Abstract

To investigate the effect of rod activity on color perception with light adaptation, chromaticity shifts of monochromatic test lights were measured as a function of background field intensity at 17 deg in the nasal field of view. The measurements were performed both after complete dark adaptation and during the cone-plateau period at a mesopic test intensity level of 15 photopic trolands. To clarify the mechanisms underlying the chromaticity shifts obtained, six supplementary experiments were performed. The results of the experiments strongly suggest that at scotopic background intensities, light adaptation of rods, both within and adjacent to the test area, may reduce rod signals triggered by the test light and thereby produce marked chromaticity shifts with light adaptation. At mesopic background intensities, cones in the background field become activated and may influence the chromaticity shift with light adaptation both by suppressing signals from rods elicited by the test light and by producing a selective chromatic adaptation.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. W. G. Hunt, “The perception of color in 1° fields for different states of adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 479–484 (1953).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Kimpton, London, 1946).
  5. J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. D. Moreland, “Peripheral colour vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/4 of Visual Psychophysics, J. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer, Berlin, 1972), pp. 517–536.
  7. U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Dark adaptation of foveal cones during the cone-plateau period,” Scand. J. Psychol. 31, 212–219 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).
  11. M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  13. U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Extrafoveal spectral sensitivity during dark adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 81–86 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Spectral sensitivity in the far peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 959–963 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. S. Peachey, K. R. Alexander, D. J. Derlacki, “Spatial properties of rod-cone interactions in flicker and hue detection,” Vision Res. 30, 1205–1210 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. F. Naarendorp, N. Denny, T. E. Frumkes, “Rod light and dark adaptation influence cone-mediated spatial acuity,” Vision Res. 28, 67–74 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Eysteinsson, T. E. Frumkes, “Physiological and phar-macologic analysis of suppressive rod-cone in Necturus retina,” J. Neurophysiol. 61, 866–877 (1989).
    [PubMed]
  19. T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans: I. Results in normal observers,” Visual Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Spillmann, J. E. Conlon, “Photochromatic interval during dark adaptation and as a function of background luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 182–185 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision. Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. W. Makous, R. Booth, “Cones block signals from rods,” Vision Res. 14, 285–294 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. W. Makous, D. Peeples, “Rod-cone interaction: Reconciliation with Flamant and Stiles,” Vision Res. 19, 695–698 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. L. Buck, W. Makous, “Rod-cone interaction on large and small backgrounds,” Vision Res. 21, 1181–1187 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. B. Stabell, K. Nordby, U. Stabell, “Light-adaptation of the human rod system,” Clin. Vision Sci. 2, 83–91 (1987).
  26. B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Chromatic rod-cone interaction during dark adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2809–2815 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision. Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans: I. Results in normal observers,” Visual Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Dark adaptation of foveal cones during the cone-plateau period,” Scand. J. Psychol. 31, 212–219 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. Peachey, K. R. Alexander, D. J. Derlacki, “Spatial properties of rod-cone interactions in flicker and hue detection,” Vision Res. 30, 1205–1210 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

T. Eysteinsson, T. E. Frumkes, “Physiological and phar-macologic analysis of suppressive rod-cone in Necturus retina,” J. Neurophysiol. 61, 866–877 (1989).
[PubMed]

1988 (1)

F. Naarendorp, N. Denny, T. E. Frumkes, “Rod light and dark adaptation influence cone-mediated spatial acuity,” Vision Res. 28, 67–74 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

B. Stabell, K. Nordby, U. Stabell, “Light-adaptation of the human rod system,” Clin. Vision Sci. 2, 83–91 (1987).

1984 (1)

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

S. L. Buck, W. Makous, “Rod-cone interaction on large and small backgrounds,” Vision Res. 21, 1181–1187 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

1979 (1)

W. Makous, D. Peeples, “Rod-cone interaction: Reconciliation with Flamant and Stiles,” Vision Res. 19, 695–698 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

W. Makous, R. Booth, “Cones block signals from rods,” Vision Res. 14, 285–294 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (2)

W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Spillmann, J. E. Conlon, “Photochromatic interval during dark adaptation and as a function of background luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 182–185 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1959 (1)

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

1952 (1)

1950 (1)

Aguilar, M.

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, K. R.

N. S. Peachey, K. R. Alexander, D. J. Derlacki, “Spatial properties of rod-cone interactions in flicker and hue detection,” Vision Res. 30, 1205–1210 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beczkowska, I.

T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans: I. Results in normal observers,” Visual Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Booth, R.

W. Makous, R. Booth, “Cones block signals from rods,” Vision Res. 14, 285–294 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buck, S. L.

S. L. Buck, W. Makous, “Rod-cone interaction on large and small backgrounds,” Vision Res. 21, 1181–1187 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conlon, J. E.

Cruz, A.

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Denny, N.

T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans: I. Results in normal observers,” Visual Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Naarendorp, N. Denny, T. E. Frumkes, “Rod light and dark adaptation influence cone-mediated spatial acuity,” Vision Res. 28, 67–74 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derlacki, D. J.

N. S. Peachey, K. R. Alexander, D. J. Derlacki, “Spatial properties of rod-cone interactions in flicker and hue detection,” Vision Res. 30, 1205–1210 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eysteinsson, T.

T. Eysteinsson, T. E. Frumkes, “Physiological and phar-macologic analysis of suppressive rod-cone in Necturus retina,” J. Neurophysiol. 61, 866–877 (1989).
[PubMed]

Frumkes, T. E.

T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans: I. Results in normal observers,” Visual Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Eysteinsson, T. E. Frumkes, “Physiological and phar-macologic analysis of suppressive rod-cone in Necturus retina,” J. Neurophysiol. 61, 866–877 (1989).
[PubMed]

F. Naarendorp, N. Denny, T. E. Frumkes, “Rod light and dark adaptation influence cone-mediated spatial acuity,” Vision Res. 28, 67–74 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunt, R. W. G.

Lange, G.

T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans: I. Results in normal observers,” Visual Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Makous, W.

S. L. Buck, W. Makous, “Rod-cone interaction on large and small backgrounds,” Vision Res. 21, 1181–1187 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Makous, D. Peeples, “Rod-cone interaction: Reconciliation with Flamant and Stiles,” Vision Res. 19, 695–698 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Makous, R. Booth, “Cones block signals from rods,” Vision Res. 14, 285–294 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Moreland, “Peripheral colour vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/4 of Visual Psychophysics, J. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer, Berlin, 1972), pp. 517–536.

Naarendorp, F.

F. Naarendorp, N. Denny, T. E. Frumkes, “Rod light and dark adaptation influence cone-mediated spatial acuity,” Vision Res. 28, 67–74 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordby, K.

B. Stabell, K. Nordby, U. Stabell, “Light-adaptation of the human rod system,” Clin. Vision Sci. 2, 83–91 (1987).

Peachey, N. S.

N. S. Peachey, K. R. Alexander, D. J. Derlacki, “Spatial properties of rod-cone interactions in flicker and hue detection,” Vision Res. 30, 1205–1210 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peeples, D.

W. Makous, D. Peeples, “Rod-cone interaction: Reconciliation with Flamant and Stiles,” Vision Res. 19, 695–698 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Powell, D. S.

W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spillmann, L.

Stabell, B.

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Chromatic rod-cone interaction during dark adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2809–2815 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision. Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Dark adaptation of foveal cones during the cone-plateau period,” Scand. J. Psychol. 31, 212–219 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, K. Nordby, U. Stabell, “Light-adaptation of the human rod system,” Clin. Vision Sci. 2, 83–91 (1987).

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Extrafoveal spectral sensitivity during dark adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 81–86 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Spectral sensitivity in the far peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 959–963 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Stabell, U.

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Chromatic rod-cone interaction during dark adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2809–2815 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision. Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Dark adaptation of foveal cones during the cone-plateau period,” Scand. J. Psychol. 31, 212–219 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, K. Nordby, U. Stabell, “Light-adaptation of the human rod system,” Clin. Vision Sci. 2, 83–91 (1987).

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Spectral sensitivity in the far peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 959–963 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Extrafoveal spectral sensitivity during dark adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 81–86 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W. S.

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[CrossRef]

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Kimpton, London, 1946).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Clin. Vision Sci. (1)

B. Stabell, K. Nordby, U. Stabell, “Light-adaptation of the human rod system,” Clin. Vision Sci. 2, 83–91 (1987).

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

T. Eysteinsson, T. E. Frumkes, “Physiological and phar-macologic analysis of suppressive rod-cone in Necturus retina,” J. Neurophysiol. 61, 866–877 (1989).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Acta (2)

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Scand. J. Psychol. (1)

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Dark adaptation of foveal cones during the cone-plateau period,” Scand. J. Psychol. 31, 212–219 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (10)

W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision. Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Makous, R. Booth, “Cones block signals from rods,” Vision Res. 14, 285–294 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Makous, D. Peeples, “Rod-cone interaction: Reconciliation with Flamant and Stiles,” Vision Res. 19, 695–698 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Buck, W. Makous, “Rod-cone interaction on large and small backgrounds,” Vision Res. 21, 1181–1187 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. Peachey, K. R. Alexander, D. J. Derlacki, “Spatial properties of rod-cone interactions in flicker and hue detection,” Vision Res. 30, 1205–1210 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Naarendorp, N. Denny, T. E. Frumkes, “Rod light and dark adaptation influence cone-mediated spatial acuity,” Vision Res. 28, 67–74 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visual Neurosci. (1)

T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans: I. Results in normal observers,” Visual Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Kimpton, London, 1946).

J. D. Moreland, “Peripheral colour vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/4 of Visual Psychophysics, J. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer, Berlin, 1972), pp. 517–536.

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