Abstract

Sawtooth modulation has been used in the past to examine visual sensitivity to luminance increments and decrements. The threshold elevation caused by adaptation depends on the spatial profile of the stimulus field and the polarities of the adaptation and test stimuli. We hypothesized that the adaptation effects reflect a change in the sensitivity of the spatiotemporal channels that detect the stimuli. We used a 2-deg disk centered in a larger surround field. Five levels of contrast between the test field and surround were investigated: equiluminant, three intermediate levels, and dark. At each contrast, observers adapted for 5 s to 2-Hz sawtooth modulation (rapid-on or rapid-off). Immediately after adaptation, thresholds were measured for detection of a single cycle of either a rapid-on or a rapid-off waveform. Varying the contrast of the surround affected observers’ sensitivity to the polarity of the sawtooth stimulus to the extent that the pattern of sensitivity with the equiluminant surround was the opposite of that with the dark surround. To examine temporal factors, we measured thresholds for slow (500-ms ramps) and fast (8.3-ms pulses) test stimuli. The adaptation effect was preserved with the ramp stimuli but not with the pulse stimuli. Blurring the edge between the test and surround fields in the equiluminant surround condition raised thresholds for all sawtooth test stimuli, suggesting that spatiotemporal channels sensitive to high spatial frequencies and low temporal frequencies facilitate detection in that condition. These findings suggest that adaptation to sawtooth modulation can differentially effect the sensitivity of ON and OFF pathways, but the relative desensitization of each pathway depends on an interaction with the adaptation state of spatiotemporal channels that are involved in detection.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (5)

T. J. Purkiss, A. Hughes, P. J. DeMarco, “Processing of scotopic increments and decrements,” Visual Neurosci. 18, 119–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Anderson, A. J. Vingrys, “Multiple processes mediate flicker sensitivity,” Vision Res. 41, 2449–2455 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Purkiss, A. Hughes, P. J. DeMarco, “Processing of scotopic increments and decrements,” Visual Neurosci. 18, 119–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Alexander, C. S. Barnes, G. A. Fishman, “High-frequency attenuation of the cone ERG and ON-response deficits in X-linked retinoschisis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 2094–2101 (2001).

K. R. Alexander, G. A. Fishman, C. S. Barnes, S. Grover, “On-response deficit in the electroretinogram of the cone system in X-linked retinoschisis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 453–459 (2001).

2000 (2)

A. J. Anderson, A. J. Vingrys, “Interactions between flicker thresholds and luminance pedestals,” Vision Res. 40, 2579–2588 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Eisner, J. R. Samples, “Flicker sensitivity and cardiovascular function in healthy middle-aged people,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 118, 1049–1055 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (4)

B. Spehar, Q. Zaidi, “Surround effects on the shape of the temporal contrast-sensitivity function,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2517–2525 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Roveri, P. J. DeMarco, G. C. Celesia, “An electrophysiological metric of activity within the ON- and OFF-pathways in humans,” Vision Res. 37, 669–674 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Shinomori, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, “Off responses from s-cones: temporal signals vary with post-receptoral mechanisms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, 4163 (1997).

L. Roveri, P. J. Demarco, G. G. Celesia, “An electrophysiological metric of activity within the ON- and OFF-pathways in humans,” Vision Res. 37, 669–674 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (3)

P. J. DeMarco, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Effect of sawtooth polarity on chromatic and luminance detection,” Visual Neurosci. 11, 491–499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Eisner, “Nonmonotonic effects of test illuminance on flicker detection: a study of foveal light adaptation with annular surrounds,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 33–47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. J. DeMarco, V. S. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Effect of sawtooth polarity on chromatic and luminance detection,” Visual Neurosci. 11, 491–499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vision Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Arnold, S. Anstis, “Properties of the visual channels that underlie adaptation to gradual change of luminance,” Vision Res. 33, 47–54 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

P. Whittle, “Brightness, discriminability and the ‘crispening effect’,” Vision Res. 32, 1493–1507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. A. Fowler, “Sawtooth contrast sensitivity: effects of mean illumi-nance and low temporal frequencies,” Vision Res. 32, 1239–1247 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Sawtooth contrast sensitivity: decrements have the edge,” Vision Res. 29, 1501–1509 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

1982 (1)

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

P. Lennie, “Parallel visual pathways: a review,” Vision Res. 20, 561–594 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Krauskopf, “Discrimination and detection of changes in luminance,” Vision Res. 20, 671–677 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

M. Hanly, D. M. MacKay, “Polarity-sensitive perceptual adaptation to temporal sawtooth modulation of luminance,” Exp. Brain Res. 35, 37–46 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

P. E. King-Smith, J. J. Kulikowski, “Pattern and flicker detection analysed by subthreshold summation,” J. Physiol. (London) 249, 519–548 (1975).

1973 (2)

J. J. Kulikowski, D. J. Tolhurst, “Psychophysical evidence for sustained and transient detectors in human vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 232, 149–162 (1973).

D. J. Tolhurst, “Separate channels for the analysis of the shape and the movement of moving visual stimulus,” J. Physiol. (London) 231, 385–402 (1973).

1972 (1)

J. A. J. Roufs, “Dynamic properties of vision—I. Experimental relationships between flicker and flash thresholds,” Vision Res. 12, 261–278 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

1969 (1)

1967 (1)

S. M. Anstis, “Visual adaptation to gradual change of intensity,” Science 155, 710–712 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1954 (1)

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of illumination,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Aguilar, M.

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of illumination,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, K. R.

K. R. Alexander, C. S. Barnes, G. A. Fishman, “High-frequency attenuation of the cone ERG and ON-response deficits in X-linked retinoschisis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 2094–2101 (2001).

K. R. Alexander, G. A. Fishman, C. S. Barnes, S. Grover, “On-response deficit in the electroretinogram of the cone system in X-linked retinoschisis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 453–459 (2001).

Anderson, A. J.

A. J. Anderson, A. J. Vingrys, “Multiple processes mediate flicker sensitivity,” Vision Res. 41, 2449–2455 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Anderson, A. J. Vingrys, “Interactions between flicker thresholds and luminance pedestals,” Vision Res. 40, 2579–2588 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anstis, S.

K. Arnold, S. Anstis, “Properties of the visual channels that underlie adaptation to gradual change of luminance,” Vision Res. 33, 47–54 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anstis, S. M.

S. M. Anstis, “Visual adaptation to gradual change of intensity,” Science 155, 710–712 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, K.

K. Arnold, S. Anstis, “Properties of the visual channels that underlie adaptation to gradual change of luminance,” Vision Res. 33, 47–54 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, C. S.

K. R. Alexander, G. A. Fishman, C. S. Barnes, S. Grover, “On-response deficit in the electroretinogram of the cone system in X-linked retinoschisis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 453–459 (2001).

K. R. Alexander, C. S. Barnes, G. A. Fishman, “High-frequency attenuation of the cone ERG and ON-response deficits in X-linked retinoschisis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 2094–2101 (2001).

Bowen, R. W.

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. A. Fowler, “Sawtooth contrast sensitivity: effects of mean illumi-nance and low temporal frequencies,” Vision Res. 32, 1239–1247 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Sawtooth contrast sensitivity: decrements have the edge,” Vision Res. 29, 1501–1509 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Celesia, G. C.

L. Roveri, P. J. DeMarco, G. C. Celesia, “An electrophysiological metric of activity within the ON- and OFF-pathways in humans,” Vision Res. 37, 669–674 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Celesia, G. G.

L. Roveri, P. J. Demarco, G. G. Celesia, “An electrophysiological metric of activity within the ON- and OFF-pathways in humans,” Vision Res. 37, 669–674 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeMarco, P. J.

T. J. Purkiss, A. Hughes, P. J. DeMarco, “Processing of scotopic increments and decrements,” Visual Neurosci. 18, 119–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Purkiss, A. Hughes, P. J. DeMarco, “Processing of scotopic increments and decrements,” Visual Neurosci. 18, 119–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Roveri, P. J. Demarco, G. G. Celesia, “An electrophysiological metric of activity within the ON- and OFF-pathways in humans,” Vision Res. 37, 669–674 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Roveri, P. J. DeMarco, G. C. Celesia, “An electrophysiological metric of activity within the ON- and OFF-pathways in humans,” Vision Res. 37, 669–674 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. DeMarco, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Effect of sawtooth polarity on chromatic and luminance detection,” Visual Neurosci. 11, 491–499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. J. DeMarco, V. S. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Effect of sawtooth polarity on chromatic and luminance detection,” Visual Neurosci. 11, 491–499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eisner, A.

Fishman, G. A.

K. R. Alexander, C. S. Barnes, G. A. Fishman, “High-frequency attenuation of the cone ERG and ON-response deficits in X-linked retinoschisis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 2094–2101 (2001).

K. R. Alexander, G. A. Fishman, C. S. Barnes, S. Grover, “On-response deficit in the electroretinogram of the cone system in X-linked retinoschisis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 453–459 (2001).

Fowler, M. A.

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. A. Fowler, “Sawtooth contrast sensitivity: effects of mean illumi-nance and low temporal frequencies,” Vision Res. 32, 1239–1247 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grover, S.

K. R. Alexander, G. A. Fishman, C. S. Barnes, S. Grover, “On-response deficit in the electroretinogram of the cone system in X-linked retinoschisis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 453–459 (2001).

Hanly, M.

M. Hanly, D. M. MacKay, “Polarity-sensitive perceptual adaptation to temporal sawtooth modulation of luminance,” Exp. Brain Res. 35, 37–46 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heeley, D. W.

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, A.

T. J. Purkiss, A. Hughes, P. J. DeMarco, “Processing of scotopic increments and decrements,” Visual Neurosci. 18, 119–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Purkiss, A. Hughes, P. J. DeMarco, “Processing of scotopic increments and decrements,” Visual Neurosci. 18, 119–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, E.

E. Kaplan, B. B. Lee, R. M. Shapley, “New views of primate retinal function,” in Progress in Retinal Research, N. Osborne, J. Chader, eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1990), pp. 273–336.

Keesey, U. T.

Kelly, D. H.

King-Smith, P. E.

P. E. King-Smith, J. J. Kulikowski, “Pattern and flicker detection analysed by subthreshold summation,” J. Physiol. (London) 249, 519–548 (1975).

Krauskopf, J.

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Krauskopf, “Discrimination and detection of changes in luminance,” Vision Res. 20, 671–677 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauskopf, J. K.

Kremers, J.

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vision Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulikowski, J. J.

P. E. King-Smith, J. J. Kulikowski, “Pattern and flicker detection analysed by subthreshold summation,” J. Physiol. (London) 249, 519–548 (1975).

J. J. Kulikowski, D. J. Tolhurst, “Psychophysical evidence for sustained and transient detectors in human vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 232, 149–162 (1973).

Lee, B. B.

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vision Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kaplan, B. B. Lee, R. M. Shapley, “New views of primate retinal function,” in Progress in Retinal Research, N. Osborne, J. Chader, eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1990), pp. 273–336.

Lennie, P.

P. Lennie, “Parallel visual pathways: a review,” Vision Res. 20, 561–594 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacKay, D. M.

M. Hanly, D. M. MacKay, “Polarity-sensitive perceptual adaptation to temporal sawtooth modulation of luminance,” Exp. Brain Res. 35, 37–46 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandler, M. B.

Middleton, J. A.

Pokorny, J.

P. J. DeMarco, V. S. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Effect of sawtooth polarity on chromatic and luminance detection,” Visual Neurosci. 11, 491–499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. J. DeMarco, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Effect of sawtooth polarity on chromatic and luminance detection,” Visual Neurosci. 11, 491–499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vision Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. A. Fowler, “Sawtooth contrast sensitivity: effects of mean illumi-nance and low temporal frequencies,” Vision Res. 32, 1239–1247 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Sawtooth contrast sensitivity: decrements have the edge,” Vision Res. 29, 1501–1509 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Purkiss, T. J.

T. J. Purkiss, A. Hughes, P. J. DeMarco, “Processing of scotopic increments and decrements,” Visual Neurosci. 18, 119–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Purkiss, A. Hughes, P. J. DeMarco, “Processing of scotopic increments and decrements,” Visual Neurosci. 18, 119–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roufs, J. A. J.

J. A. J. Roufs, “Dynamic properties of vision—I. Experimental relationships between flicker and flash thresholds,” Vision Res. 12, 261–278 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roveri, L.

L. Roveri, P. J. Demarco, G. G. Celesia, “An electrophysiological metric of activity within the ON- and OFF-pathways in humans,” Vision Res. 37, 669–674 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Roveri, P. J. DeMarco, G. C. Celesia, “An electrophysiological metric of activity within the ON- and OFF-pathways in humans,” Vision Res. 37, 669–674 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samples, J. R.

A. Eisner, J. R. Samples, “Flicker sensitivity and cardiovascular function in healthy middle-aged people,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 118, 1049–1055 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapiro, A. G.

Shapley, R. M.

E. Kaplan, B. B. Lee, R. M. Shapley, “New views of primate retinal function,” in Progress in Retinal Research, N. Osborne, J. Chader, eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1990), pp. 273–336.

Shinomori, K.

K. Shinomori, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, “Off responses from s-cones: temporal signals vary with post-receptoral mechanisms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, 4163 (1997).

Smith, V. C.

P. J. DeMarco, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Effect of sawtooth polarity on chromatic and luminance detection,” Visual Neurosci. 11, 491–499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vision Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. A. Fowler, “Sawtooth contrast sensitivity: effects of mean illumi-nance and low temporal frequencies,” Vision Res. 32, 1239–1247 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Sawtooth contrast sensitivity: decrements have the edge,” Vision Res. 29, 1501–1509 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, V. S.

P. J. DeMarco, V. S. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Effect of sawtooth polarity on chromatic and luminance detection,” Visual Neurosci. 11, 491–499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Spehar, B.

Spillmann, L.

K. Shinomori, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, “Off responses from s-cones: temporal signals vary with post-receptoral mechanisms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, 4163 (1997).

Stiles, W. S.

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of illumination,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Tolhurst, D. J.

D. J. Tolhurst, “Separate channels for the analysis of the shape and the movement of moving visual stimulus,” J. Physiol. (London) 231, 385–402 (1973).

J. J. Kulikowski, D. J. Tolhurst, “Psychophysical evidence for sustained and transient detectors in human vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 232, 149–162 (1973).

Vingrys, A. J.

A. J. Anderson, A. J. Vingrys, “Multiple processes mediate flicker sensitivity,” Vision Res. 41, 2449–2455 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Anderson, A. J. Vingrys, “Interactions between flicker thresholds and luminance pedestals,” Vision Res. 40, 2579–2588 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

K. Shinomori, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, “Off responses from s-cones: temporal signals vary with post-receptoral mechanisms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, 4163 (1997).

Whittle, P.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Temporal sequence of stimulus presentation for measuring thresholds after adaptation to a luminance-modulated sawtooth waveform. The adaptation interval consisted of 5 s of 2-Hz rapid-on or rapid-off sawtooth followed by a 500-ms delay and then presentation of a test stimulus. (b) Schematic of sequence for measuring baseline threshold for the sawtooth stimuli, in the absence of the adapting stimulus. (c) Waveform used for the ramp test stimulus. (d) Waveform used for the pulse test stimulus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mean thresholds (±1 s.e.m.) for sawtooth test stimuli as a function of surround contrast. Data from four observers, plus the average of their data, are shown. Column (a) thresholds for rapid-on test stimuli, column (b) rapid-off stimuli. Baseline thresholds are also plotted for the test stimulus of each polarity test. The sawtooth adapting stimulus raises thresholds for all surround contrasts. The effect of varying surround contrast induces a reversal in observers’ thresholds to rapid-on and rapid-off test stimuli at the two extreme surround contrasts (-100 and 0).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean baseline thresholds (±1 s.e.m.) for (a) ramp and (b) pulse test stimuli as a function of surround contrast. Data are the average of four observers. As the surround contrast is reduced, thresholds for the ramp stimuli decrease while thresholds for the pulse stimuli do not change.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean thresholds (±1 s.e.m.) for increment ramp [“ramp-on,” (a)] and decrement ramp [“ramp-off,” (b)] test stimuli for the two extreme surround contrasts, measured after exposure to the sawtooth adapting stimulus. Baseline data from Fig. 3(a) are also plotted for comparison. Data are the average of four observers. Thresholds are elevated most in the dark surround condition (-100) and when the ramp polarity is the opposite of the polarity of the sawtooth adapting stimulus.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mean thresholds (±1 s.e.m.) for increment pulse [“pulse-on,” (a)] and decrement pulse [“pulse-off, (b)] test stimuli for the two extreme surround contrasts, measured after exposure to the sawtooth adapting stimulus. Baseline data from Fig. 3(b) are also plotted for comparison. Data are the average of four observers. Thresholds for the pulse stimuli are slightly elevated compared to baseline thresholds but do not show the reversal as found for sawtooth test stimuli.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effects of blurring the edge of the test field during the stimulus test interval in the equiluminant surround condition. The spatial profile of the test area is shown in the small inset figure above. (a) Mean thresholds (±1 s.e.m.) for the rapid-on test stimulus. (b) Mean thresholds for the rapid-off test stimulus. Thresholds are increased by blurring the edge of the test field, but the pattern of sensitivity with respect to test polarity is the same as with the sharp-edge field.

Equations (3)

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C W = Δ I / I ,
C M = ( L MAX - L MIN ) / ( L MAX + L MIN ) .
Test Value = Initial Value ( Number of Steps × 0.10 ) ,

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