Abstract

Convergent physiological and behavioral evidence indicates that the initial receptive fields responsible for motion detection are spatially localized. Consequently, the perception of global patterns of movement (such as expansion) requires that the output of these local mechanisms be integrated across visual space. We have differentiated local and global motion processes, with mixtures of coherent and incoherent moving patterns composed of bandpass filtered dots, and have measured their spatial-frequency selectivity. We report that local motion detectors show narrow-band spatial-frequency tuning (i.e., they respond only to a narrow range of spatial frequencies) but that global motion detectors show broadband spatial-frequency tuning (i.e., they integrate across a broad range of spatial frequencies), with a preference for low spatial frequencies.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (6)

P. J. Bex, A. B. Metha, W. Makous, “Enhanced motion aftereffect for complex motions,” Vision Res. 39, 2229–2238 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, S. Di Pietro, “Cardinal directions for visual optic flow,” Curr. Biol. 9, 763–766 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hibbard, M. F. Bradshaw, B. De Bruyn, “Is global motion tuned for binocular disparity?” Vision Res. 39, 961–974 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Snowden, M. C. Rossiter, “Stereoscopic depth cues can segment motion information,” Perception 28, 193–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Snowden, R. Edmunds, “Colour and polarity contributions to global motion perception,” Vision Res. 39, 1813–1822 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Bex, C. L. Baker, “Motion perception over long inter-stimulus intervals,” Percept. Psychophys. 61, 1066–1074 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (5)

P. J. Bex, A. B. Metha, W. Makous, “Psychophysical evidence for a functional hierarchy of motion processing mechanisms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 769–776 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Burr, M. C. Morrone, L. M. Vaina, “Large receptive fields for optic flow detection in humans,” Vision Res. 38, 1731–1743 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. P. Simoncelli, D. J. Heeger, “A model of neuronal responses in visual area MT,” Vision Res. 38, 743–761 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Hess, P. J. Bex, R. F. Fredericksen, N. Brady, “Is human motion detection subserved by a single or multiple channel mechanism?” Vision Res. 38, 259–266 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. J. Baker, R. F. Hess, “Two mechanisms underlie processing of stochastic motion stimuli,” Vision Res. 38, 1211–1222 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (8)

N. Brady, P. J. Bex, R. E. Fredericksen, “Independent coding across spatial scales in moving fractal images,” Vision Res. 37, 1873–1883 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Mareschal, H. Ashida, P. J. Bex, S. Nishida, F. A. J. Verstraten, “Temporal frequency tuning of the test pattern: the missing link between lower and higher stages of motion processing as revealed by the flicker motion aftereffect?” Vision Res. 37, 1755–1759 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Bex, W. Makous, “Radial motion looks faster,” Vision Res. 37, 3399–3405 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, K. Mulligan, H. Sherk, “Simulated optic flow and extrastriate cortex. I: optic flow versus texture,” J. Neurophysiol. 77, 554–561 (1997).
[PubMed]

K. Mulligan, J. Kim, H. Sherk, “Simulated optic flow and extrastriate cortex. II: responses to bar versus large-field stimuli,” J. Neurophysiol. 77, 562–570 (1997).
[PubMed]

R. J. Snowden, A. B. Milne, “Phantom motion aftereffects—evidence of detectors for the analysis of optic flow,” Curr. Biol. 7, 717–722 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Pelli, “The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: transforming numbers into movies,” Spatial Vision 10, 437–442 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Croner, T. D. Albright, “Image segmentation enhances discrimination of motion in visual noise,” Vision Res. 37, 1415–1427 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (7)

K. Gurney, M. J. Wright, “Rotation and radial motion thresholds support a two-stage model of differential-motion analysis,” Perception 25, 5–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Verghese, L. S. Stone, “Perceived visual speed constrained by image segmentation,” Nature (London) 381, 161–163 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Krapp, R. Hengstenberg, “Estimation of self motion by optic flow processing in single visual interneurons,” Nature (London) 384, 463–466 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. A. J. Verstraten, R. E. Fredericksen, R. J. A. van Wezel, M. J. M. Lankheet, W. A. van de Grind, “Recovery from adaptation for dynamic and static motion aftereffects: evidence for two mechanisms,” Vision Res. 36, 421–424 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ledgeway, “How similar must the Fourier spectra of the frames of a random-dot kinematogram be to support motion perception?” Vision Res. 36, 2489–2495 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Eagle, B. J. Rogers, “Motion detection is limited by element density not spatial frequency,” Vision Res. 36, 545–558 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Bex, F. A. Verstraten, I. Mareschal, “Temporal and spatial frequency tuning of the flicker motion aftereffect,” Vision Res. 36, 2721–2727 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (6)

P. J. Bex, N. Brady, R. E. Fredericksen, R. F. Hess, “Energetic motion detection,” Nature (London) 378, 670–672 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Nishida, T. Sato, “Motion aftereffect with flickering test patterns reveals higher stages of motion processing,” Vision Res. 35, 477–490 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Verghese, L. S. Stone, “Combining speed information across space,” Vision Res. 35, 2811–2823 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, L. M. Vaina, “Two stages of visual processing for radial and circular motion,” Nature (London) 376, 507–509 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Lappe, J. P. Rauschecker, “An illusory transformation in a model of optic flow processing,” Vision Res. 35, 1619–1631 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, G. Sperling, “The functional architecture of human visual motion perception,” Vision Res. 35, 2697–2722 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (5)

M. Edwards, D. R. Badcock, “Interactions of the ON and OFF pathway,” Vision Res. 34, 2849–2858 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ashida, N. Osaka, “Difference of spatial-frequency selectivity between static and flicker motion aftereffects,” Perception 23, 1313–1320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Yang, R. Blake, “Broad tuning for spatial-frequency of neural mechanisms underlying visual-perception of coherent motion,” Nature (London) 371, 793–796 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Graziano, R. A. Andersen, R. J. Snowden, “Tuning of MST neurons to spiral motions,” J. Neurosci. 14, 54–67 (1994).
[PubMed]

M. J. Morgan, G. Mather, “Motion discrimination in two-frame sequences with differing spatial frequency content,” Vision Res. 34, 197–208 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (4)

O. Braddick, “Segmentation versus integration in visual motion processing,” Trends Neurosci. 16, 263–268 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Werkhoven, G. Sperling, C. Chubb, “The dimensionality of texture defined motion: a single channel theory,” Vision Res. 33, 463–485 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Boulton, C. L. Baker, “Different parameters control motion perception above and below a critical density,” Vision Res. 33, 1803–1811 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Boulton, C. L. Baker, “Dependence on stimulus onset asynchrony in apparent motion: evidence for two mechanisms,” Vision Res. 33, 2013–2019 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (4)

H. R. Wilson, V. P. Ferrera, C. Yo, “A psychophysically motivated model for two-dimensional motion perception,” Visual Neurosci. 9, 79–97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. C. A. Freeman, M. G. Harris, “Human sensitivity to expanding and rotating motion: effects of complementary masking and directional structure,” Vision Res. 32, 81–87 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Orban, L. Lagae, A. Verri, S. Raiguel, D. Xiao, H. Maes, V. Torre, “First-order analysis of optical flow in monkey brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 2595–2599 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Cameron, C. L. Baker, J. C. Boulton, “Spatial frequency selective mechanisms underlying the motion aftereffect,” Vision Res. 32, 561–568 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

C. J. Duffy, R. H. Wurtz, “Sensitivity of MST neurons to optic flow stimuli. I. A continuum of response selectivity to large-field stimuli,” J. Neurophysiol. 65, 1329–1345 (1991).
[PubMed]

D. G. Pelli, L. Zhang, “Accurate control of contrast on microcomputer displays,” Vision Res. 31, 1337–1350 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (3)

R. Cleary, O. J. Braddick, “Masking of low frequency information in short-range apparent motion,” Vision Res. 30, 317–327 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cleary, O. J. Braddick, “Direction discrimination for band-pass filtered random dot kinematograms,” Vision Res. 30, 303–316 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Bischof, V. Di Lollo, “Perception of directional sampled motion in relation to displacement and spatial frequency: evidence for a unitary motion system,” Vision Res. 30, 1341–1362 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

K. Tanaka, H. Saito, “Analysis of motion of the visual field by direction, expansion/contraction, and rotation cells clustered in the dorsal part of the medial superior temporal area of the macaque monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 62, 626–641 (1989).
[PubMed]

P. Cavanagh, M. Arguin, M. von Grunau, “Interattribute apparent motion,” Vision Res. 29, 1197–1204 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

W. T. Newsome, E. B. Pare, “A selective impairment of motion perception following lesions of the middle temporal visual area (MT),” J. Neurosci. 8, 2201–2211 (1988).
[PubMed]

C. Chubb, G. Sperling, “Drift-balanced random stimuli: a general basis for studying non-Fourier motion perception,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1986–2006 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

D. J. Heeger, “Model for the extraction of image flow,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1455–1471 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Anderson, D. C. Burr, “Receptive field size of human motion detection units,” Vision Res. 27, 621–635 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (3)

A. B. Watson, “Apparent motion occurs only between similar spatial frequencies,” Vision Res. 26, 1727–1730 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Saito, K. Tanaka, H. Isono, M. Yasuda, A. Mikami, “Integration of direction signals of image motion in the superior temporal sulcus of the macaque monkey,” J. Neurosci. 61, 145–157 (1986).

J. J. Koenderink, “Optic flow,” Vision Res. 26, 161–179 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (4)

1983 (2)

J. J. Chang, B. Julesz, “Displacement limits for spatial frequency filtered random dot cinematograms in apparent motion,” Vision Res. 23, 1379–1385 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Watson, D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

D. Regan, K. I. Beverly, “Looming detectors in the human visual pathway,” Vision Res. 18, 415–421 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

P. H. Schiller, B. L. Finlay, S. F. Volman, “Quantitative studies of single-cell properties in monkey striate cortex. I. Spatiotemporal organization of receptive fields,” J. Neurophysiol. 39, 1288–1399 (1976).
[PubMed]

1975 (1)

M. A. Georgeson, G. D. Sullivan, “Contrast constancy: deblurring in human vision by spatial frequency channels,” J. Physiol. (London) 252, 627–656 (1975).

1974 (1)

O. J. Braddick, “A short-range process in apparent motion,” Vision Res. 14, 519–527 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

R. Over, J. Broerse, B. Crassini, W. Lovegrove, “Spatial determinants of the aftereffect of seen movement,” Vision Res. 13, 1681–1690 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

R. H. Wurtz, “Visual receptive fields of striate cortex neurons in awake monkeys,” J. Neurophysiol. 32, 727–742 (1969).
[PubMed]

1968 (1)

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R. F. Hess, P. J. Bex, R. F. Fredericksen, N. Brady, “Is human motion detection subserved by a single or multiple channel mechanism?” Vision Res. 38, 259–266 (1998).
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N. Brady, P. J. Bex, R. E. Fredericksen, “Independent coding across spatial scales in moving fractal images,” Vision Res. 37, 1873–1883 (1997).
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P. J. Bex, N. Brady, R. E. Fredericksen, R. F. Hess, “Energetic motion detection,” Nature (London) 378, 670–672 (1995).
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E. L. Cameron, C. L. Baker, J. C. Boulton, “Spatial frequency selective mechanisms underlying the motion aftereffect,” Vision Res. 32, 561–568 (1992).
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P. Cavanagh, M. Arguin, M. von Grunau, “Interattribute apparent motion,” Vision Res. 29, 1197–1204 (1989).
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J. J. Chang, B. Julesz, “Cooperative and non-cooperative processes of apparent movement of random-dot cinematograms,” Spatial Vision 1, 39–45 (1985).
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J. J. Chang, B. Julesz, “Displacement limits for spatial frequency filtered random dot cinematograms in apparent motion,” Vision Res. 23, 1379–1385 (1983).
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P. B. Hibbard, M. F. Bradshaw, B. De Bruyn, “Is global motion tuned for binocular disparity?” Vision Res. 39, 961–974 (1999).
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W. F. Bischof, V. Di Lollo, “Perception of directional sampled motion in relation to displacement and spatial frequency: evidence for a unitary motion system,” Vision Res. 30, 1341–1362 (1990).
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M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, S. Di Pietro, “Cardinal directions for visual optic flow,” Curr. Biol. 9, 763–766 (1999).
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R. J. Snowden, R. Edmunds, “Colour and polarity contributions to global motion perception,” Vision Res. 39, 1813–1822 (1999).
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M. Edwards, D. R. Badcock, “Interactions of the ON and OFF pathway,” Vision Res. 34, 2849–2858 (1994).
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N. Brady, P. J. Bex, R. E. Fredericksen, “Independent coding across spatial scales in moving fractal images,” Vision Res. 37, 1873–1883 (1997).
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R. F. Hess, P. J. Bex, R. F. Fredericksen, N. Brady, “Is human motion detection subserved by a single or multiple channel mechanism?” Vision Res. 38, 259–266 (1998).
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R. F. Hess, P. J. Bex, R. F. Fredericksen, N. Brady, “Is human motion detection subserved by a single or multiple channel mechanism?” Vision Res. 38, 259–266 (1998).
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C. L. J. Baker, R. F. Hess, “Two mechanisms underlie processing of stochastic motion stimuli,” Vision Res. 38, 1211–1222 (1998).
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P. J. Bex, N. Brady, R. E. Fredericksen, R. F. Hess, “Energetic motion detection,” Nature (London) 378, 670–672 (1995).
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P. B. Hibbard, M. F. Bradshaw, B. De Bruyn, “Is global motion tuned for binocular disparity?” Vision Res. 39, 961–974 (1999).
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Hubel, D. H.

D. H. Hubel, T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive fields and functional architecture of monkey striate cortex,” J. Physiol. (London) 195, 215–243 (1968).

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H. A. Saito, K. Tanaka, H. Isono, M. Yasuda, A. Mikami, “Integration of direction signals of image motion in the superior temporal sulcus of the macaque monkey,” J. Neurosci. 61, 145–157 (1986).

Julesz, B.

J. J. Chang, B. Julesz, “Cooperative and non-cooperative processes of apparent movement of random-dot cinematograms,” Spatial Vision 1, 39–45 (1985).
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J. J. Chang, B. Julesz, “Displacement limits for spatial frequency filtered random dot cinematograms in apparent motion,” Vision Res. 23, 1379–1385 (1983).
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J. Kim, K. Mulligan, H. Sherk, “Simulated optic flow and extrastriate cortex. I: optic flow versus texture,” J. Neurophysiol. 77, 554–561 (1997).
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K. Mulligan, J. Kim, H. Sherk, “Simulated optic flow and extrastriate cortex. II: responses to bar versus large-field stimuli,” J. Neurophysiol. 77, 562–570 (1997).
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H. G. Krapp, R. Hengstenberg, “Estimation of self motion by optic flow processing in single visual interneurons,” Nature (London) 384, 463–466 (1996).
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G. A. Orban, L. Lagae, A. Verri, S. Raiguel, D. Xiao, H. Maes, V. Torre, “First-order analysis of optical flow in monkey brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 2595–2599 (1992).
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F. A. J. Verstraten, R. E. Fredericksen, R. J. A. van Wezel, M. J. M. Lankheet, W. A. van de Grind, “Recovery from adaptation for dynamic and static motion aftereffects: evidence for two mechanisms,” Vision Res. 36, 421–424 (1996).
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M. Lappe, J. P. Rauschecker, “An illusory transformation in a model of optic flow processing,” Vision Res. 35, 1619–1631 (1995).
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G. A. Orban, L. Lagae, A. Verri, S. Raiguel, D. Xiao, H. Maes, V. Torre, “First-order analysis of optical flow in monkey brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 2595–2599 (1992).
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P. J. Bex, A. B. Metha, W. Makous, “Enhanced motion aftereffect for complex motions,” Vision Res. 39, 2229–2238 (1999).
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P. J. Bex, A. B. Metha, W. Makous, “Psychophysical evidence for a functional hierarchy of motion processing mechanisms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 769–776 (1998).
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P. J. Bex, W. Makous, “Radial motion looks faster,” Vision Res. 37, 3399–3405 (1997).
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I. Mareschal, H. Ashida, P. J. Bex, S. Nishida, F. A. J. Verstraten, “Temporal frequency tuning of the test pattern: the missing link between lower and higher stages of motion processing as revealed by the flicker motion aftereffect?” Vision Res. 37, 1755–1759 (1997).
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P. J. Bex, F. A. Verstraten, I. Mareschal, “Temporal and spatial frequency tuning of the flicker motion aftereffect,” Vision Res. 36, 2721–2727 (1996).
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Mikami, A.

H. A. Saito, K. Tanaka, H. Isono, M. Yasuda, A. Mikami, “Integration of direction signals of image motion in the superior temporal sulcus of the macaque monkey,” J. Neurosci. 61, 145–157 (1986).

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R. J. Snowden, A. B. Milne, “Phantom motion aftereffects—evidence of detectors for the analysis of optic flow,” Curr. Biol. 7, 717–722 (1997).
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M. J. Morgan, G. Mather, “Motion discrimination in two-frame sequences with differing spatial frequency content,” Vision Res. 34, 197–208 (1994).
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M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, S. Di Pietro, “Cardinal directions for visual optic flow,” Curr. Biol. 9, 763–766 (1999).
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D. C. Burr, M. C. Morrone, L. M. Vaina, “Large receptive fields for optic flow detection in humans,” Vision Res. 38, 1731–1743 (1998).
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M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, L. M. Vaina, “Two stages of visual processing for radial and circular motion,” Nature (London) 376, 507–509 (1995).
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J. Kim, K. Mulligan, H. Sherk, “Simulated optic flow and extrastriate cortex. I: optic flow versus texture,” J. Neurophysiol. 77, 554–561 (1997).
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S. Nishida, T. Sato, “Motion aftereffect with flickering test patterns reveals higher stages of motion processing,” Vision Res. 35, 477–490 (1995).
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G. A. Orban, L. Lagae, A. Verri, S. Raiguel, D. Xiao, H. Maes, V. Torre, “First-order analysis of optical flow in monkey brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 2595–2599 (1992).
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H. Ashida, N. Osaka, “Difference of spatial-frequency selectivity between static and flicker motion aftereffects,” Perception 23, 1313–1320 (1994).
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R. Over, J. Broerse, B. Crassini, W. Lovegrove, “Spatial determinants of the aftereffect of seen movement,” Vision Res. 13, 1681–1690 (1973).
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M. Lappe, J. P. Rauschecker, “An illusory transformation in a model of optic flow processing,” Vision Res. 35, 1619–1631 (1995).
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R. A. Eagle, B. J. Rogers, “Motion detection is limited by element density not spatial frequency,” Vision Res. 36, 545–558 (1996).
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J. Kim, K. Mulligan, H. Sherk, “Simulated optic flow and extrastriate cortex. I: optic flow versus texture,” J. Neurophysiol. 77, 554–561 (1997).
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K. Mulligan, J. Kim, H. Sherk, “Simulated optic flow and extrastriate cortex. II: responses to bar versus large-field stimuli,” J. Neurophysiol. 77, 562–570 (1997).
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R. J. Snowden, M. C. Rossiter, “Stereoscopic depth cues can segment motion information,” Perception 28, 193–201 (1999).
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P. Verghese, L. S. Stone, “Perceived visual speed constrained by image segmentation,” Nature (London) 381, 161–163 (1996).
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P. Verghese, L. S. Stone, “Combining speed information across space,” Vision Res. 35, 2811–2823 (1995).
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M. A. Georgeson, G. D. Sullivan, “Contrast constancy: deblurring in human vision by spatial frequency channels,” J. Physiol. (London) 252, 627–656 (1975).

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K. Tanaka, H. Saito, “Analysis of motion of the visual field by direction, expansion/contraction, and rotation cells clustered in the dorsal part of the medial superior temporal area of the macaque monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 62, 626–641 (1989).
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H. A. Saito, K. Tanaka, H. Isono, M. Yasuda, A. Mikami, “Integration of direction signals of image motion in the superior temporal sulcus of the macaque monkey,” J. Neurosci. 61, 145–157 (1986).

Torre, V.

G. A. Orban, L. Lagae, A. Verri, S. Raiguel, D. Xiao, H. Maes, V. Torre, “First-order analysis of optical flow in monkey brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 2595–2599 (1992).
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S. Ullman, The Interpretation of Visual Motion (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1979).

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M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, L. M. Vaina, “Two stages of visual processing for radial and circular motion,” Nature (London) 376, 507–509 (1995).
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F. A. J. Verstraten, R. E. Fredericksen, R. J. A. van Wezel, M. J. M. Lankheet, W. A. van de Grind, “Recovery from adaptation for dynamic and static motion aftereffects: evidence for two mechanisms,” Vision Res. 36, 421–424 (1996).
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J. J. Koenderink, A. J. van Doorn, “How an ambulant observer can construct a model of the environment from the geometrical structure of the visual inflow,” in Kibernetic, G. Hauske, E. Butendant, eds. (Oldenbourg, Munich, 1977).

van Santen, J. P.

van Wezel, R. J. A.

F. A. J. Verstraten, R. E. Fredericksen, R. J. A. van Wezel, M. J. M. Lankheet, W. A. van de Grind, “Recovery from adaptation for dynamic and static motion aftereffects: evidence for two mechanisms,” Vision Res. 36, 421–424 (1996).
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P. Verghese, L. S. Stone, “Perceived visual speed constrained by image segmentation,” Nature (London) 381, 161–163 (1996).
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P. Verghese, L. S. Stone, “Combining speed information across space,” Vision Res. 35, 2811–2823 (1995).
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G. A. Orban, L. Lagae, A. Verri, S. Raiguel, D. Xiao, H. Maes, V. Torre, “First-order analysis of optical flow in monkey brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 2595–2599 (1992).
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P. J. Bex, F. A. Verstraten, I. Mareschal, “Temporal and spatial frequency tuning of the flicker motion aftereffect,” Vision Res. 36, 2721–2727 (1996).
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I. Mareschal, H. Ashida, P. J. Bex, S. Nishida, F. A. J. Verstraten, “Temporal frequency tuning of the test pattern: the missing link between lower and higher stages of motion processing as revealed by the flicker motion aftereffect?” Vision Res. 37, 1755–1759 (1997).
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F. A. J. Verstraten, R. E. Fredericksen, R. J. A. van Wezel, M. J. M. Lankheet, W. A. van de Grind, “Recovery from adaptation for dynamic and static motion aftereffects: evidence for two mechanisms,” Vision Res. 36, 421–424 (1996).
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P. H. Schiller, B. L. Finlay, S. F. Volman, “Quantitative studies of single-cell properties in monkey striate cortex. I. Spatiotemporal organization of receptive fields,” J. Neurophysiol. 39, 1288–1399 (1976).
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P. Cavanagh, M. Arguin, M. von Grunau, “Interattribute apparent motion,” Vision Res. 29, 1197–1204 (1989).
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A. B. Watson, “Apparent motion occurs only between similar spatial frequencies,” Vision Res. 26, 1727–1730 (1986).
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A. B. Watson, D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
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P. Werkhoven, G. Sperling, C. Chubb, “The dimensionality of texture defined motion: a single channel theory,” Vision Res. 33, 463–485 (1993).
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D. H. Hubel, T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive fields and functional architecture of monkey striate cortex,” J. Physiol. (London) 195, 215–243 (1968).

Wilson, H. R.

H. R. Wilson, V. P. Ferrera, C. Yo, “A psychophysically motivated model for two-dimensional motion perception,” Visual Neurosci. 9, 79–97 (1992).
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K. Gurney, M. J. Wright, “Rotation and radial motion thresholds support a two-stage model of differential-motion analysis,” Perception 25, 5–26 (1996).
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C. J. Duffy, R. H. Wurtz, “Sensitivity of MST neurons to optic flow stimuli. I. A continuum of response selectivity to large-field stimuli,” J. Neurophysiol. 65, 1329–1345 (1991).
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R. H. Wurtz, “Visual receptive fields of striate cortex neurons in awake monkeys,” J. Neurophysiol. 32, 727–742 (1969).
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G. A. Orban, L. Lagae, A. Verri, S. Raiguel, D. Xiao, H. Maes, V. Torre, “First-order analysis of optical flow in monkey brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 2595–2599 (1992).
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Y. D. Yang, R. Blake, “Broad tuning for spatial-frequency of neural mechanisms underlying visual-perception of coherent motion,” Nature (London) 371, 793–796 (1994).
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H. A. Saito, K. Tanaka, H. Isono, M. Yasuda, A. Mikami, “Integration of direction signals of image motion in the superior temporal sulcus of the macaque monkey,” J. Neurosci. 61, 145–157 (1986).

Yo, C.

H. R. Wilson, V. P. Ferrera, C. Yo, “A psychophysically motivated model for two-dimensional motion perception,” Visual Neurosci. 9, 79–97 (1992).
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D. G. Pelli, L. Zhang, “Accurate control of contrast on microcomputer displays,” Vision Res. 31, 1337–1350 (1991).
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Curr. Biol. (2)

M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, S. Di Pietro, “Cardinal directions for visual optic flow,” Curr. Biol. 9, 763–766 (1999).
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R. J. Snowden, A. B. Milne, “Phantom motion aftereffects—evidence of detectors for the analysis of optic flow,” Curr. Biol. 7, 717–722 (1997).
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J. Neurophysiol. (6)

C. J. Duffy, R. H. Wurtz, “Sensitivity of MST neurons to optic flow stimuli. I. A continuum of response selectivity to large-field stimuli,” J. Neurophysiol. 65, 1329–1345 (1991).
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J. Kim, K. Mulligan, H. Sherk, “Simulated optic flow and extrastriate cortex. I: optic flow versus texture,” J. Neurophysiol. 77, 554–561 (1997).
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R. H. Wurtz, “Visual receptive fields of striate cortex neurons in awake monkeys,” J. Neurophysiol. 32, 727–742 (1969).
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J. Neurosci. (3)

H. A. Saito, K. Tanaka, H. Isono, M. Yasuda, A. Mikami, “Integration of direction signals of image motion in the superior temporal sulcus of the macaque monkey,” J. Neurosci. 61, 145–157 (1986).

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (6)

J. Physiol. (London) (2)

M. A. Georgeson, G. D. Sullivan, “Contrast constancy: deblurring in human vision by spatial frequency channels,” J. Physiol. (London) 252, 627–656 (1975).

D. H. Hubel, T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive fields and functional architecture of monkey striate cortex,” J. Physiol. (London) 195, 215–243 (1968).

Nature (London) (5)

P. Verghese, L. S. Stone, “Perceived visual speed constrained by image segmentation,” Nature (London) 381, 161–163 (1996).
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Y. D. Yang, R. Blake, “Broad tuning for spatial-frequency of neural mechanisms underlying visual-perception of coherent motion,” Nature (London) 371, 793–796 (1994).
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H. G. Krapp, R. Hengstenberg, “Estimation of self motion by optic flow processing in single visual interneurons,” Nature (London) 384, 463–466 (1996).
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P. J. Bex, N. Brady, R. E. Fredericksen, R. F. Hess, “Energetic motion detection,” Nature (London) 378, 670–672 (1995).
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M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, L. M. Vaina, “Two stages of visual processing for radial and circular motion,” Nature (London) 376, 507–509 (1995).
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Percept. Psychophys. (2)

P. J. Bex, C. L. Baker, “Motion perception over long inter-stimulus intervals,” Percept. Psychophys. 61, 1066–1074 (1999).
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A. B. Watson, D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
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Perception (3)

R. J. Snowden, M. C. Rossiter, “Stereoscopic depth cues can segment motion information,” Perception 28, 193–201 (1999).
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K. Gurney, M. J. Wright, “Rotation and radial motion thresholds support a two-stage model of differential-motion analysis,” Perception 25, 5–26 (1996).
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H. Ashida, N. Osaka, “Difference of spatial-frequency selectivity between static and flicker motion aftereffects,” Perception 23, 1313–1320 (1994).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

G. A. Orban, L. Lagae, A. Verri, S. Raiguel, D. Xiao, H. Maes, V. Torre, “First-order analysis of optical flow in monkey brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 2595–2599 (1992).
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Spatial Vision (2)

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D. G. Pelli, “The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: transforming numbers into movies,” Spatial Vision 10, 437–442 (1997).
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Trends Neurosci. (1)

O. Braddick, “Segmentation versus integration in visual motion processing,” Trends Neurosci. 16, 263–268 (1993).
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J. J. Koenderink, “Optic flow,” Vision Res. 26, 161–179 (1986).
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E. P. Simoncelli, D. J. Heeger, “A model of neuronal responses in visual area MT,” Vision Res. 38, 743–761 (1998).
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M. Lappe, J. P. Rauschecker, “An illusory transformation in a model of optic flow processing,” Vision Res. 35, 1619–1631 (1995).
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D. C. Burr, M. C. Morrone, L. M. Vaina, “Large receptive fields for optic flow detection in humans,” Vision Res. 38, 1731–1743 (1998).
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D. G. Pelli, L. Zhang, “Accurate control of contrast on microcomputer displays,” Vision Res. 31, 1337–1350 (1991).
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Z. Lu, G. Sperling, “The functional architecture of human visual motion perception,” Vision Res. 35, 2697–2722 (1995).
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M. Edwards, D. R. Badcock, “Interactions of the ON and OFF pathway,” Vision Res. 34, 2849–2858 (1994).
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R. J. Snowden, R. Edmunds, “Colour and polarity contributions to global motion perception,” Vision Res. 39, 1813–1822 (1999).
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L. J. Croner, T. D. Albright, “Image segmentation enhances discrimination of motion in visual noise,” Vision Res. 37, 1415–1427 (1997).
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P. B. Hibbard, M. F. Bradshaw, B. De Bruyn, “Is global motion tuned for binocular disparity?” Vision Res. 39, 961–974 (1999).
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P. Werkhoven, G. Sperling, C. Chubb, “The dimensionality of texture defined motion: a single channel theory,” Vision Res. 33, 463–485 (1993).
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P. Cavanagh, M. Arguin, M. von Grunau, “Interattribute apparent motion,” Vision Res. 29, 1197–1204 (1989).
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J. C. Boulton, C. L. Baker, “Different parameters control motion perception above and below a critical density,” Vision Res. 33, 1803–1811 (1993).
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J. C. Boulton, C. L. Baker, “Dependence on stimulus onset asynchrony in apparent motion: evidence for two mechanisms,” Vision Res. 33, 2013–2019 (1993).
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C. L. J. Baker, R. F. Hess, “Two mechanisms underlie processing of stochastic motion stimuli,” Vision Res. 38, 1211–1222 (1998).
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R. Cleary, O. J. Braddick, “Direction discrimination for band-pass filtered random dot kinematograms,” Vision Res. 30, 303–316 (1990).
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W. F. Bischof, V. Di Lollo, “Perception of directional sampled motion in relation to displacement and spatial frequency: evidence for a unitary motion system,” Vision Res. 30, 1341–1362 (1990).
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M. J. Morgan, G. Mather, “Motion discrimination in two-frame sequences with differing spatial frequency content,” Vision Res. 34, 197–208 (1994).
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T. Ledgeway, “How similar must the Fourier spectra of the frames of a random-dot kinematogram be to support motion perception?” Vision Res. 36, 2489–2495 (1996).
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A. B. Watson, “Apparent motion occurs only between similar spatial frequencies,” Vision Res. 26, 1727–1730 (1986).
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R. F. Hess, P. J. Bex, R. F. Fredericksen, N. Brady, “Is human motion detection subserved by a single or multiple channel mechanism?” Vision Res. 38, 259–266 (1998).
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P. J. Bex, W. Makous, “Radial motion looks faster,” Vision Res. 37, 3399–3405 (1997).
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J. J. Chang, B. Julesz, “Displacement limits for spatial frequency filtered random dot cinematograms in apparent motion,” Vision Res. 23, 1379–1385 (1983).
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F. A. J. Verstraten, R. E. Fredericksen, R. J. A. van Wezel, M. J. M. Lankheet, W. A. van de Grind, “Recovery from adaptation for dynamic and static motion aftereffects: evidence for two mechanisms,” Vision Res. 36, 421–424 (1996).
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S. Nishida, T. Sato, “Motion aftereffect with flickering test patterns reveals higher stages of motion processing,” Vision Res. 35, 477–490 (1995).
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E. L. Cameron, C. L. Baker, J. C. Boulton, “Spatial frequency selective mechanisms underlying the motion aftereffect,” Vision Res. 32, 561–568 (1992).
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P. J. Bex, F. A. Verstraten, I. Mareschal, “Temporal and spatial frequency tuning of the flicker motion aftereffect,” Vision Res. 36, 2721–2727 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Mareschal, H. Ashida, P. J. Bex, S. Nishida, F. A. J. Verstraten, “Temporal frequency tuning of the test pattern: the missing link between lower and higher stages of motion processing as revealed by the flicker motion aftereffect?” Vision Res. 37, 1755–1759 (1997).
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D. Regan, K. I. Beverly, “Looming detectors in the human visual pathway,” Vision Res. 18, 415–421 (1978).
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T. C. A. Freeman, M. G. Harris, “Human sensitivity to expanding and rotating motion: effects of complementary masking and directional structure,” Vision Res. 32, 81–87 (1992).
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S. J. Anderson, D. C. Burr, “Receptive field size of human motion detection units,” Vision Res. 27, 621–635 (1987).
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P. Verghese, L. S. Stone, “Combining speed information across space,” Vision Res. 35, 2811–2823 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visual Neurosci. (1)

H. R. Wilson, V. P. Ferrera, C. Yo, “A psychophysically motivated model for two-dimensional motion perception,” Visual Neurosci. 9, 79–97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Ullman, The Interpretation of Visual Motion (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1979).

J. J. Koenderink, A. J. van Doorn, “How an ambulant observer can construct a model of the environment from the geometrical structure of the visual inflow,” in Kibernetic, G. Hauske, E. Butendant, eds. (Oldenbourg, Munich, 1977).

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