroReport (1)

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroscience (N.Y.) (1)

A. Cowey, P. Stoerig, V. H. Perry, “Transneuronal retrograde degeneration of retinal ganglion cells after damage to striate cortex in macaque monkeys: selective loss of pβ cells,” Neuroscience (N.Y.) 29, 65–80 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, M. E. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (10)

B. Stabell, J. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to change in hue with eccentricity,” Vision Res. 19, 1121–1125 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Change in hue with rod intrusion during dark-adaptation,” Vision Res. 19, 1127–1131 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vision Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Kuyk, “Spectral sensitivity of the peripheral retina to large and small stimuli,” Vision Res. 22, 1293–1297 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hibino, “Red–green and yellow–blue opponent-color responses as a function of retinal eccentricity,” Vision Res. 32, 1955–1964 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton, C. X. Olson, “Salience of chromatic basic color terms confirmed by three measures,” Vision Res. 30, 1311–1317 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825–1833 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Mullen, F. A. A. Kingdom, “Losses in peripheral color sensitivity predicted from ‘hit & miss’ post-receptoral cone connections,” Vision Res. 36, 1995–2000 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visual Neurosci. (1)

K. T. Mullen, F. A. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red–green and blue–yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Visual Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

M. Ayama, N. Suda, T. Kumagai, “Quantitative evaluation of color appearance between different media and appearance modes,” in 9th Congress of the International Colour Association, R. Chung, A. Rodrigues, eds. Proc. SPIE4421, 591–594 (2002).
[CrossRef]

International Commission on Illumination, “Spectral luminous efficiency functions based upon brightness matching for monochromatic point sources 2° and 10° field,” , (1988).

K. Segawa, I. Kuriki, K. Uchikawa, “Categorical color perception in peripheral visual field,” in Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC Color 97) (Color Science Association of Japan, Kyoto, Japan, 1997), pp. 243–246.

Committee on Colorimetry (OSA), “Color zones,” in The Science of Color (Crowell, New York, 1953), pp. 103–104.

M. Takase, “Color appearance of highly and moderately saturated lights in light-adapted peripheral retinas,” in Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC Color 97) (Color Science Association of Japan, Kyoto, Japan, 1997), pp. 251–254.

J. D. Moreland, “Peripheral colour vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Vol. VII/4, pp. 517–536.

M. Ayama, M. Sakurai, “Effects of achromatic surround on color appearance in the peripheral retina,” in Proceedings of the 24th Session of the CIE (CIE Poland, Warsaw, Poland, 1999), pp. 120–122.

M. Ikeda, N. Sekiguchi, S. Shioiri, “Color perimetry with a color naming method,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Visual Field Symposium, A. Heijl, E. L. Greve, eds. (Junk, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1985), pp. 273–277.

M. Ayama, M. Sakurai, “Changes in the hue and saturation of chromatic lights presented in the peripheral visual field,” Color Res. Appl. (in press).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measurement apparatus. The enlarged inset is the figure employed in the opponent-colors-type color evaluation using a pointing technique (see details in the text).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Chromaticities of all stimuli and surround points plotted on the CIE 1931 (x, y) chromaticity diagram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Change in hue for all stimuli as a function of eccentricity over the entire visual field. The symbols represent the mean value for ten observers. Each panel shows the results in each direction in the visual field, indicated by the icon shown to the right of each panel. Solid symbols indicate that all the observers made a hue response for that point, while open symbols indicate that some observers could not detect the stimuli at that point: (a) horizontal direction, (b) 45-deg direction angled upward to the right, (c) vertical direction, (d) 45-deg direction angled downward to the right.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Change in saturation for all stimuli as a function of eccentricity over the entire visual field. Each symbol and panel corresponds to those in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Derivation of color zone map: (a) results of saturation and the unique green component (UGC) in the horizontal direction, (b) UGC normalized to 1.00 at 0 deg (NUGC), (c) example of color zone map for the G stimulus.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Color zone map with normalized unique hue component (NUHC) for all stimuli. T, U, N, and L indicate the temporal, upper, nasal, and lower directions in the visual field of the right eye. In each panel, the radius indicates the eccentricity in the visual field, and the circles correspond to 30, 60, and 90 deg, from the inside to the outside, respectively. The number represents the value of the NUHC for each stimulus: (a) R stimulus, (b) Y1 stimulus, (c) Y2 stimulus, (d) G stimulus, (e) B stimulus.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of relative frequency of color terms based on all responses in categorical color naming and normalized unique hue component (NUHC) for each stimulus in the horizontal direction. In each panel, the two curves indicated by different symbols represent the experimentally obtained NUHC, denoted as “normalized,” and the relative frequency of the dominant color terms estimated from the NUHC by using Eq. (1), denoted as “fitted by.” The parentheses indicate the best-fitted coefficients for each panel: (a) R stimulus, (b) Y1 stimulus, (c) Y2 stimulus, (d) G stimulus, (e) B stimulus. The regions of each color term correspond to the legend given at the bottom of (e).

Equations (3)

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Relativefrequencyofdominantcolorterm
=k×NUHC(k×NUHC1.00)
=1.00(k×NUHC>1.00),

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