Abstract

The line of sight of an aberrated optical system is defined in terms of the centroid of its point-spread function (PSF). It is also expressed in terms of its optical transfer function as well as its pupil function. Whereas the PSF’s obtained according to wave-diffraction optics and ray geometrical optics are quite different from each other, they have the same centroid. Although different amplitude distributions across an aberration-free pupil give the same centroid location, in the case of an aberrated pupil not only the phase but also the amplitude distribution affects the centroid location. If the amplitude across a pupil is uniform, then the centroid may be obtained from the aberration only along the perimeter of the pupil, without regard for the aberration across its interior irrespective of its shape. Next, an optical system with aberrated but uniformly illuminated annular pupil is considered. The aberration function is expanded in terms of Zernike annular polynomials. It is shown that only those aberrations that vary with angle as cos θ or sin θ contribute to the line of sight. A simple expression is obtained for the line of sight in terms of the Zernike aberration coefficients. Similar results are obtained for annular pupils with radially symmetric illumination. Finally, as numerical examples, some specific results are discussed for annular pupils aberrated by classical primary and secondary coma. As an example of a radially symmetric illumination, we obtain numerical results for Gaussian illumination of aberrated annular pupils. It is emphasized that the centroid and the peak of the PSF’s aberrated by coma are not coincident. Moreover, as the amount of the aberration increases, the separation of the centroid and peak locations also increases.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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