Abstract

A model of the microstructure of S-1 photocathodes is presented that explains the variation of the quantum yield from 300 to 1200 nm. This model, a refinement of an earlier one, is a three-layered structure, consisting of a base layer ≥30 nm thick with Cs11O3-coated (1- to 2-nm thickness) Ag microparticles in a matrix of Cs2O, a transition layer with Cs11O3-coated Ag microparticles partly immersed in the Cs2O and partly protruding into the vacuum, and an upper layer of Cs11O3-coated Ag microparticles completely in vacuum. This microstructure satisfactorily explains the additional silvering process and superficial oxidation performed on these surfaces. A theoretical calculation of the quantum yield based on a recently reformulated theory of optical absorption of inhomogeneous composite materials by us gives excellent agreement with the experimental data.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. W. Bates, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 204 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. H. Sommer, Photoemissive Materials (Wiley, New York, 1968), Chap. 10.
  3. S. J. Yang, Ph.D. dissertation (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., unpublished).
  4. S. J. Yang, C. W. Bates, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 675 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. U. von Raben, K. C. Lee, R. K. Chang, R. E. Benner, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3907 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Asao, Proc. Phys. Math. Soc. Jpn. 22, 448 (1940).
  7. S. L. McCarthy, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 135 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. N. Berglund, W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. A 136, 1030 (1964).
  9. G. Ebbinghaus, A. Simon, Max-Planck-Institut für Festkör-perforschung, 7000 Stuttgart 80, Heisenbergstrasse 1, Federal Republic of Germany [personal communications with M. G. Burt and V. Heine (1978)].
  10. A. Simon, Crystal Structure and Chemical Bonding in Inorganic Chemistry (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1975), p. 60.
  11. N. A. Soboleva, Radio Eng. Electron. 4, 204 (1959).
  12. A. Lallemand, M. Duchesne, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 1, 195 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. J. Uebbing, L. W. James, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4505 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. E. Gregory, P. Chye, H. Sunami, W. E. Spicer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3525 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Alexander, C. W. Bates, Solid-State Commun. 51, 331 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Stroud, F. P. Pan, Phys. Rev. B 17, 1602 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Q. D. Wu, Acta Phys. Sin. 28, No. 4, 553 (1979).
  20. Q. D. Wu, Acta Phys. Sin. 29, No. 5, 608 (1979).
  21. W. T. Doyle, Phys. Rev. 111, 1067 (1958).
    [CrossRef]

1984 (2)

K. U. von Raben, K. C. Lee, R. K. Chang, R. E. Benner, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3907 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. Alexander, C. W. Bates, Solid-State Commun. 51, 331 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

C. W. Bates, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 204 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

S. J. Yang, C. W. Bates, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 675 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

Q. D. Wu, Acta Phys. Sin. 28, No. 4, 553 (1979).

Q. D. Wu, Acta Phys. Sin. 29, No. 5, 608 (1979).

1978 (1)

D. Stroud, F. P. Pan, Phys. Rev. B 17, 1602 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

S. L. McCarthy, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 135 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

P. E. Gregory, P. Chye, H. Sunami, W. E. Spicer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3525 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J. J. Uebbing, L. W. James, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4505 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

C. N. Berglund, W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. A 136, 1030 (1964).

1959 (1)

N. A. Soboleva, Radio Eng. Electron. 4, 204 (1959).

1958 (1)

W. T. Doyle, Phys. Rev. 111, 1067 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

A. Lallemand, M. Duchesne, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 1, 195 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1940 (1)

S. Asao, Proc. Phys. Math. Soc. Jpn. 22, 448 (1940).

Abeles, B.

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, N.

N. Alexander, C. W. Bates, Solid-State Commun. 51, 331 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Asao, S.

S. Asao, Proc. Phys. Math. Soc. Jpn. 22, 448 (1940).

Bates, C. W.

N. Alexander, C. W. Bates, Solid-State Commun. 51, 331 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Bates, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 204 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Yang, C. W. Bates, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 675 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Benner, R. E.

K. U. von Raben, K. C. Lee, R. K. Chang, R. E. Benner, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3907 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Berglund, C. N.

C. N. Berglund, W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. A 136, 1030 (1964).

Chang, R. K.

K. U. von Raben, K. C. Lee, R. K. Chang, R. E. Benner, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3907 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chye, P.

P. E. Gregory, P. Chye, H. Sunami, W. E. Spicer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3525 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Cody, G. D.

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R. W.

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Coutts, M. D.

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, W. T.

W. T. Doyle, Phys. Rev. 111, 1067 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Duchesne, M.

A. Lallemand, M. Duchesne, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 1, 195 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Ebbinghaus, G.

G. Ebbinghaus, A. Simon, Max-Planck-Institut für Festkör-perforschung, 7000 Stuttgart 80, Heisenbergstrasse 1, Federal Republic of Germany [personal communications with M. G. Burt and V. Heine (1978)].

Gregory, P. E.

P. E. Gregory, P. Chye, H. Sunami, W. E. Spicer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3525 (1975).
[CrossRef]

James, L. W.

J. J. Uebbing, L. W. James, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4505 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lallemand, A.

A. Lallemand, M. Duchesne, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 1, 195 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. C.

K. U. von Raben, K. C. Lee, R. K. Chang, R. E. Benner, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3907 (1984).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, S. L.

S. L. McCarthy, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 135 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pan, F. P.

D. Stroud, F. P. Pan, Phys. Rev. B 17, 1602 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Simon, A.

G. Ebbinghaus, A. Simon, Max-Planck-Institut für Festkör-perforschung, 7000 Stuttgart 80, Heisenbergstrasse 1, Federal Republic of Germany [personal communications with M. G. Burt and V. Heine (1978)].

A. Simon, Crystal Structure and Chemical Bonding in Inorganic Chemistry (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1975), p. 60.

Soboleva, N. A.

N. A. Soboleva, Radio Eng. Electron. 4, 204 (1959).

Sommer, A. H.

A. H. Sommer, Photoemissive Materials (Wiley, New York, 1968), Chap. 10.

Spicer, W. E.

P. E. Gregory, P. Chye, H. Sunami, W. E. Spicer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3525 (1975).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Berglund, W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. A 136, 1030 (1964).

Stroud, D.

D. Stroud, F. P. Pan, Phys. Rev. B 17, 1602 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sunami, H.

P. E. Gregory, P. Chye, H. Sunami, W. E. Spicer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3525 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Uebbing, J. J.

J. J. Uebbing, L. W. James, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4505 (1970).
[CrossRef]

von Raben, K. U.

K. U. von Raben, K. C. Lee, R. K. Chang, R. E. Benner, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3907 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q. D.

Q. D. Wu, Acta Phys. Sin. 28, No. 4, 553 (1979).

Q. D. Wu, Acta Phys. Sin. 29, No. 5, 608 (1979).

Yang, S. J.

S. J. Yang, C. W. Bates, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 675 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Yang, Ph.D. dissertation (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., unpublished).

Acta Phys. Sin. (1)

Q. D. Wu, Acta Phys. Sin. 29, No. 5, 608 (1979).

Acta Phys. Sin. 28 (1)

Q. D. Wu, Acta Phys. Sin. 28, No. 4, 553 (1979).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. J. Yang, C. W. Bates, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 675 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

K. U. von Raben, K. C. Lee, R. K. Chang, R. E. Benner, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3907 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Uebbing, L. W. James, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4505 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Gregory, P. Chye, H. Sunami, W. E. Spicer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3525 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. L. McCarthy, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 135 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. T. Doyle, Phys. Rev. 111, 1067 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. N. Berglund, W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. A 136, 1030 (1964).

Phys. Rev. B (3)

D. Stroud, F. P. Pan, Phys. Rev. B 17, 1602 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. W. Bates, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 204 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Math. Soc. Jpn. (1)

S. Asao, Proc. Phys. Math. Soc. Jpn. 22, 448 (1940).

Radio Eng. Electron. (1)

N. A. Soboleva, Radio Eng. Electron. 4, 204 (1959).

Solid-State Commun. (1)

N. Alexander, C. W. Bates, Solid-State Commun. 51, 331 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Z. Angew. Math. Phys. (1)

A. Lallemand, M. Duchesne, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 1, 195 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. H. Sommer, Photoemissive Materials (Wiley, New York, 1968), Chap. 10.

S. J. Yang, Ph.D. dissertation (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., unpublished).

G. Ebbinghaus, A. Simon, Max-Planck-Institut für Festkör-perforschung, 7000 Stuttgart 80, Heisenbergstrasse 1, Federal Republic of Germany [personal communications with M. G. Burt and V. Heine (1978)].

A. Simon, Crystal Structure and Chemical Bonding in Inorganic Chemistry (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1975), p. 60.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Quantum efficiency versus wavelength for S-1 photocathode during various stages of processing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microstructure of S-1 photocathode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption of Ag microcrystals 5 nm in diameter in vacuum (50% volume Ag and 10 nm thick).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Energy-band diagram of S-1 photocathode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Quantum yield versus wavelength for a complete S-1 photocathode.

Equations (1)

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Y ( h υ ) = Absorbance E b E υ EdE [ E + ( E υ h υ ) E + ( E υ E c ) ] 1 / 2 × exp ( E m E k T ) .

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