Abstract

We employ a novel interferometer to measure the angular distribution of light backscattered by a turbid medium. Through comparison of the measured data with the predictions of Mie theory, we are able to determine the size of the scatterers comprising the medium with subwavelength precision. As the technique is based on low-coherence interferometry, we are able to examine the evolution of the angular distribution of scattered light as it propagates into the medium. The effects of multiple scattering as a function of penetration depth in the medium are analyzed. We also present various considerations for extending this technique to determining structural information in biological tissues, such as the effects of a distribution of particle sizes and the need to average out speckle contributions.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Wax, C. Yang, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measurement of angular distributions by use of low-coherence interferometry for light-scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26, 322–324 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manohaan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamamo, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. H. Yang, L. T. Perelman, A. Wax, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Feasibility of field-based light-scattering spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 138–143 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Wax, J. E. Thomas, “Measurement of smoothed Wigner phase-space distributions for small-angle scattering in a turbid medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1896–1908 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Wax, S. Bali, J. E. Thomas, “Time-resolved phase-space distributions for light backscattered from a disordered medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 66 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. It has been previously noted in Ref. 8 that the measured mean square heterodyne beat signal is related to the Wigner distribution of the signal field convoluted with that of the reference field. In the current experiments, the angular resolution is sufficiently small that we can regard our signal as the Wigner distribution of the backscattered field.
  12. A. Wax, C. Yang, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Angular light scattering studies using low-coherence interferometry,” in Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedical Science and Clinical Applications V, V. V. Tuchin, J. A. Izatt, J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4251, 32–42 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (3)

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Yang, L. T. Perelman, A. Wax, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Feasibility of field-based light-scattering spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 138–143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, S. Bali, J. E. Thomas, “Time-resolved phase-space distributions for light backscattered from a disordered medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manohaan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamamo, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Wax, J. E. Thomas, “Measurement of smoothed Wigner phase-space distributions for small-angle scattering in a turbid medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1896–1908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, K.

Arendt, J. T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manohaan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamamo, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bali, S.

A. Wax, S. Bali, J. E. Thomas, “Time-resolved phase-space distributions for light backscattered from a disordered medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manohaan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamamo, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

A. Wax, C. Yang, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measurement of angular distributions by use of low-coherence interferometry for light-scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26, 322–324 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Yang, L. T. Perelman, A. Wax, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Feasibility of field-based light-scattering spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 138–143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, K. An, L. T. Perelman, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Spatial coherence of forward-scattered light in a turbid medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 866–871 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Wax, C. Yang, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Angular light scattering studies using low-coherence interferometry,” in Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedical Science and Clinical Applications V, V. V. Tuchin, J. A. Izatt, J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4251, 32–42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Drezek, R.

Dunn, A.

Feld, M. S.

A. Wax, C. Yang, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measurement of angular distributions by use of low-coherence interferometry for light-scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26, 322–324 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Yang, L. T. Perelman, A. Wax, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Feasibility of field-based light-scattering spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 138–143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, K. An, L. T. Perelman, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Spatial coherence of forward-scattered light in a turbid medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 866–871 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manohaan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamamo, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Wax, C. Yang, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Angular light scattering studies using low-coherence interferometry,” in Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedical Science and Clinical Applications V, V. V. Tuchin, J. A. Izatt, J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4251, 32–42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fitzmaurice, M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamamo, T.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manohaan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamamo, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manohaan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamamo, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kabani, S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kline, E.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levin, H. S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lima, C.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manohaan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamamo, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manohaan, R.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manohaan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamamo, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McGillican, T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, M. G.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nusrat, A.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manohaan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamamo, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

C. H. Yang, L. T. Perelman, A. Wax, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Feasibility of field-based light-scattering spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 138–143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, K. An, L. T. Perelman, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Spatial coherence of forward-scattered light in a turbid medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 866–871 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manohaan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamamo, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seiler, M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manohaan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamamo, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shapshay, S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shields, S.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manohaan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamamo, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, J. E.

Valdez, T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manohaan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamamo, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manohaan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamamo, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, M. B.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

A. Wax, C. Yang, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measurement of angular distributions by use of low-coherence interferometry for light-scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26, 322–324 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Yang, L. T. Perelman, A. Wax, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Feasibility of field-based light-scattering spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 138–143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, S. Bali, J. E. Thomas, “Time-resolved phase-space distributions for light backscattered from a disordered medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, J. E. Thomas, “Measurement of smoothed Wigner phase-space distributions for small-angle scattering in a turbid medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1896–1908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Wax, J. E. Thomas, “Optical heterodyne imaging and Wigner phase-space distributions,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1427–1429 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Angular light scattering studies using low-coherence interferometry,” in Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedical Science and Clinical Applications V, V. V. Tuchin, J. A. Izatt, J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4251, 32–42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

A. Wax, C. Yang, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measurement of angular distributions by use of low-coherence interferometry for light-scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26, 322–324 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, K. An, L. T. Perelman, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Spatial coherence of forward-scattered light in a turbid medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 866–871 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Wax, C. Yang, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Angular light scattering studies using low-coherence interferometry,” in Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedical Science and Clinical Applications V, V. V. Tuchin, J. A. Izatt, J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4251, 32–42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. H.

C. H. Yang, L. T. Perelman, A. Wax, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Feasibility of field-based light-scattering spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 138–143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, O.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manohaan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamamo, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

C. H. Yang, L. T. Perelman, A. Wax, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Feasibility of field-based light-scattering spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 138–143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nature (1)

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, O. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manohaan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamamo, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Wax, S. Bali, J. E. Thomas, “Time-resolved phase-space distributions for light backscattered from a disordered medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

It has been previously noted in Ref. 8 that the measured mean square heterodyne beat signal is related to the Wigner distribution of the signal field convoluted with that of the reference field. In the current experiments, the angular resolution is sufficiently small that we can regard our signal as the Wigner distribution of the backscattered field.

A. Wax, C. Yang, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Angular light scattering studies using low-coherence interferometry,” in Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedical Science and Clinical Applications V, V. V. Tuchin, J. A. Izatt, J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4251, 32–42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the interferometer system illustrating the detection of backscattered light. The photocurrent is digitized by an analog-to-digital converter, ADC, and recorded on a personal computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the interferometer system illustrating the displacement of lens L2 to vary the angle at which the reference beam crosses the detector plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contour map of the measured angular distribution of light backscattered by turbid media as a function of penetration depth. White areas represent -4.6 dB; black, -7 dB.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular distribution of light backscattered from a surface layer τ=0.5. Dots represent experimental data; solid curve, theoretical distribution.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Angular distribution of light backscattered from a subsurface layer τ=3.5. Dots represent experimental data; solid curve, theoretical distribution.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Angular distribution of light backscattered from a subsurface layer τ=5.5. Dots represent experimental data; solid curve, theoretical distribution.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Graph of chi-squared values between experimental data (Fig. 4) and angular distributions for various size spheres calculated by Mie theory.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Angular distribution of light backscattered from subsurface layers: (a) for τ=3.5; (b) for τ=5.5. Dots represent experimental data; solid curve, theoretical distributions based on scattering by polydisperse turbid media.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Angular distribution of light backscattered from a surface layer of a polydisperse scattering medium. Dots represent experimental data; solid curve, theoretical distribution.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Contour map of the measured angular distribution of light backscattered by turbid media as a function of penetration depth obtained without the benefit of ensemble averaging. White areas represent -3.8 dB; black, -7 dB.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Angular distribution of light backscattered by turbid media obtained by ensemble averaging using the scans from various depths. Dots represent experimental data; solid curve, distribution.

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