Abstract

We report the results of observations of atmospheric refraction fluctuations and scintillations performed aboard the Salyut-6 orbiter. Bodies of various angular diameters (Sun, planets, and stars) were used for the observations. It was ascertained that random variations in refraction owing to the horizontally layered structure of the refractive index take place almost everywhere in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Observations of refraction made it possible to obtain estimates of the characteristic parameters of its horizontally layered structure. A spectrum of glitter was calculated on the basis of observed scintillations of Venus.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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  1. O. K. Garriot, “Visual observations from space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1064–1067 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. S. Gurvich, V. N. Koubasov, A. A. Leonov, A. I. Simonov, T. N. Kharitonova, “Study of the atmosphere light refraction in ‘Apollo-Soyuz’ test project,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 14, 467–472 (1978).
  3. G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, Yu. V. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “The vertical structure of atmospheric temperature distribution in refraction observations from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 248, 828–831 (1979).
  4. G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “Results of an investigation of refraction during the third expedition on the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, 1123–1133 (1981).
  5. G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “Atmospheric refraction by observations from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. (USSR) 26, 2430–2432 (1981).
  6. A. S. Gurvich, S. V. Zagorouiko, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, P. A. Chochia, “The structure of temperature inhomogenities by observations of atmospheric refraction from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 259, 1330–1333 (1981).
  7. R. L. White, W. E. Tanner, R. S. Polidan, “Star line-of-sight refraction observations from the orbiting astronomical observatory ‘Corpernicus’ and deduction of stratospheric structure in the tropical region,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8535–8542 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, “Filming of Moon’s sets from space as a method for study the Earth’s atmosphere,” Sov. J. Remote Sensing 6, 58–62 (1981).
  9. G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, Yu. V. Romanenko, “The structure of density inhomogenities in the stratosphere from ‘Salyut-6’ observations,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 16, 339–344 (1980).
  10. A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, “On the spatial structure of air density variations from flicker observations,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 19, 656–658 (1983).
  11. V. I. TatarskiiThe Effects of the Turbulent Atmosphere on Wave Propagation (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., 1971).
  12. R. Woo, A. Ishimaru, F.-C. Yang, “Radio scintillations during occultations by turbulent planetary atmospheres,” Radio Sci. 15, 695–703 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  13. O. M. Phillips, “The generation of clear-air turbulence by the degradation of internal waves,” in Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Atmospheric Turbulence and Radio Wave Propagation (Nauka, Moscow, 1967), pp. 130–136.
  14. G. I. Barenblatt, A. S. Monin, “On a possible mechanism of diskoidal formations generation in atmosphere,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 246, 834–837 (1979).

1983 (2)

A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, “On the spatial structure of air density variations from flicker observations,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 19, 656–658 (1983).

R. L. White, W. E. Tanner, R. S. Polidan, “Star line-of-sight refraction observations from the orbiting astronomical observatory ‘Corpernicus’ and deduction of stratospheric structure in the tropical region,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8535–8542 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (4)

A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, “Filming of Moon’s sets from space as a method for study the Earth’s atmosphere,” Sov. J. Remote Sensing 6, 58–62 (1981).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “Results of an investigation of refraction during the third expedition on the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, 1123–1133 (1981).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “Atmospheric refraction by observations from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. (USSR) 26, 2430–2432 (1981).

A. S. Gurvich, S. V. Zagorouiko, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, P. A. Chochia, “The structure of temperature inhomogenities by observations of atmospheric refraction from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 259, 1330–1333 (1981).

1980 (2)

R. Woo, A. Ishimaru, F.-C. Yang, “Radio scintillations during occultations by turbulent planetary atmospheres,” Radio Sci. 15, 695–703 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, Yu. V. Romanenko, “The structure of density inhomogenities in the stratosphere from ‘Salyut-6’ observations,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 16, 339–344 (1980).

1979 (3)

G. I. Barenblatt, A. S. Monin, “On a possible mechanism of diskoidal formations generation in atmosphere,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 246, 834–837 (1979).

O. K. Garriot, “Visual observations from space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1064–1067 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, Yu. V. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “The vertical structure of atmospheric temperature distribution in refraction observations from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 248, 828–831 (1979).

1978 (1)

A. S. Gurvich, V. N. Koubasov, A. A. Leonov, A. I. Simonov, T. N. Kharitonova, “Study of the atmosphere light refraction in ‘Apollo-Soyuz’ test project,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 14, 467–472 (1978).

Barenblatt, G. I.

G. I. Barenblatt, A. S. Monin, “On a possible mechanism of diskoidal formations generation in atmosphere,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 246, 834–837 (1979).

Chochia, P. A.

A. S. Gurvich, S. V. Zagorouiko, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, P. A. Chochia, “The structure of temperature inhomogenities by observations of atmospheric refraction from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 259, 1330–1333 (1981).

Garriot, O. K.

Grechko, G. M.

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “Results of an investigation of refraction during the third expedition on the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, 1123–1133 (1981).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “Atmospheric refraction by observations from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. (USSR) 26, 2430–2432 (1981).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, Yu. V. Romanenko, “The structure of density inhomogenities in the stratosphere from ‘Salyut-6’ observations,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 16, 339–344 (1980).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, Yu. V. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “The vertical structure of atmospheric temperature distribution in refraction observations from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 248, 828–831 (1979).

Gurvich, A. S.

A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, “On the spatial structure of air density variations from flicker observations,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 19, 656–658 (1983).

A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, “Filming of Moon’s sets from space as a method for study the Earth’s atmosphere,” Sov. J. Remote Sensing 6, 58–62 (1981).

A. S. Gurvich, S. V. Zagorouiko, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, P. A. Chochia, “The structure of temperature inhomogenities by observations of atmospheric refraction from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 259, 1330–1333 (1981).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “Results of an investigation of refraction during the third expedition on the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, 1123–1133 (1981).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “Atmospheric refraction by observations from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. (USSR) 26, 2430–2432 (1981).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, Yu. V. Romanenko, “The structure of density inhomogenities in the stratosphere from ‘Salyut-6’ observations,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 16, 339–344 (1980).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, Yu. V. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “The vertical structure of atmospheric temperature distribution in refraction observations from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 248, 828–831 (1979).

A. S. Gurvich, V. N. Koubasov, A. A. Leonov, A. I. Simonov, T. N. Kharitonova, “Study of the atmosphere light refraction in ‘Apollo-Soyuz’ test project,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 14, 467–472 (1978).

Ishimaru, A.

R. Woo, A. Ishimaru, F.-C. Yang, “Radio scintillations during occultations by turbulent planetary atmospheres,” Radio Sci. 15, 695–703 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kan, V.

A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, “On the spatial structure of air density variations from flicker observations,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 19, 656–658 (1983).

A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, “Filming of Moon’s sets from space as a method for study the Earth’s atmosphere,” Sov. J. Remote Sensing 6, 58–62 (1981).

A. S. Gurvich, S. V. Zagorouiko, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, P. A. Chochia, “The structure of temperature inhomogenities by observations of atmospheric refraction from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 259, 1330–1333 (1981).

Kharitonova, T. N.

A. S. Gurvich, V. N. Koubasov, A. A. Leonov, A. I. Simonov, T. N. Kharitonova, “Study of the atmosphere light refraction in ‘Apollo-Soyuz’ test project,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 14, 467–472 (1978).

Koubasov, V. N.

A. S. Gurvich, V. N. Koubasov, A. A. Leonov, A. I. Simonov, T. N. Kharitonova, “Study of the atmosphere light refraction in ‘Apollo-Soyuz’ test project,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 14, 467–472 (1978).

Leonov, A. A.

A. S. Gurvich, V. N. Koubasov, A. A. Leonov, A. I. Simonov, T. N. Kharitonova, “Study of the atmosphere light refraction in ‘Apollo-Soyuz’ test project,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 14, 467–472 (1978).

Lyakhov, V. A.

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “Atmospheric refraction by observations from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. (USSR) 26, 2430–2432 (1981).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “Results of an investigation of refraction during the third expedition on the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, 1123–1133 (1981).

Monin, A. S.

G. I. Barenblatt, A. S. Monin, “On a possible mechanism of diskoidal formations generation in atmosphere,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 246, 834–837 (1979).

Phillips, O. M.

O. M. Phillips, “The generation of clear-air turbulence by the degradation of internal waves,” in Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Atmospheric Turbulence and Radio Wave Propagation (Nauka, Moscow, 1967), pp. 130–136.

Polidan, R. S.

R. L. White, W. E. Tanner, R. S. Polidan, “Star line-of-sight refraction observations from the orbiting astronomical observatory ‘Corpernicus’ and deduction of stratospheric structure in the tropical region,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8535–8542 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Popov, L. I.

A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, “On the spatial structure of air density variations from flicker observations,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 19, 656–658 (1983).

A. S. Gurvich, S. V. Zagorouiko, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, P. A. Chochia, “The structure of temperature inhomogenities by observations of atmospheric refraction from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 259, 1330–1333 (1981).

A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, “Filming of Moon’s sets from space as a method for study the Earth’s atmosphere,” Sov. J. Remote Sensing 6, 58–62 (1981).

Romanenko, Yu. V.

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, Yu. V. Romanenko, “The structure of density inhomogenities in the stratosphere from ‘Salyut-6’ observations,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 16, 339–344 (1980).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, Yu. V. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “The vertical structure of atmospheric temperature distribution in refraction observations from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 248, 828–831 (1979).

Ryumin, V. V.

A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, “On the spatial structure of air density variations from flicker observations,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 19, 656–658 (1983).

A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, “Filming of Moon’s sets from space as a method for study the Earth’s atmosphere,” Sov. J. Remote Sensing 6, 58–62 (1981).

A. S. Gurvich, S. V. Zagorouiko, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, P. A. Chochia, “The structure of temperature inhomogenities by observations of atmospheric refraction from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 259, 1330–1333 (1981).

Savchenko, S. A.

A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, “On the spatial structure of air density variations from flicker observations,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 19, 656–658 (1983).

A. S. Gurvich, S. V. Zagorouiko, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, P. A. Chochia, “The structure of temperature inhomogenities by observations of atmospheric refraction from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 259, 1330–1333 (1981).

A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, “Filming of Moon’s sets from space as a method for study the Earth’s atmosphere,” Sov. J. Remote Sensing 6, 58–62 (1981).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “Results of an investigation of refraction during the third expedition on the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, 1123–1133 (1981).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “Atmospheric refraction by observations from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. (USSR) 26, 2430–2432 (1981).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, Yu. V. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “The vertical structure of atmospheric temperature distribution in refraction observations from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 248, 828–831 (1979).

Simonov, A. I.

A. S. Gurvich, V. N. Koubasov, A. A. Leonov, A. I. Simonov, T. N. Kharitonova, “Study of the atmosphere light refraction in ‘Apollo-Soyuz’ test project,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 14, 467–472 (1978).

Sokolovskii, S. V.

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “Atmospheric refraction by observations from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. (USSR) 26, 2430–2432 (1981).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “Results of an investigation of refraction during the third expedition on the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, 1123–1133 (1981).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, Yu. V. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “The vertical structure of atmospheric temperature distribution in refraction observations from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 248, 828–831 (1979).

Tanner, W. E.

R. L. White, W. E. Tanner, R. S. Polidan, “Star line-of-sight refraction observations from the orbiting astronomical observatory ‘Corpernicus’ and deduction of stratospheric structure in the tropical region,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8535–8542 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tatarskii, V. I.

V. I. TatarskiiThe Effects of the Turbulent Atmosphere on Wave Propagation (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., 1971).

White, R. L.

R. L. White, W. E. Tanner, R. S. Polidan, “Star line-of-sight refraction observations from the orbiting astronomical observatory ‘Corpernicus’ and deduction of stratospheric structure in the tropical region,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8535–8542 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Woo, R.

R. Woo, A. Ishimaru, F.-C. Yang, “Radio scintillations during occultations by turbulent planetary atmospheres,” Radio Sci. 15, 695–703 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.-C.

R. Woo, A. Ishimaru, F.-C. Yang, “Radio scintillations during occultations by turbulent planetary atmospheres,” Radio Sci. 15, 695–703 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Zagorouiko, S. V.

A. S. Gurvich, S. V. Zagorouiko, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, P. A. Chochia, “The structure of temperature inhomogenities by observations of atmospheric refraction from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 259, 1330–1333 (1981).

Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR (3)

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, Yu. V. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “The vertical structure of atmospheric temperature distribution in refraction observations from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 248, 828–831 (1979).

A. S. Gurvich, S. V. Zagorouiko, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, P. A. Chochia, “The structure of temperature inhomogenities by observations of atmospheric refraction from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 259, 1330–1333 (1981).

G. I. Barenblatt, A. S. Monin, “On a possible mechanism of diskoidal formations generation in atmosphere,” Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR 246, 834–837 (1979).

Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. (4)

A. S. Gurvich, V. N. Koubasov, A. A. Leonov, A. I. Simonov, T. N. Kharitonova, “Study of the atmosphere light refraction in ‘Apollo-Soyuz’ test project,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 14, 467–472 (1978).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “Results of an investigation of refraction during the third expedition on the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, 1123–1133 (1981).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, Yu. V. Romanenko, “The structure of density inhomogenities in the stratosphere from ‘Salyut-6’ observations,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 16, 339–344 (1980).

A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, “On the spatial structure of air density variations from flicker observations,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 19, 656–658 (1983).

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

R. L. White, W. E. Tanner, R. S. Polidan, “Star line-of-sight refraction observations from the orbiting astronomical observatory ‘Corpernicus’ and deduction of stratospheric structure in the tropical region,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8535–8542 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. (USSR) (1)

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskii, “Atmospheric refraction by observations from the ‘Salyut-6’ orbiter,” Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. (USSR) 26, 2430–2432 (1981).

Radio Sci. (1)

R. Woo, A. Ishimaru, F.-C. Yang, “Radio scintillations during occultations by turbulent planetary atmospheres,” Radio Sci. 15, 695–703 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Remote Sensing (1)

A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, L. I. Popov, V. V. Ryumin, S. A. Savchenko, “Filming of Moon’s sets from space as a method for study the Earth’s atmosphere,” Sov. J. Remote Sensing 6, 58–62 (1981).

Other (2)

O. M. Phillips, “The generation of clear-air turbulence by the degradation of internal waves,” in Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Atmospheric Turbulence and Radio Wave Propagation (Nauka, Moscow, 1967), pp. 130–136.

V. I. TatarskiiThe Effects of the Turbulent Atmosphere on Wave Propagation (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., 1971).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two series of the sunset photographs. The images are displaced along the vertical in order to prevent overlap.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Durations of refraction δ∊.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Durations of refraction δ∊.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean-square deviations of refraction σ from the running mean deviations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Visualization of the spatial structure of refraction perturbations on the basis of the sunset motion pictures.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The spectrum of Venus scintillations obtained on the basis of observations across the atmosphere from space. The error bars show 90% confidence intervals. The dashed line shows the frequency characteristic of the luminance amplifier.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Dependence of Scintillations on the Line-of-Sight Perigee Altitude and on the Angular Diameter of the Object

Equations (2)

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σ 2 = ( p 2 p 1 Δ p ) 1 p 1 + Δ p / 2 p 2 + Δ p / 2 [ δ ( p ) δ ( p ) ] 2 d p ,
δ ( p ) = ( Δ p ) 1 p + Δ p / 2 p + Δ p / 2 δ ( p ) d p ;

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