Abstract

To investigate the effect of rod activity on color perception with light adaptation, chromaticity shifts of monochromatic test lights were measured as a function of background field intensity at 17 deg in the nasal field of view. The measurements were performed both after complete dark adaptation and during the cone-plateau period at a mesopic test intensity level of 15 photopic trolands. To clarify the mechanisms underlying the chromaticity shifts obtained, six supplementary experiments were performed. The results of the experiments strongly suggest that at scotopic background intensities, light adaptation of rods, both within and adjacent to the test area, may reduce rod signals triggered by the test light and thereby produce marked chromaticity shifts with light adaptation. At mesopic background intensities, cones in the background field become activated and may influence the chromaticity shift with light adaptation both by suppressing signals from rods elicited by the test light and by producing a selective chromatic adaptation.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. W. G. Hunt, “The effects of daylight and tungsten light-adaptation on color perception,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 362–371 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. W. G. Hunt, “Light and dark adaptation and the perception of color,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 190–199 (1952).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. W. G. Hunt, “The perception of color in 1° fields for different states of adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 479–484 (1953).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Kimpton, London, 1946).
  5. J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. D. Moreland, “Peripheral colour vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/4 of Visual Psychophysics, J. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer, Berlin, 1972), pp. 517–536.
  7. U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Dark adaptation of foveal cones during the cone-plateau period,” Scand. J. Psychol. 31, 212–219 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).
  11. M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  12. B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  13. U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Extrafoveal spectral sensitivity during dark adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 81–86 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Spectral sensitivity in the far peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 959–963 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. N. S. Peachey, K. R. Alexander, D. J. Derlacki, “Spatial properties of rod-cone interactions in flicker and hue detection,” Vision Res. 30, 1205–1210 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. F. Naarendorp, N. Denny, T. E. Frumkes, “Rod light and dark adaptation influence cone-mediated spatial acuity,” Vision Res. 28, 67–74 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. T. Eysteinsson, T. E. Frumkes, “Physiological and phar-macologic analysis of suppressive rod-cone in Necturus retina,” J. Neurophysiol. 61, 866–877 (1989).
    [PubMed]
  19. T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans: I. Results in normal observers,” Visual Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  20. L. Spillmann, J. E. Conlon, “Photochromatic interval during dark adaptation and as a function of background luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 182–185 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision. Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. W. Makous, R. Booth, “Cones block signals from rods,” Vision Res. 14, 285–294 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. W. Makous, D. Peeples, “Rod-cone interaction: Reconciliation with Flamant and Stiles,” Vision Res. 19, 695–698 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. S. L. Buck, W. Makous, “Rod-cone interaction on large and small backgrounds,” Vision Res. 21, 1181–1187 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. B. Stabell, K. Nordby, U. Stabell, “Light-adaptation of the human rod system,” Clin. Vision Sci. 2, 83–91 (1987).
  26. B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Chromatic rod-cone interaction during dark adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2809–2815 (1998).
    [Crossref]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision. Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans: I. Results in normal observers,” Visual Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

N. S. Peachey, K. R. Alexander, D. J. Derlacki, “Spatial properties of rod-cone interactions in flicker and hue detection,” Vision Res. 30, 1205–1210 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Dark adaptation of foveal cones during the cone-plateau period,” Scand. J. Psychol. 31, 212–219 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

T. Eysteinsson, T. E. Frumkes, “Physiological and phar-macologic analysis of suppressive rod-cone in Necturus retina,” J. Neurophysiol. 61, 866–877 (1989).
[PubMed]

1988 (1)

F. Naarendorp, N. Denny, T. E. Frumkes, “Rod light and dark adaptation influence cone-mediated spatial acuity,” Vision Res. 28, 67–74 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

B. Stabell, K. Nordby, U. Stabell, “Light-adaptation of the human rod system,” Clin. Vision Sci. 2, 83–91 (1987).

1984 (1)

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

S. L. Buck, W. Makous, “Rod-cone interaction on large and small backgrounds,” Vision Res. 21, 1181–1187 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

1979 (1)

W. Makous, D. Peeples, “Rod-cone interaction: Reconciliation with Flamant and Stiles,” Vision Res. 19, 695–698 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

W. Makous, R. Booth, “Cones block signals from rods,” Vision Res. 14, 285–294 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (2)

W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Spillmann, J. E. Conlon, “Photochromatic interval during dark adaptation and as a function of background luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 182–185 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1959 (1)

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

1952 (1)

1950 (1)

Aguilar, M.

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[Crossref]

Alexander, K. R.

N. S. Peachey, K. R. Alexander, D. J. Derlacki, “Spatial properties of rod-cone interactions in flicker and hue detection,” Vision Res. 30, 1205–1210 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beczkowska, I.

T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans: I. Results in normal observers,” Visual Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
[Crossref]

Booth, R.

W. Makous, R. Booth, “Cones block signals from rods,” Vision Res. 14, 285–294 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buck, S. L.

S. L. Buck, W. Makous, “Rod-cone interaction on large and small backgrounds,” Vision Res. 21, 1181–1187 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conlon, J. E.

Cruz, A.

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[Crossref]

Denny, N.

T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans: I. Results in normal observers,” Visual Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
[Crossref]

F. Naarendorp, N. Denny, T. E. Frumkes, “Rod light and dark adaptation influence cone-mediated spatial acuity,” Vision Res. 28, 67–74 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Derlacki, D. J.

N. S. Peachey, K. R. Alexander, D. J. Derlacki, “Spatial properties of rod-cone interactions in flicker and hue detection,” Vision Res. 30, 1205–1210 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eysteinsson, T.

T. Eysteinsson, T. E. Frumkes, “Physiological and phar-macologic analysis of suppressive rod-cone in Necturus retina,” J. Neurophysiol. 61, 866–877 (1989).
[PubMed]

Frumkes, T. E.

T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans: I. Results in normal observers,” Visual Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
[Crossref]

T. Eysteinsson, T. E. Frumkes, “Physiological and phar-macologic analysis of suppressive rod-cone in Necturus retina,” J. Neurophysiol. 61, 866–877 (1989).
[PubMed]

F. Naarendorp, N. Denny, T. E. Frumkes, “Rod light and dark adaptation influence cone-mediated spatial acuity,” Vision Res. 28, 67–74 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hunt, R. W. G.

Lange, G.

T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans: I. Results in normal observers,” Visual Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
[Crossref]

Makous, W.

S. L. Buck, W. Makous, “Rod-cone interaction on large and small backgrounds,” Vision Res. 21, 1181–1187 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Makous, D. Peeples, “Rod-cone interaction: Reconciliation with Flamant and Stiles,” Vision Res. 19, 695–698 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Makous, R. Booth, “Cones block signals from rods,” Vision Res. 14, 285–294 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[Crossref]

J. D. Moreland, “Peripheral colour vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/4 of Visual Psychophysics, J. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer, Berlin, 1972), pp. 517–536.

Naarendorp, F.

F. Naarendorp, N. Denny, T. E. Frumkes, “Rod light and dark adaptation influence cone-mediated spatial acuity,” Vision Res. 28, 67–74 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nordby, K.

B. Stabell, K. Nordby, U. Stabell, “Light-adaptation of the human rod system,” Clin. Vision Sci. 2, 83–91 (1987).

Peachey, N. S.

N. S. Peachey, K. R. Alexander, D. J. Derlacki, “Spatial properties of rod-cone interactions in flicker and hue detection,” Vision Res. 30, 1205–1210 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peeples, D.

W. Makous, D. Peeples, “Rod-cone interaction: Reconciliation with Flamant and Stiles,” Vision Res. 19, 695–698 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Powell, D. S.

W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spillmann, L.

Stabell, B.

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Chromatic rod-cone interaction during dark adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2809–2815 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision. Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Dark adaptation of foveal cones during the cone-plateau period,” Scand. J. Psychol. 31, 212–219 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, K. Nordby, U. Stabell, “Light-adaptation of the human rod system,” Clin. Vision Sci. 2, 83–91 (1987).

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Extrafoveal spectral sensitivity during dark adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 81–86 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Spectral sensitivity in the far peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 959–963 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[Crossref]

Stabell, U.

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Chromatic rod-cone interaction during dark adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2809–2815 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision. Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Dark adaptation of foveal cones during the cone-plateau period,” Scand. J. Psychol. 31, 212–219 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, K. Nordby, U. Stabell, “Light-adaptation of the human rod system,” Clin. Vision Sci. 2, 83–91 (1987).

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Spectral sensitivity in the far peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 959–963 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Extrafoveal spectral sensitivity during dark adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 81–86 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[Crossref]

Stiles, W. S.

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[Crossref]

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Kimpton, London, 1946).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Clin. Vision Sci. (1)

B. Stabell, K. Nordby, U. Stabell, “Light-adaptation of the human rod system,” Clin. Vision Sci. 2, 83–91 (1987).

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

T. Eysteinsson, T. E. Frumkes, “Physiological and phar-macologic analysis of suppressive rod-cone in Necturus retina,” J. Neurophysiol. 61, 866–877 (1989).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Acta (2)

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[Crossref]

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[Crossref]

Scand. J. Psychol. (1)

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Dark adaptation of foveal cones during the cone-plateau period,” Scand. J. Psychol. 31, 212–219 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (10)

W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[Crossref]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. S. Peachey, K. R. Alexander, D. J. Derlacki, “Spatial properties of rod-cone interactions in flicker and hue detection,” Vision Res. 30, 1205–1210 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Naarendorp, N. Denny, T. E. Frumkes, “Rod light and dark adaptation influence cone-mediated spatial acuity,” Vision Res. 28, 67–74 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision. Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Makous, R. Booth, “Cones block signals from rods,” Vision Res. 14, 285–294 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Makous, D. Peeples, “Rod-cone interaction: Reconciliation with Flamant and Stiles,” Vision Res. 19, 695–698 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Buck, W. Makous, “Rod-cone interaction on large and small backgrounds,” Vision Res. 21, 1181–1187 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Visual Neurosci. (1)

T. E. Frumkes, G. Lange, N. Denny, I. Beczkowska, “Influence of rod adaptation upon cone responses to light offset in humans: I. Results in normal observers,” Visual Neurosci. 8, 83–89 (1992).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).

J. D. Moreland, “Peripheral colour vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/4 of Visual Psychophysics, J. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer, Berlin, 1972), pp. 517–536.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Kimpton, London, 1946).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experiments Ia and Ib. Chromaticity coordinates (r, g, and b) as a function of background intensity. The monochromatic test lights were presented at 17 deg in the nasal field of view during the cone-plateau period (open symbols) and following complete dark adaptation (solid symbols). The retinal illumination of the test light was 15 ph td and was exposed for 125 ms. The circular 7-deg light adaptation field of 2750 K and the 1×2-deg test field were concentric. For brevity, only the results of the test wavelengths 650, 510, and 450 nm are shown in Figs. 1 and 2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experiments II and III. Conditions as in Fig. 1, except that (1) the central 1×2-deg of the 7-deg light-adaptation field was masked (circles) and (2) the light-adaptation field coincided with the 1×2-deg test field (squares). The results were obtained following complete dark adaptation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experiment IV. Conditions as in Fig. 1, except that the chromaticity shifts with light adaptation were obtained at the central fovea following complete dark adaptation. Results of only some of the test lights are presented.  

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experiment V. Conditions as in Fig. 1, except that the test field was bleached while the surrounding area was dark adapted and the measurements were obtained when the sensitivity of the test field had reached the cone-plateau level. Only 450 and 650 nm were used as test lights.    

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experiment VIa. Chromaticity of monochromatic test lights of 15 ph td as a function of long-term dark adaptation. Conditions as in Fig. 1. The thick vertical line on the time axis in Figs. 5 and 6 represents the cone–rod break, i.e., the point in time when the dark-adaptation curve, measured for each of the test wavelengths after the 60,000 ph td bleach, started to fall below the cone-plateau level.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experiment VIb. Conditions as in Fig. 5, except that 650 nm (circles) and a mixture of the 650-nm light and a 490-nm scotopic light (triangles) were used as test lights.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experiment VII. Absolute threshold as a function of background intensity. Conditions as in Fig. 1, except that absolute threshold instead of chromaticity measurements were obtained. For brevity, wavelengths of 450 and 490 nm are omitted. Measurements during the cone-plateau period (open circles); following complete dark adaptation (solid circles and triangles). The thick vertical line on the x axis represents absolute dark-adapted cone threshold as measured for the background light during the cone-plateau following the 60,000-ph-td bleach. The long line stretching from the lower left to the upper right corner represents the so-called rod tvi-curve. The triangles on this line give the means of the intensity levels of the absolute thresholds obtained following complete dark adaptation for the different test wavelengths below 550 nm at the different background intensities employed.

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