Abstract

The effects of double passages on waves passing through an inhomogeneous turbulent medium before and after being reflected by a scatterer are investigated. The first effect is enhanced backscattering: The average intensity of the backscattered field in a turbulent medium is approximately twice as strong as that in the absence of turbulent inhomogeneities. Among other important effects the partial reversal of a wave in a turbulent medium and the effect of long-range correlations should be mentioned. The influence of moving inhomogeneities on the efficiency of the wave-reversing mechanism is also investigated.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. M. Watson, “Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves in an underdense plasma,” J. Math. Phys. 10, 688–702 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. A. De Wolf, “Electromagnetic reflection from extended turbulent medium: cumulative forward-scatter single-backscatter approximation,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-19, 254–260 (1970).
  3. A. G. Vinogradov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. I. Tatarskii, “Enhanced backscattering on the bodies placed in random inhomogeneous media, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 16, 1064–1070 (1973).
  4. V. I. Gel’fgat, “Reflection in diffusive media,” Akust. Zh. 22, 123–124 (1976).
  5. A. I. Saichev, “Correlation of statistical characteristics of passing and reflected wave in large-scale random inhomogeneous media, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 21, 1290–1293 (1978).
  6. V. P. Aksenov, V. A. Banakh, V. L. Mironov, “Fluctuations of laser intensity under reflection in a turbulent atmosphere,” Kvantovaya Elektron. 3, 2266–2271 (1976).
  7. M. S. Belen’kii, A. A. Makarov, V. L. Mironov, V. V. Pokasov, “The saturation of receive aperture averaging action on fluctuations of reflected wave intensity,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 21, 299–301 (1978).
  8. V. P. Aksenov, V. A. Banakh, V. M. Buldakov, V. L. Mironov, “Intensity fluctuations of light in the focal plane of a receiving telescope caused by round-trip propagation through a turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 10, 107–109 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Yu. A. Kravtsov, A. I. Saichev, “Effects of partial reversal of wave front under reflection of waves in randomly inhomogeneous media,” JETP 83, 532–538.
  10. Yu. A. Kravtsov, A. I. Saichev, “Double passage wave effects in randomly inhomogeneous media,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 25, 494–508 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. U. Zavorotnyi, V. I. Tatarskii, “Enhancement effect of backscattering of waves on a body placed in vicinity of a random boundary of two media,” Dokl. Acad. Nauk USSR 265, 608–612 (1982).
  12. A. V. Polovinkin, A. I. Saichev, “The average field of laser reflected beam with reverse of wave front,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 24, 433–437 (1981).
  13. K. G. Akhunov, F. V. Bunkin, Yu. A. Kravtsov, D. V. Vlasov, “Efficiency of wave front reversal in media with fluctuations depending on time,” Kvantovaya Elektron. 9, 1287–1289 (1982).
  14. K. G. Akhunov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, “Development of the enhance backscattering effect under reflection from a phase conjugated mirror,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 26, 635–636 (1983).
  15. A. N. Malakhov, A. V. Polovinkin, A. I. Saichev, “Average intensity of phase conjugated mirror reflected wave in turbulent media,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 26, 579–586 (1983).
  16. H. G. Akhunov, F. V. Bunkin, Yu. A. Kravtsov, D. V. Vlasov, “On the efficiency of the phase conjugated wave focusing in the turbulent media,” Radiotekh. Elektron. 29, 1–4 (1984).
  17. V. I. Gel’fgat, “Compensation of phase distortions at wave front reversal in random one-mode and multi-mode acoustic waveguides,” Akust. Zh. 27, 194–201 (1981).
  18. A. I. Saichev, “Reflection from the phase conjugated mirror and backscattering in inhomogeneous media,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 24, 1165–1167 (1981).
  19. D. V. Vlasov, A. I. Saichev, V. I. Talanov, “Effect of compensation incident wave distortions by the phase conjugated mirror in nonlinear and inhomogeneous media,” Preprint FIAN No. 92, Moscow, 1983 (in Russian).
  20. S. M. Rytov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. I. Tatarskii, Principles of Statistical Radiophysics, Part II: Random Fields (Nauka, Moscow, 1978).
  21. A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978), Vol. 2.
  22. V. U. ZavorotnyiV, I. Klyatskin, V. I. Tatarskii, “Strong fluctuations of electromagnetic waves intensity in randomly inhomogeneous media,” Sov. Phys. JETP, 73, 481–497 (1977).
  23. R. Dashen, “Path integrals for waves in random media,” J. Math. Phys. 20, 894–920 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. J. Rye, “Refractive-turbulence contribution to incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar returns,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 687–691 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. C. Yeh, “Mutual coherence functions and intensities of backscattered signals in a turbulent medium, Radio Sci. 18, 159–165 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. S. Gurvich, S. S. Kashkarov, “On the enhancement of backscattering in a turbulent medium,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 20, 794–796 (1977).
  27. S. S. Kashkarov, “Enhancement of average intensity of backscattered field in a turbulent atmosphere,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 26, 44–48 (1983).
  28. D. V. Vlasov, “A laser sounding of the upper layer of the ocean,” Izv. Akad. Nauk USSR Ser. Fiz. 49, 433–441 (1985).
  29. A. B. Krupnik, A. I. Saichev “Coherent properties and focusing of beam wave reflected in turbulent Media,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 24, 1234–1239 (1981).

1985 (1)

D. V. Vlasov, “A laser sounding of the upper layer of the ocean,” Izv. Akad. Nauk USSR Ser. Fiz. 49, 433–441 (1985).

1984 (2)

V. P. Aksenov, V. A. Banakh, V. M. Buldakov, V. L. Mironov, “Intensity fluctuations of light in the focal plane of a receiving telescope caused by round-trip propagation through a turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 10, 107–109 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Akhunov, F. V. Bunkin, Yu. A. Kravtsov, D. V. Vlasov, “On the efficiency of the phase conjugated wave focusing in the turbulent media,” Radiotekh. Elektron. 29, 1–4 (1984).

1983 (4)

K. G. Akhunov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, “Development of the enhance backscattering effect under reflection from a phase conjugated mirror,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 26, 635–636 (1983).

A. N. Malakhov, A. V. Polovinkin, A. I. Saichev, “Average intensity of phase conjugated mirror reflected wave in turbulent media,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 26, 579–586 (1983).

K. C. Yeh, “Mutual coherence functions and intensities of backscattered signals in a turbulent medium, Radio Sci. 18, 159–165 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Kashkarov, “Enhancement of average intensity of backscattered field in a turbulent atmosphere,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 26, 44–48 (1983).

1982 (3)

K. G. Akhunov, F. V. Bunkin, Yu. A. Kravtsov, D. V. Vlasov, “Efficiency of wave front reversal in media with fluctuations depending on time,” Kvantovaya Elektron. 9, 1287–1289 (1982).

Yu. A. Kravtsov, A. I. Saichev, “Double passage wave effects in randomly inhomogeneous media,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 25, 494–508 (1982).
[CrossRef]

V. U. Zavorotnyi, V. I. Tatarskii, “Enhancement effect of backscattering of waves on a body placed in vicinity of a random boundary of two media,” Dokl. Acad. Nauk USSR 265, 608–612 (1982).

1981 (5)

A. V. Polovinkin, A. I. Saichev, “The average field of laser reflected beam with reverse of wave front,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 24, 433–437 (1981).

V. I. Gel’fgat, “Compensation of phase distortions at wave front reversal in random one-mode and multi-mode acoustic waveguides,” Akust. Zh. 27, 194–201 (1981).

A. I. Saichev, “Reflection from the phase conjugated mirror and backscattering in inhomogeneous media,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 24, 1165–1167 (1981).

B. J. Rye, “Refractive-turbulence contribution to incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar returns,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 687–691 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Krupnik, A. I. Saichev “Coherent properties and focusing of beam wave reflected in turbulent Media,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 24, 1234–1239 (1981).

1979 (1)

R. Dashen, “Path integrals for waves in random media,” J. Math. Phys. 20, 894–920 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

M. S. Belen’kii, A. A. Makarov, V. L. Mironov, V. V. Pokasov, “The saturation of receive aperture averaging action on fluctuations of reflected wave intensity,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 21, 299–301 (1978).

A. I. Saichev, “Correlation of statistical characteristics of passing and reflected wave in large-scale random inhomogeneous media, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 21, 1290–1293 (1978).

1977 (2)

V. U. ZavorotnyiV, I. Klyatskin, V. I. Tatarskii, “Strong fluctuations of electromagnetic waves intensity in randomly inhomogeneous media,” Sov. Phys. JETP, 73, 481–497 (1977).

A. S. Gurvich, S. S. Kashkarov, “On the enhancement of backscattering in a turbulent medium,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 20, 794–796 (1977).

1976 (2)

V. P. Aksenov, V. A. Banakh, V. L. Mironov, “Fluctuations of laser intensity under reflection in a turbulent atmosphere,” Kvantovaya Elektron. 3, 2266–2271 (1976).

V. I. Gel’fgat, “Reflection in diffusive media,” Akust. Zh. 22, 123–124 (1976).

1973 (1)

A. G. Vinogradov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. I. Tatarskii, “Enhanced backscattering on the bodies placed in random inhomogeneous media, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 16, 1064–1070 (1973).

1970 (1)

D. A. De Wolf, “Electromagnetic reflection from extended turbulent medium: cumulative forward-scatter single-backscatter approximation,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-19, 254–260 (1970).

1969 (1)

K. M. Watson, “Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves in an underdense plasma,” J. Math. Phys. 10, 688–702 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Akhunov, H. G.

H. G. Akhunov, F. V. Bunkin, Yu. A. Kravtsov, D. V. Vlasov, “On the efficiency of the phase conjugated wave focusing in the turbulent media,” Radiotekh. Elektron. 29, 1–4 (1984).

Akhunov, K. G.

K. G. Akhunov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, “Development of the enhance backscattering effect under reflection from a phase conjugated mirror,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 26, 635–636 (1983).

K. G. Akhunov, F. V. Bunkin, Yu. A. Kravtsov, D. V. Vlasov, “Efficiency of wave front reversal in media with fluctuations depending on time,” Kvantovaya Elektron. 9, 1287–1289 (1982).

Aksenov, V. P.

V. P. Aksenov, V. A. Banakh, V. M. Buldakov, V. L. Mironov, “Intensity fluctuations of light in the focal plane of a receiving telescope caused by round-trip propagation through a turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 10, 107–109 (1984).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Aksenov, V. A. Banakh, V. L. Mironov, “Fluctuations of laser intensity under reflection in a turbulent atmosphere,” Kvantovaya Elektron. 3, 2266–2271 (1976).

Banakh, V. A.

V. P. Aksenov, V. A. Banakh, V. M. Buldakov, V. L. Mironov, “Intensity fluctuations of light in the focal plane of a receiving telescope caused by round-trip propagation through a turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 10, 107–109 (1984).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Aksenov, V. A. Banakh, V. L. Mironov, “Fluctuations of laser intensity under reflection in a turbulent atmosphere,” Kvantovaya Elektron. 3, 2266–2271 (1976).

Belen’kii, M. S.

M. S. Belen’kii, A. A. Makarov, V. L. Mironov, V. V. Pokasov, “The saturation of receive aperture averaging action on fluctuations of reflected wave intensity,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 21, 299–301 (1978).

Buldakov, V. M.

Bunkin, F. V.

H. G. Akhunov, F. V. Bunkin, Yu. A. Kravtsov, D. V. Vlasov, “On the efficiency of the phase conjugated wave focusing in the turbulent media,” Radiotekh. Elektron. 29, 1–4 (1984).

K. G. Akhunov, F. V. Bunkin, Yu. A. Kravtsov, D. V. Vlasov, “Efficiency of wave front reversal in media with fluctuations depending on time,” Kvantovaya Elektron. 9, 1287–1289 (1982).

Dashen, R.

R. Dashen, “Path integrals for waves in random media,” J. Math. Phys. 20, 894–920 (1979).
[CrossRef]

De Wolf, D. A.

D. A. De Wolf, “Electromagnetic reflection from extended turbulent medium: cumulative forward-scatter single-backscatter approximation,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-19, 254–260 (1970).

Gel’fgat, V. I.

V. I. Gel’fgat, “Compensation of phase distortions at wave front reversal in random one-mode and multi-mode acoustic waveguides,” Akust. Zh. 27, 194–201 (1981).

V. I. Gel’fgat, “Reflection in diffusive media,” Akust. Zh. 22, 123–124 (1976).

Gurvich, A. S.

A. S. Gurvich, S. S. Kashkarov, “On the enhancement of backscattering in a turbulent medium,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 20, 794–796 (1977).

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978), Vol. 2.

Kashkarov, S. S.

S. S. Kashkarov, “Enhancement of average intensity of backscattered field in a turbulent atmosphere,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 26, 44–48 (1983).

A. S. Gurvich, S. S. Kashkarov, “On the enhancement of backscattering in a turbulent medium,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 20, 794–796 (1977).

Klyatskin, I.

V. U. ZavorotnyiV, I. Klyatskin, V. I. Tatarskii, “Strong fluctuations of electromagnetic waves intensity in randomly inhomogeneous media,” Sov. Phys. JETP, 73, 481–497 (1977).

Kravtsov, Yu. A.

H. G. Akhunov, F. V. Bunkin, Yu. A. Kravtsov, D. V. Vlasov, “On the efficiency of the phase conjugated wave focusing in the turbulent media,” Radiotekh. Elektron. 29, 1–4 (1984).

K. G. Akhunov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, “Development of the enhance backscattering effect under reflection from a phase conjugated mirror,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 26, 635–636 (1983).

Yu. A. Kravtsov, A. I. Saichev, “Double passage wave effects in randomly inhomogeneous media,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 25, 494–508 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Akhunov, F. V. Bunkin, Yu. A. Kravtsov, D. V. Vlasov, “Efficiency of wave front reversal in media with fluctuations depending on time,” Kvantovaya Elektron. 9, 1287–1289 (1982).

A. G. Vinogradov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. I. Tatarskii, “Enhanced backscattering on the bodies placed in random inhomogeneous media, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 16, 1064–1070 (1973).

S. M. Rytov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. I. Tatarskii, Principles of Statistical Radiophysics, Part II: Random Fields (Nauka, Moscow, 1978).

Yu. A. Kravtsov, A. I. Saichev, “Effects of partial reversal of wave front under reflection of waves in randomly inhomogeneous media,” JETP 83, 532–538.

Krupnik, A. B.

A. B. Krupnik, A. I. Saichev “Coherent properties and focusing of beam wave reflected in turbulent Media,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 24, 1234–1239 (1981).

Makarov, A. A.

M. S. Belen’kii, A. A. Makarov, V. L. Mironov, V. V. Pokasov, “The saturation of receive aperture averaging action on fluctuations of reflected wave intensity,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 21, 299–301 (1978).

Malakhov, A. N.

A. N. Malakhov, A. V. Polovinkin, A. I. Saichev, “Average intensity of phase conjugated mirror reflected wave in turbulent media,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 26, 579–586 (1983).

Mironov, V. L.

V. P. Aksenov, V. A. Banakh, V. M. Buldakov, V. L. Mironov, “Intensity fluctuations of light in the focal plane of a receiving telescope caused by round-trip propagation through a turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 10, 107–109 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen’kii, A. A. Makarov, V. L. Mironov, V. V. Pokasov, “The saturation of receive aperture averaging action on fluctuations of reflected wave intensity,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 21, 299–301 (1978).

V. P. Aksenov, V. A. Banakh, V. L. Mironov, “Fluctuations of laser intensity under reflection in a turbulent atmosphere,” Kvantovaya Elektron. 3, 2266–2271 (1976).

Pokasov, V. V.

M. S. Belen’kii, A. A. Makarov, V. L. Mironov, V. V. Pokasov, “The saturation of receive aperture averaging action on fluctuations of reflected wave intensity,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 21, 299–301 (1978).

Polovinkin, A. V.

A. N. Malakhov, A. V. Polovinkin, A. I. Saichev, “Average intensity of phase conjugated mirror reflected wave in turbulent media,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 26, 579–586 (1983).

A. V. Polovinkin, A. I. Saichev, “The average field of laser reflected beam with reverse of wave front,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 24, 433–437 (1981).

Rye, B. J.

Rytov, S. M.

S. M. Rytov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. I. Tatarskii, Principles of Statistical Radiophysics, Part II: Random Fields (Nauka, Moscow, 1978).

Saichev, A. I.

A. N. Malakhov, A. V. Polovinkin, A. I. Saichev, “Average intensity of phase conjugated mirror reflected wave in turbulent media,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 26, 579–586 (1983).

Yu. A. Kravtsov, A. I. Saichev, “Double passage wave effects in randomly inhomogeneous media,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 25, 494–508 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Krupnik, A. I. Saichev “Coherent properties and focusing of beam wave reflected in turbulent Media,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 24, 1234–1239 (1981).

A. I. Saichev, “Reflection from the phase conjugated mirror and backscattering in inhomogeneous media,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 24, 1165–1167 (1981).

A. V. Polovinkin, A. I. Saichev, “The average field of laser reflected beam with reverse of wave front,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 24, 433–437 (1981).

A. I. Saichev, “Correlation of statistical characteristics of passing and reflected wave in large-scale random inhomogeneous media, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 21, 1290–1293 (1978).

D. V. Vlasov, A. I. Saichev, V. I. Talanov, “Effect of compensation incident wave distortions by the phase conjugated mirror in nonlinear and inhomogeneous media,” Preprint FIAN No. 92, Moscow, 1983 (in Russian).

Yu. A. Kravtsov, A. I. Saichev, “Effects of partial reversal of wave front under reflection of waves in randomly inhomogeneous media,” JETP 83, 532–538.

Talanov, V. I.

D. V. Vlasov, A. I. Saichev, V. I. Talanov, “Effect of compensation incident wave distortions by the phase conjugated mirror in nonlinear and inhomogeneous media,” Preprint FIAN No. 92, Moscow, 1983 (in Russian).

Tatarskii, V. I.

V. U. Zavorotnyi, V. I. Tatarskii, “Enhancement effect of backscattering of waves on a body placed in vicinity of a random boundary of two media,” Dokl. Acad. Nauk USSR 265, 608–612 (1982).

V. U. ZavorotnyiV, I. Klyatskin, V. I. Tatarskii, “Strong fluctuations of electromagnetic waves intensity in randomly inhomogeneous media,” Sov. Phys. JETP, 73, 481–497 (1977).

A. G. Vinogradov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. I. Tatarskii, “Enhanced backscattering on the bodies placed in random inhomogeneous media, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 16, 1064–1070 (1973).

S. M. Rytov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. I. Tatarskii, Principles of Statistical Radiophysics, Part II: Random Fields (Nauka, Moscow, 1978).

Vinogradov, A. G.

A. G. Vinogradov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. I. Tatarskii, “Enhanced backscattering on the bodies placed in random inhomogeneous media, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 16, 1064–1070 (1973).

Vlasov, D. V.

D. V. Vlasov, “A laser sounding of the upper layer of the ocean,” Izv. Akad. Nauk USSR Ser. Fiz. 49, 433–441 (1985).

H. G. Akhunov, F. V. Bunkin, Yu. A. Kravtsov, D. V. Vlasov, “On the efficiency of the phase conjugated wave focusing in the turbulent media,” Radiotekh. Elektron. 29, 1–4 (1984).

K. G. Akhunov, F. V. Bunkin, Yu. A. Kravtsov, D. V. Vlasov, “Efficiency of wave front reversal in media with fluctuations depending on time,” Kvantovaya Elektron. 9, 1287–1289 (1982).

D. V. Vlasov, A. I. Saichev, V. I. Talanov, “Effect of compensation incident wave distortions by the phase conjugated mirror in nonlinear and inhomogeneous media,” Preprint FIAN No. 92, Moscow, 1983 (in Russian).

Watson, K. M.

K. M. Watson, “Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves in an underdense plasma,” J. Math. Phys. 10, 688–702 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, K. C.

K. C. Yeh, “Mutual coherence functions and intensities of backscattered signals in a turbulent medium, Radio Sci. 18, 159–165 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zavorotnyi, V. U.

V. U. Zavorotnyi, V. I. Tatarskii, “Enhancement effect of backscattering of waves on a body placed in vicinity of a random boundary of two media,” Dokl. Acad. Nauk USSR 265, 608–612 (1982).

ZavorotnyiV, V. U.

V. U. ZavorotnyiV, I. Klyatskin, V. I. Tatarskii, “Strong fluctuations of electromagnetic waves intensity in randomly inhomogeneous media,” Sov. Phys. JETP, 73, 481–497 (1977).

Akust. Zh. (2)

V. I. Gel’fgat, “Compensation of phase distortions at wave front reversal in random one-mode and multi-mode acoustic waveguides,” Akust. Zh. 27, 194–201 (1981).

V. I. Gel’fgat, “Reflection in diffusive media,” Akust. Zh. 22, 123–124 (1976).

Dokl. Acad. Nauk USSR (1)

V. U. Zavorotnyi, V. I. Tatarskii, “Enhancement effect of backscattering of waves on a body placed in vicinity of a random boundary of two media,” Dokl. Acad. Nauk USSR 265, 608–612 (1982).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

D. A. De Wolf, “Electromagnetic reflection from extended turbulent medium: cumulative forward-scatter single-backscatter approximation,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-19, 254–260 (1970).

Izv. Akad. Nauk USSR Ser. Fiz. (1)

D. V. Vlasov, “A laser sounding of the upper layer of the ocean,” Izv. Akad. Nauk USSR Ser. Fiz. 49, 433–441 (1985).

Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. (10)

A. B. Krupnik, A. I. Saichev “Coherent properties and focusing of beam wave reflected in turbulent Media,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 24, 1234–1239 (1981).

M. S. Belen’kii, A. A. Makarov, V. L. Mironov, V. V. Pokasov, “The saturation of receive aperture averaging action on fluctuations of reflected wave intensity,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 21, 299–301 (1978).

A. S. Gurvich, S. S. Kashkarov, “On the enhancement of backscattering in a turbulent medium,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 20, 794–796 (1977).

S. S. Kashkarov, “Enhancement of average intensity of backscattered field in a turbulent atmosphere,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 26, 44–48 (1983).

A. G. Vinogradov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. I. Tatarskii, “Enhanced backscattering on the bodies placed in random inhomogeneous media, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 16, 1064–1070 (1973).

A. I. Saichev, “Correlation of statistical characteristics of passing and reflected wave in large-scale random inhomogeneous media, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 21, 1290–1293 (1978).

K. G. Akhunov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, “Development of the enhance backscattering effect under reflection from a phase conjugated mirror,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 26, 635–636 (1983).

A. N. Malakhov, A. V. Polovinkin, A. I. Saichev, “Average intensity of phase conjugated mirror reflected wave in turbulent media,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 26, 579–586 (1983).

A. V. Polovinkin, A. I. Saichev, “The average field of laser reflected beam with reverse of wave front,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 24, 433–437 (1981).

A. I. Saichev, “Reflection from the phase conjugated mirror and backscattering in inhomogeneous media,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 24, 1165–1167 (1981).

J. Math. Phys. (2)

R. Dashen, “Path integrals for waves in random media,” J. Math. Phys. 20, 894–920 (1979).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Watson, “Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves in an underdense plasma,” J. Math. Phys. 10, 688–702 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

JETP (1)

Yu. A. Kravtsov, A. I. Saichev, “Effects of partial reversal of wave front under reflection of waves in randomly inhomogeneous media,” JETP 83, 532–538.

Kvantovaya Elektron. (2)

K. G. Akhunov, F. V. Bunkin, Yu. A. Kravtsov, D. V. Vlasov, “Efficiency of wave front reversal in media with fluctuations depending on time,” Kvantovaya Elektron. 9, 1287–1289 (1982).

V. P. Aksenov, V. A. Banakh, V. L. Mironov, “Fluctuations of laser intensity under reflection in a turbulent atmosphere,” Kvantovaya Elektron. 3, 2266–2271 (1976).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Radio Sci. (1)

K. C. Yeh, “Mutual coherence functions and intensities of backscattered signals in a turbulent medium, Radio Sci. 18, 159–165 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Radiotekh. Elektron. (1)

H. G. Akhunov, F. V. Bunkin, Yu. A. Kravtsov, D. V. Vlasov, “On the efficiency of the phase conjugated wave focusing in the turbulent media,” Radiotekh. Elektron. 29, 1–4 (1984).

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

V. U. ZavorotnyiV, I. Klyatskin, V. I. Tatarskii, “Strong fluctuations of electromagnetic waves intensity in randomly inhomogeneous media,” Sov. Phys. JETP, 73, 481–497 (1977).

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

Yu. A. Kravtsov, A. I. Saichev, “Double passage wave effects in randomly inhomogeneous media,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 25, 494–508 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. V. Vlasov, A. I. Saichev, V. I. Talanov, “Effect of compensation incident wave distortions by the phase conjugated mirror in nonlinear and inhomogeneous media,” Preprint FIAN No. 92, Moscow, 1983 (in Russian).

S. M. Rytov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. I. Tatarskii, Principles of Statistical Radiophysics, Part II: Random Fields (Nauka, Moscow, 1978).

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978), Vol. 2.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Double passage of a coherent wave from the source to the scatterer and back to the receiver through a turbulent medium.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The scattering pattern N(θ) of a point scatterer placed in a turbulent medium. The maximum of N(θ) at θ = π corresponds to the backscattered intensity.

Equations (41)

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u ( R ) = u 0 ( ρ ) h + ( ρ , R ; t ) d 2 ρ ,
u s ( ρ ) = u ( R ) f ( R ) h ( ρ , R ; t ) d 2 R ,
h + ( ρ , R ; t ) h ( ρ , R ; t ) h ( ρ , R ) .
h ( ρ 1 , R ) h * ( ρ 2 , R ) = h 0 ( ρ 1 , R ) h 0 * ( ρ 2 , R ) × exp [ 1 / 2 D ( | ρ 1 ρ 2 | ) ] ,
h 0 ( ρ , R ) = k 2 π i x exp [ i k 2 x | ρ R | 2 + i k x ]
h ( ρ 1 , R ) h * ( ρ 2 , R ) = h 0 ( ρ 1 , R ) × h 0 * ( ρ 2 , R ) W ( R R ) d 2 R ,
W ( R ) = ( k / 2 π x ) 2 exp [ 1 / 2 D ( R ) i k ( R R ) / x ] d 2 R .
I inc ( R ) = | u ( R ) | 2 = I inc 0 ( R ) W ( R R ) d 2 R .
R W = x / k ρ c ,
γ x / k ρ c 2 1
I inc ( R ) h ( ρ 1 , R ) h * ( ρ 2 , R ) = I inc ( R ) h ( ρ 1 , R ) h * ( ρ 2 , R ) + u ( R ) h * ( ρ 2 , R ) u * ( R ) h ( ρ 1 , R )
υ s = u 0 ( ρ ) u s ( ρ ) d 2 ρ = f ( R ) u 2 ( R ) d 2 R .
s = | υ s | 2 = u 0 ( ρ 1 ) u 0 * ( ρ 2 ) u s ( ρ 1 ) u s * ( ρ 2 ) d 2 ρ 1 d 2 ρ 2 = f ( R 1 ) f * ( R 2 ) u 2 ( R 1 ) u * 2 ( R 2 ) d 2 R 1 d 2 R 2 .
f ( R 1 ) f * ( R 2 ) = F ( R 1 ) δ ( R 1 R 2 ) .
s = F ( ρ ) I inc 2 ( R ) d 2 R .
s = 2 F ( R ) I inc ( R ) 2 d 2 R .
s 0 = F ( R ) [ I inc 0 ( R ) ] 2 d 2 R .
I inc ( R ) P W ( R ) , P = I inc 0 ( R ) d 2 R ,
Γ s ( ρ 1 , ρ 2 ) = u s ( ρ 1 ) u s * ( ρ 2 ) = F ( ρ ) I inc ( R ) h ( ρ 1 , R ) h * ( ρ 2 , R ) d 2 R .
Γ s ( ρ 1 , ρ 2 ) = Γ 1 ( ρ 1 , ρ 2 ) + Γ 2 ( ρ 1 , ρ 2 ) .
Γ 1 ( ρ 1 , ρ 2 ) = ( k / 2 π x ) 2 exp [ 1 / 2 D ( | ρ 1 ρ 2 | ) + i k 2 x ( ρ 1 2 ρ 2 2 ) ] × F ( R ) I inc ( R ) × exp [ i k x R ( ρ 1 ρ 2 ] d 2 R .
Γ 2 ( ρ 1 , ρ 2 ) = F ( R ) u ( R ) h * ( ρ 2 , R ) u * ( R ) h ( ρ 1 , R ) d 2 R
Γ 2 ( ρ 1 , ρ 2 ) = u 0 * ( ρ 1 ) u 0 ( ρ 2 ) F ( R ) W ( R ρ 1 ) W ( R ρ 2 ) d 2 R
u s ( ρ ) = u 1 g ( ρ 1 , ρ ) + u 2 g ( ρ 2 , ρ ) ,
g ( ρ k , ρ ) = g ( ρ , ρ 4 ) , k = 1 , 2 , g ( ρ k , ρ ) = f ( R ) h ( ρ k , R ) h ( ρ , R ) d 2 R .
ψ 2 + ψ 12 = ψ 1 + ψ , ψ 1 + ψ 12 = ψ 2 + ψ ,
I S ( ρ ) = I s 0 { 1 + exp [ D ( ρ ) ] } ,
u s ( ρ ) = f M ( R ) h ( ρ , R ) h * ( ρ , R ) d 2 R .
I c ( ρ ) = | u s ( ρ ) | 2 = exp [ D ( ρ ) ] I s 0 ( ρ ) .
I s 0 ( ρ ) = I inc 0 ( k 2 π x ) 2 | M ( ρ x ) | 2 ,
M ( θ ) = f M ( R ) exp ( i k θ R ) d 2 R .
l M > R w , θ M < θ c ,
P c = I c ( ρ ) d 2 ρ ,
I ind ( ρ ) = I s 0 ( ρ ) w ( ρ ρ ) d 2 ρ ,
w ( ρ ) = ( k 2 π x ) 2 exp [ D ( ρ ) i k x ρ ρ ] d 2 ρ .
I s ( ρ ) = I c ( ρ ) + I ind ( ρ ) I c ( ρ ) w ( ρ ρ ) d 2 ρ .
h + ( ρ 1 , R ; t ) h * ( ρ 2 , R ; t ) = h 0 ( ρ 1 , R ) h 0 * ( ρ 2 , R ) × exp [ 1 / 2 D 1 ( | ρ 1 , ρ 2 | ) ] ,
D 1 ( ρ ) = 2 k 2 0 x D 2 [ ( 1 ξ x ) ( ρ 2 V ( ξ ) c x ) ] d ξ , D 2 ( ρ ) = A ( 0 ) A ( ρ ) ,
A ( ρ ) = ñ ( x 1 , ρ 1 ; t ) ñ ( x 1 + x , ρ 1 + ρ ; t ) d x .
I s ( ρ ) = I s 0 { 1 + exp [ D ( | ρ ν x | ) ] } .
I c ( ρ ) = exp [ D ( | ρ ν x | ) ] I s 0 ( ρ ) .

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