Abstract

Thresholds for photophobia (light-induced discomfort) were determined at wavelengths from 440 to 640 nm for three subjects. Photophobia was assessed by means of electromyography, which was used to measure subjects’ level of squinting. After correction for absorption by macular pigment and the ocular media, subjects’ functions displayed a trend of increasing sensitivity with decreasing wavelength. We propose that the corrected function is indicative of increased sensitivity to potential retinal damage by short-wavelength light. It is therefore suggested that photophobia serves a function of biological protection. Results also suggest that photophobia is significantly mitigated by macular pigment in the short wavelengths.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  35. B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Preservation of visual sensitivity of older subjects: association with macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 1–10 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
  37. W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, D. H. Sliney, “Retinal sensitivity to damage from short wavelength light,” Nature (London) 260, 153–155 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  38. T. Gorgels, D. van Norren, “Ultraviolet and green light cause different types of damage in rat retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 5, 851–863 (1995).
  39. R. J. Lucas, S. Hattar, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, R. G. Foster, K. W. Yau, “Diminished pupillary light reflex at high irradiances in melanopsin-knockout mice,” Science 299, 245–247 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. C. Grimm, C. E. Reme, P. O. Rol, T. P. Williams, “Blue light’s effects on rhodopsin: photoreversal of bleaching in living rat eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3984–3990 (2000).

2003 (1)

R. J. Lucas, S. Hattar, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, R. G. Foster, K. W. Yau, “Diminished pupillary light reflex at high irradiances in melanopsin-knockout mice,” Science 299, 245–247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

I. Murray, S. Plainis, D. Carden, “The ocular stress monitor: a new device for measuring discomfort glare,” Light. Res. Technol. 34, 231–242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. Main, I. Vlachonikolis, A. Dowson, “The wavelength of light causing photophobia in migraine and tension-type headache between attacks,” Headache 40, 194–199 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grimm, C. E. Reme, P. O. Rol, T. P. Williams, “Blue light’s effects on rhodopsin: photoreversal of bleaching in living rat eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3984–3990 (2000).

1998 (1)

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Preservation of visual sensitivity of older subjects: association with macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 1–10 (1998).

1997 (4)

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Individual variations in the spatial profile of macular pigment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187–1196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Sliney, “Ocular exposure to environmental light and ultraviolet—the impact of lid opening and sky conditions,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 27, 63–75 (1997).

P. Drummond, “Photophobia and autonomic responses to facial pain in migraine,” Brain 120, 1857–1864 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kellner, K. Wiederman, J. Zihl, “Illumination perception in photophobia patients suffering from panic disorder with agoraphobia,” Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 96, 72–74 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

E. P. Chronicle, W. M. Mulleners, “Visual system dysfunction in migraine: a review of clinical and psychophysical findings,” Cephalalgia 16, 525–535 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

T. Gorgels, D. van Norren, “Ultraviolet and green light cause different types of damage in rat retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 5, 851–863 (1995).

C. Waters, R. Mistrick, C. Bernecker, “Discomfort glare from sources of nonuniform luminance,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 24 (No. 2), 73–84 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

S. Berman, M. Bullimore, R. Jacobs, I. Bailey, N. Gandhi, “An objective measure of discomfort glare,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 23 (No. 2), 40–48 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Coleston, E. Chronicle, K. H. Ruddock, C. Kennard, “Precortical dysfunction of spatial and temporal visual processing in migraine,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57, 1208–1211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

P. Howarth, G. Heron, D. Greenhouse, I. Bailey, S. Berman, “Discomfort from glare: the role of pupillary hippus,” Light. Res. Technol. 25, 37–42 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Drummond, A. Woodhouse, “Painful stimulation of the forehead increases photophobia in migraine sufferers,” Cephalalgia 13, 321–324 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

J. Perez-Carpinell, P. Capilla, J. Morales, “Vision defects in albinism,” Optom. Vision Sci. 8, 623–628 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

S. F. Signer, Y. D. Lapierre, “Photophobia in depression (letter),” Am. J. Psychiatry 10, 1355–1356 (1989).

1988 (2)

H. Gerbaldo, “Depression and photophobia behavior (letter),” Am. J. Psychiatry 145, 1479–1480 (1988).
[PubMed]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

1987 (1)

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density,” Vision Res. 2, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

P. Drummond, “A quantitative assessment of photophobia in migraine and tension headache,” Headache 26, 465–469 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 660–672 (1984).

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, F. C. Delori, “The macular pigment. II. Spatial distribution in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).

1981 (1)

S. K. Yates, W. F. Brown, “Light-stimulus-evoked blink reflex: methods, normal values, relation to other blink reflexes, and observations in multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 3, 272–281 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, D. H. Sliney, “Retinal sensitivity to damage from short wavelength light,” Nature (London) 260, 153–155 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

V. King, “Discomfort glare from flashing sources,” J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 43, 53–56 (1972).

1966 (1)

J. D. Wirtschafter, C. M. Bourassa, “Binocular facilitation of discomfort with high luminances,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 75, 683–688 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

1951 (1)

J. E. Lebensohn, “Photophobia: mechanism and implications,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 1294–1300 (1951).
[PubMed]

1943 (1)

B. Eckhardt, J. M. McClean, H. Goodell, “Experimental studies on headache: the genesis of pain from the eye,” Res. Publ. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 23, 209–227 (1943).

1934 (1)

J. E. Lebensohn, “The nature of photophobia,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 12, 380–390 (1934).
[CrossRef]

1920 (1)

K. Siegwart, “Zur Frage nach dem Vorkommen und dem Wesen des Blendungsschmerzes,” Schweiz Med. Wochenschr. 50, 1165–1172 (1920).

Auran, J. D.

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, F. C. Delori, “The macular pigment. II. Spatial distribution in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 660–672 (1984).

Bailey, I.

S. Berman, M. Bullimore, R. Jacobs, I. Bailey, N. Gandhi, “An objective measure of discomfort glare,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 23 (No. 2), 40–48 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Howarth, G. Heron, D. Greenhouse, I. Bailey, S. Berman, “Discomfort from glare: the role of pupillary hippus,” Light. Res. Technol. 25, 37–42 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Berman, S.

S. Berman, M. Bullimore, R. Jacobs, I. Bailey, N. Gandhi, “An objective measure of discomfort glare,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 23 (No. 2), 40–48 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Howarth, G. Heron, D. Greenhouse, I. Bailey, S. Berman, “Discomfort from glare: the role of pupillary hippus,” Light. Res. Technol. 25, 37–42 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bernecker, C.

C. Waters, R. Mistrick, C. Bernecker, “Discomfort glare from sources of nonuniform luminance,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 24 (No. 2), 73–84 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Berson, D. M.

R. J. Lucas, S. Hattar, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, R. G. Foster, K. W. Yau, “Diminished pupillary light reflex at high irradiances in melanopsin-knockout mice,” Science 299, 245–247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bone, R. A.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

Bourassa, C. M.

J. D. Wirtschafter, C. M. Bourassa, “Binocular facilitation of discomfort with high luminances,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 75, 683–688 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Brown, P. K.

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 660–672 (1984).

Brown, W. F.

S. K. Yates, W. F. Brown, “Light-stimulus-evoked blink reflex: methods, normal values, relation to other blink reflexes, and observations in multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 3, 272–281 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bullimore, M.

S. Berman, M. Bullimore, R. Jacobs, I. Bailey, N. Gandhi, “An objective measure of discomfort glare,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 23 (No. 2), 40–48 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cains, A.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capilla, P.

J. Perez-Carpinell, P. Capilla, J. Morales, “Vision defects in albinism,” Optom. Vision Sci. 8, 623–628 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carden, D.

I. Murray, S. Plainis, D. Carden, “The ocular stress monitor: a new device for measuring discomfort glare,” Light. Res. Technol. 34, 231–242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chronicle, E.

D. M. Coleston, E. Chronicle, K. H. Ruddock, C. Kennard, “Precortical dysfunction of spatial and temporal visual processing in migraine,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57, 1208–1211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chronicle, E. P.

E. P. Chronicle, W. M. Mulleners, “Visual system dysfunction in migraine: a review of clinical and psychophysical findings,” Cephalalgia 16, 525–535 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coleston, D. M.

D. M. Coleston, E. Chronicle, K. H. Ruddock, C. Kennard, “Precortical dysfunction of spatial and temporal visual processing in migraine,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57, 1208–1211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. B.

J. B. de Boer, “Visual perception in road traffic and the field of vision of the motorist,” in Public Lighting, J. B. de Boer, ed. (Phillips Technical Library, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1968), pp. 11–96.

Delori, F. C.

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, F. C. Delori, “The macular pigment. II. Spatial distribution in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 660–672 (1984).

Donnelly, S. K.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density,” Vision Res. 2, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dowson, A.

A. Main, I. Vlachonikolis, A. Dowson, “The wavelength of light causing photophobia in migraine and tension-type headache between attacks,” Headache 40, 194–199 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drummond, P.

P. Drummond, “Photophobia and autonomic responses to facial pain in migraine,” Brain 120, 1857–1864 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Drummond, A. Woodhouse, “Painful stimulation of the forehead increases photophobia in migraine sufferers,” Cephalalgia 13, 321–324 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Drummond, “A quantitative assessment of photophobia in migraine and tension headache,” Headache 26, 465–469 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckhardt, B.

B. Eckhardt, J. M. McClean, H. Goodell, “Experimental studies on headache: the genesis of pain from the eye,” Res. Publ. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 23, 209–227 (1943).

Ensing, M.

M. Flannagan, M. Sivak, M. Ensing, C. Simmons, “Effect of wavelength on discomfort glare from monochromatic sources,” (University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1989), pp. 1–19.

Fernandez, L.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

Flannagan, M.

M. Flannagan, M. Sivak, M. Ensing, C. Simmons, “Effect of wavelength on discomfort glare from monochromatic sources,” (University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1989), pp. 1–19.

Foster, R. G.

R. J. Lucas, S. Hattar, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, R. G. Foster, K. W. Yau, “Diminished pupillary light reflex at high irradiances in melanopsin-knockout mice,” Science 299, 245–247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gandhi, N.

S. Berman, M. Bullimore, R. Jacobs, I. Bailey, N. Gandhi, “An objective measure of discomfort glare,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 23 (No. 2), 40–48 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gerbaldo, H.

H. Gerbaldo, “Depression and photophobia behavior (letter),” Am. J. Psychiatry 145, 1479–1480 (1988).
[PubMed]

Goodell, H.

B. Eckhardt, J. M. McClean, H. Goodell, “Experimental studies on headache: the genesis of pain from the eye,” Res. Publ. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 23, 209–227 (1943).

Gorgels, T.

T. Gorgels, D. van Norren, “Ultraviolet and green light cause different types of damage in rat retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 5, 851–863 (1995).

Greenhouse, D.

P. Howarth, G. Heron, D. Greenhouse, I. Bailey, S. Berman, “Discomfort from glare: the role of pupillary hippus,” Light. Res. Technol. 25, 37–42 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, C.

C. Grimm, C. E. Reme, P. O. Rol, T. P. Williams, “Blue light’s effects on rhodopsin: photoreversal of bleaching in living rat eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3984–3990 (2000).

Ham, W. T.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, D. H. Sliney, “Retinal sensitivity to damage from short wavelength light,” Nature (London) 260, 153–155 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, B. R.

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Preservation of visual sensitivity of older subjects: association with macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 1–10 (1998).

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Individual variations in the spatial profile of macular pigment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187–1196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hattar, S.

R. J. Lucas, S. Hattar, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, R. G. Foster, K. W. Yau, “Diminished pupillary light reflex at high irradiances in melanopsin-knockout mice,” Science 299, 245–247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heron, G.

P. Howarth, G. Heron, D. Greenhouse, I. Bailey, S. Berman, “Discomfort from glare: the role of pupillary hippus,” Light. Res. Technol. 25, 37–42 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hopkinson, R.

Howarth, P.

P. Howarth, G. Heron, D. Greenhouse, I. Bailey, S. Berman, “Discomfort from glare: the role of pupillary hippus,” Light. Res. Technol. 25, 37–42 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, R.

S. Berman, M. Bullimore, R. Jacobs, I. Bailey, N. Gandhi, “An objective measure of discomfort glare,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 23 (No. 2), 40–48 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kellner, M.

M. Kellner, K. Wiederman, J. Zihl, “Illumination perception in photophobia patients suffering from panic disorder with agoraphobia,” Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 96, 72–74 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennard, C.

D. M. Coleston, E. Chronicle, K. H. Ruddock, C. Kennard, “Precortical dysfunction of spatial and temporal visual processing in migraine,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57, 1208–1211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, V.

V. King, “Discomfort glare from flashing sources,” J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 43, 53–56 (1972).

Kliegl, R.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density,” Vision Res. 2, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Landrum, J. T.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

Lapierre, Y. D.

S. F. Signer, Y. D. Lapierre, “Photophobia in depression (letter),” Am. J. Psychiatry 10, 1355–1356 (1989).

Lebensohn, J. E.

J. E. Lebensohn, “Photophobia: mechanism and implications,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 1294–1300 (1951).
[PubMed]

J. E. Lebensohn, “The nature of photophobia,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 12, 380–390 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, R. J.

R. J. Lucas, S. Hattar, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, R. G. Foster, K. W. Yau, “Diminished pupillary light reflex at high irradiances in melanopsin-knockout mice,” Science 299, 245–247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Main, A.

A. Main, I. Vlachonikolis, A. Dowson, “The wavelength of light causing photophobia in migraine and tension-type headache between attacks,” Headache 40, 194–199 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McClean, J. M.

B. Eckhardt, J. M. McClean, H. Goodell, “Experimental studies on headache: the genesis of pain from the eye,” Res. Publ. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 23, 209–227 (1943).

Mistrick, R.

C. Waters, R. Mistrick, C. Bernecker, “Discomfort glare from sources of nonuniform luminance,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 24 (No. 2), 73–84 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morales, J.

J. Perez-Carpinell, P. Capilla, J. Morales, “Vision defects in albinism,” Optom. Vision Sci. 8, 623–628 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, H. A.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, D. H. Sliney, “Retinal sensitivity to damage from short wavelength light,” Nature (London) 260, 153–155 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Mulleners, W. M.

E. P. Chronicle, W. M. Mulleners, “Visual system dysfunction in migraine: a review of clinical and psychophysical findings,” Cephalalgia 16, 525–535 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, I.

I. Murray, S. Plainis, D. Carden, “The ocular stress monitor: a new device for measuring discomfort glare,” Light. Res. Technol. 34, 231–242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Carpinell, J.

J. Perez-Carpinell, P. Capilla, J. Morales, “Vision defects in albinism,” Optom. Vision Sci. 8, 623–628 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Plainis, S.

I. Murray, S. Plainis, D. Carden, “The ocular stress monitor: a new device for measuring discomfort glare,” Light. Res. Technol. 34, 231–242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reme, C. E.

C. Grimm, C. E. Reme, P. O. Rol, T. P. Williams, “Blue light’s effects on rhodopsin: photoreversal of bleaching in living rat eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3984–3990 (2000).

Rol, P. O.

C. Grimm, C. E. Reme, P. O. Rol, T. P. Williams, “Blue light’s effects on rhodopsin: photoreversal of bleaching in living rat eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3984–3990 (2000).

Ruddock, K. H.

D. M. Coleston, E. Chronicle, K. H. Ruddock, C. Kennard, “Precortical dysfunction of spatial and temporal visual processing in migraine,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57, 1208–1211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

M. Schultze, Ueber den gelben Fleck der Retina, seinen Einfluss auf normales Sehen und auf Farbenblindheit (Max Cohen & Sohn, Berlin, 1866).

Siegwart, K.

K. Siegwart, “Zur Frage nach dem Vorkommen und dem Wesen des Blendungsschmerzes,” Schweiz Med. Wochenschr. 50, 1165–1172 (1920).

Signer, S. F.

S. F. Signer, Y. D. Lapierre, “Photophobia in depression (letter),” Am. J. Psychiatry 10, 1355–1356 (1989).

Simmons, C.

M. Flannagan, M. Sivak, M. Ensing, C. Simmons, “Effect of wavelength on discomfort glare from monochromatic sources,” (University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1989), pp. 1–19.

Sivak, M.

M. Flannagan, M. Sivak, M. Ensing, C. Simmons, “Effect of wavelength on discomfort glare from monochromatic sources,” (University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1989), pp. 1–19.

Sliney, D. H.

D. H. Sliney, “Ocular exposure to environmental light and ultraviolet—the impact of lid opening and sky conditions,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 27, 63–75 (1997).

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, D. H. Sliney, “Retinal sensitivity to damage from short wavelength light,” Nature (London) 260, 153–155 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Snodderly, D. M.

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Preservation of visual sensitivity of older subjects: association with macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 1–10 (1998).

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Individual variations in the spatial profile of macular pigment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187–1196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 660–672 (1984).

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, F. C. Delori, “The macular pigment. II. Spatial distribution in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Takao, M.

R. J. Lucas, S. Hattar, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, R. G. Foster, K. W. Yau, “Diminished pupillary light reflex at high irradiances in melanopsin-knockout mice,” Science 299, 245–247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tarsis, S. L.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

van Norren, D.

T. Gorgels, D. van Norren, “Ultraviolet and green light cause different types of damage in rat retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 5, 851–863 (1995).

Vlachonikolis, I.

A. Main, I. Vlachonikolis, A. Dowson, “The wavelength of light causing photophobia in migraine and tension-type headache between attacks,” Headache 40, 194–199 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, “Literature review of human macular absorption in the visible and its consequences for the cone receptor primaries,” (Institute for Perception RVO-TNO, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 1972).

Waters, C.

C. Waters, R. Mistrick, C. Bernecker, “Discomfort glare from sources of nonuniform luminance,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 24 (No. 2), 73–84 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Werner, J. S.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density,” Vision Res. 2, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wiederman, K.

M. Kellner, K. Wiederman, J. Zihl, “Illumination perception in photophobia patients suffering from panic disorder with agoraphobia,” Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 96, 72–74 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, T. P.

C. Grimm, C. E. Reme, P. O. Rol, T. P. Williams, “Blue light’s effects on rhodopsin: photoreversal of bleaching in living rat eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3984–3990 (2000).

Wirtschafter, J. D.

J. D. Wirtschafter, C. M. Bourassa, “Binocular facilitation of discomfort with high luminances,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 75, 683–688 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, H. G.

H. G. Wolff, Headache and Other Head Pain, 2nd ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1963).

Woodhouse, A.

P. Drummond, A. Woodhouse, “Painful stimulation of the forehead increases photophobia in migraine sufferers,” Cephalalgia 13, 321–324 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wooten, B. R.

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Preservation of visual sensitivity of older subjects: association with macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 1–10 (1998).

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Individual variations in the spatial profile of macular pigment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187–1196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Yates, S. K.

S. K. Yates, W. F. Brown, “Light-stimulus-evoked blink reflex: methods, normal values, relation to other blink reflexes, and observations in multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 3, 272–281 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Yau, K. W.

R. J. Lucas, S. Hattar, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, R. G. Foster, K. W. Yau, “Diminished pupillary light reflex at high irradiances in melanopsin-knockout mice,” Science 299, 245–247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zihl, J.

M. Kellner, K. Wiederman, J. Zihl, “Illumination perception in photophobia patients suffering from panic disorder with agoraphobia,” Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 96, 72–74 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Psychiatr. Scand. (1)

M. Kellner, K. Wiederman, J. Zihl, “Illumination perception in photophobia patients suffering from panic disorder with agoraphobia,” Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 96, 72–74 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. E. Lebensohn, “Photophobia: mechanism and implications,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 1294–1300 (1951).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Psychiatry (2)

H. Gerbaldo, “Depression and photophobia behavior (letter),” Am. J. Psychiatry 145, 1479–1480 (1988).
[PubMed]

S. F. Signer, Y. D. Lapierre, “Photophobia in depression (letter),” Am. J. Psychiatry 10, 1355–1356 (1989).

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) (2)

J. E. Lebensohn, “The nature of photophobia,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 12, 380–390 (1934).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Wirtschafter, C. M. Bourassa, “Binocular facilitation of discomfort with high luminances,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 75, 683–688 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Brain (1)

P. Drummond, “Photophobia and autonomic responses to facial pain in migraine,” Brain 120, 1857–1864 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cephalalgia (2)

E. P. Chronicle, W. M. Mulleners, “Visual system dysfunction in migraine: a review of clinical and psychophysical findings,” Cephalalgia 16, 525–535 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Drummond, A. Woodhouse, “Painful stimulation of the forehead increases photophobia in migraine sufferers,” Cephalalgia 13, 321–324 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dev. Ophthalmol. (1)

D. H. Sliney, “Ocular exposure to environmental light and ultraviolet—the impact of lid opening and sky conditions,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 27, 63–75 (1997).

Headache (2)

P. Drummond, “A quantitative assessment of photophobia in migraine and tension headache,” Headache 26, 465–469 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Main, I. Vlachonikolis, A. Dowson, “The wavelength of light causing photophobia in migraine and tension-type headache between attacks,” Headache 40, 194–199 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (6)

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, F. C. Delori, “The macular pigment. II. Spatial distribution in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 660–672 (1984).

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Preservation of visual sensitivity of older subjects: association with macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 1–10 (1998).

T. Gorgels, D. van Norren, “Ultraviolet and green light cause different types of damage in rat retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 5, 851–863 (1995).

C. Grimm, C. E. Reme, P. O. Rol, T. P. Williams, “Blue light’s effects on rhodopsin: photoreversal of bleaching in living rat eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3984–3990 (2000).

J. Am. Optom. Assoc. (1)

V. King, “Discomfort glare from flashing sources,” J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 43, 53–56 (1972).

J. Illum. Eng. Soc. (2)

S. Berman, M. Bullimore, R. Jacobs, I. Bailey, N. Gandhi, “An objective measure of discomfort glare,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 23 (No. 2), 40–48 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Waters, R. Mistrick, C. Bernecker, “Discomfort glare from sources of nonuniform luminance,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 24 (No. 2), 73–84 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry (1)

D. M. Coleston, E. Chronicle, K. H. Ruddock, C. Kennard, “Precortical dysfunction of spatial and temporal visual processing in migraine,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57, 1208–1211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Light. Res. Technol. (2)

I. Murray, S. Plainis, D. Carden, “The ocular stress monitor: a new device for measuring discomfort glare,” Light. Res. Technol. 34, 231–242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Howarth, G. Heron, D. Greenhouse, I. Bailey, S. Berman, “Discomfort from glare: the role of pupillary hippus,” Light. Res. Technol. 25, 37–42 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, D. H. Sliney, “Retinal sensitivity to damage from short wavelength light,” Nature (London) 260, 153–155 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Neurology (1)

S. K. Yates, W. F. Brown, “Light-stimulus-evoked blink reflex: methods, normal values, relation to other blink reflexes, and observations in multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 3, 272–281 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Optom. Vision Sci. (1)

J. Perez-Carpinell, P. Capilla, J. Morales, “Vision defects in albinism,” Optom. Vision Sci. 8, 623–628 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Res. Publ. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis. (1)

B. Eckhardt, J. M. McClean, H. Goodell, “Experimental studies on headache: the genesis of pain from the eye,” Res. Publ. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 23, 209–227 (1943).

Schweiz Med. Wochenschr. (1)

K. Siegwart, “Zur Frage nach dem Vorkommen und dem Wesen des Blendungsschmerzes,” Schweiz Med. Wochenschr. 50, 1165–1172 (1920).

Science (1)

R. J. Lucas, S. Hattar, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, R. G. Foster, K. W. Yau, “Diminished pupillary light reflex at high irradiances in melanopsin-knockout mice,” Science 299, 245–247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (2)

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density,” Vision Res. 2, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

M. Schultze, Ueber den gelben Fleck der Retina, seinen Einfluss auf normales Sehen und auf Farbenblindheit (Max Cohen & Sohn, Berlin, 1866).

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

J. J. Vos, “Literature review of human macular absorption in the visible and its consequences for the cone receptor primaries,” (Institute for Perception RVO-TNO, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 1972).

M. Flannagan, M. Sivak, M. Ensing, C. Simmons, “Effect of wavelength on discomfort glare from monochromatic sources,” (University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1989), pp. 1–19.

J. B. de Boer, “Visual perception in road traffic and the field of vision of the motorist,” in Public Lighting, J. B. de Boer, ed. (Phillips Technical Library, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1968), pp. 11–96.

H. G. Wolff, Headache and Other Head Pain, 2nd ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1963).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of a typical EMG recording from the present study. Top panel: photocell output (amplitude spikes correspond to beginning and termination of test stimulus presentation); bottom panel: typical threshold photophobia squinting response. Note startle response with ensuing brief refractory period (a), followed by continuous squinting (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two complete photophobia action spectra [P(λ)] for subjects JS and AW. Peak sensitivities are normalized to zero.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Subjects’ averaged P(λ) compared with the envelope of V(λ) and V(λ), adjusted along the Y axis for best fit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top panel: Supplemental wavelengths (440–500 nm, 10-nm steps) added to existing P(λ) functions (subjects JS and AW). Subject NK, tested on six wavelengths, is plotted for comparison. Functions are normalized to 500 nm. Bottom panel: P(λ) functions, based on the scaling procedure described in the text, for JS and AW. Functions are normalized to 500 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

P(λ) functions (subjects JS and AW), corrected for MP and ocular media absorption, compared with threshold-energy retinal damage function (Ham et al.37) and glare sensitivity data (Flannagan et al.25). The latter two functions are least-squares fits to P(λ).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Logarithm of the 460-nm/540-nm sensitivity ratio for subjects JS and AW: central viewing versus 7-deg peripheral viewing.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Average of corrected P(λ) functions (subjects JS and AW) compared with absorption spectra of retinal melanin, melanopsin, and metarhodopsin II. Pigments have been adjusted on the Y axis to allow for a composite best fit to P(λ).

Equations (1)

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I=(10-R)×0.05,

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