Abstract

In the area of long-baseline nulling interferometry, high rejection ratios are needed to cancel out the light of a bright central source and look for nearby faint structures or companions. These rejection requirements directly translate into drastic optical constraints. We discuss the possibility of using single-mode waveguides for such applications. Conversely to simple pinholes, single-mode waveguides efficiently correct wave-front defects of both high- and low-order spatial frequencies, ensure a perfect matching of the amplitude profiles coming from the various beams, and can be used with almost optimum coupling efficiency over a broad optical bandpass (typically an octave). They then appear to greatly enhance the feasibility of high-dynamic interferometric coronagraphs.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  26. M. Ollivier, J-M. Mariotti, A. Léger, P. Sékulic, J. Brunaud, G. Michel, “Interferometric coronography for the DARWIN space mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” Astron. Astrophys. 370, 1128–1136 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  27. F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perrault, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 138, 135–145 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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2001 (2)

M. Ollivier, J-M. Mariotti, A. Léger, P. Sékulic, J. Brunaud, G. Michel, “Interferometric coronography for the DARWIN space mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” Astron. Astrophys. 370, 1128–1136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Ruilier, F. Cassaing, “Coupling of large telescopes and single-mode waveguides: application to stellar interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 143–149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perrault, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perrault, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry II: first laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Mennesson, J. M. Mariotti, V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, S. Ridgway, C. Ruilier, W. A. Traub, N. P. Carleton, M. G. Lacasse, G. Mazé, “Thermal infrared stellar interferometry using single-mode optics: first results with the TISIS experiment on IOTA,” Astron. Astrophys. 346, 181–189 (1999).

1997 (4)

M. Ollivier, J. M. Mariotti, “Improvement in the rejection rate of a nulling interferometer by spatial filtering,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5340–5346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. P. Angel, N. J. Woolf, “An imaging nulling interferometer to study extrasolar planets,” Astrophys. J. 475, 373–379 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Voit, “On nulling interferometers and the line emitting regions of active galactic nuclei,” Astrophys. J. 487, L109–113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Mennesson, J. M. Mariotti, “Array configurations for a space nulling interferometer dedicated to the search for Earth-like extrasolar planets,” Icarus 128, 202–212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Léger, J. M. Mariotti, B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, J. L. Puget, D. Rouan, J. Schneider, “Could we search for primitive life on extrasolar planets in the near future? The DARWIN project,” Icarus 123, 249–255 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. Shaklan, F. Roddier, “Coupling starlight into single-mode fiber optics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2234–2238 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. Monerie, F. Alard, G. Mazé, “Fabrication and characterization of fluoride-glass single-mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 21(25/26), 1179–1181 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. N. Bracewell, R. H. McPhie, “Searching for nonsolar planets,” Icarus 38, 136–147 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

D. Marcuse, “Excitation of parabolic-index fibers with incoherent sources,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1507–1530 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Alard, F.

M. Monerie, F. Alard, G. Mazé, “Fabrication and characterization of fluoride-glass single-mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 21(25/26), 1179–1181 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Anceau, C.

M. Ollivier, A. Léger, P. Sekulic, C. Anceau, J. Brunaud, G. Artzner, J. M. Mariotti, G. Michel, V. Coudé Du Foresto, B. Mennesson, P. Bouchareine, T. Lépine, F. Malbet, “Nulling interferometry for the DARWIN mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 443–447.

Angel, J. R. P.

J. R. P. Angel, N. J. Woolf, “An imaging nulling interferometer to study extrasolar planets,” Astrophys. J. 475, 373–379 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. P. Angel, J. M. Hill, P. A. Strittmatter, P. Salinari, G. Weigelt, “Interferometry with the large binocular telescope,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 881–889 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Artzner, G.

M. Ollivier, A. Léger, P. Sekulic, C. Anceau, J. Brunaud, G. Artzner, J. M. Mariotti, G. Michel, V. Coudé Du Foresto, B. Mennesson, P. Bouchareine, T. Lépine, F. Malbet, “Nulling interferometry for the DARWIN mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 443–447.

Beichman, C.

C. Beichman, “The terrestrial planet finder: the search for life bearing planets around other stars,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 719–723 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benech, P.

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perrault, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry II: first laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perrault, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, P. Kern, F. Malbet, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry,” in Proceedings of the Astrofib’96 Conference, P. Kern, F. Malbet eds. (Bastianelli and Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), pp. 99–108.

Berger, J. P.

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perrault, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perrault, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry II: first laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boden, A. F.

M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. Van Belle, G. Vasicht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “The Keck Interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bouchareine, P.

M. Ollivier, A. Léger, P. Sekulic, C. Anceau, J. Brunaud, G. Artzner, J. M. Mariotti, G. Michel, V. Coudé Du Foresto, B. Mennesson, P. Bouchareine, T. Lépine, F. Malbet, “Nulling interferometry for the DARWIN mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 443–447.

Bracewell, R. N.

R. N. Bracewell, R. H. McPhie, “Searching for nonsolar planets,” Icarus 38, 136–147 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Brunaud, J.

M. Ollivier, J-M. Mariotti, A. Léger, P. Sékulic, J. Brunaud, G. Michel, “Interferometric coronography for the DARWIN space mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” Astron. Astrophys. 370, 1128–1136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ollivier, A. Léger, P. Sekulic, C. Anceau, J. Brunaud, G. Artzner, J. M. Mariotti, G. Michel, V. Coudé Du Foresto, B. Mennesson, P. Bouchareine, T. Lépine, F. Malbet, “Nulling interferometry for the DARWIN mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 443–447.

Carleton, N. P.

B. Mennesson, J. M. Mariotti, V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, S. Ridgway, C. Ruilier, W. A. Traub, N. P. Carleton, M. G. Lacasse, G. Mazé, “Thermal infrared stellar interferometry using single-mode optics: first results with the TISIS experiment on IOTA,” Astron. Astrophys. 346, 181–189 (1999).

Cassaing, F.

Colavita, M.

M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. Van Belle, G. Vasicht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “The Keck Interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Conan, J. M.

J. M. Conan, “Etude de la correction partielle en optique adaptative,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Paris XI, 1994).

Coudé du Foresto, V.

B. Mennesson, J. M. Mariotti, V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, S. Ridgway, C. Ruilier, W. A. Traub, N. P. Carleton, M. G. Lacasse, G. Mazé, “Thermal infrared stellar interferometry using single-mode optics: first results with the TISIS experiment on IOTA,” Astron. Astrophys. 346, 181–189 (1999).

V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, C. Ruilier, B. Mennesson, W. Traub, M. Lacasse, “The FLUOR fibered instrument at the IOTA interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 856–863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Ollivier, A. Léger, P. Sekulic, C. Anceau, J. Brunaud, G. Artzner, J. M. Mariotti, G. Michel, V. Coudé Du Foresto, B. Mennesson, P. Bouchareine, T. Lépine, F. Malbet, “Nulling interferometry for the DARWIN mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 443–447.

V. Coudé du Foresto, S. T. Ridgway, “FLUOR: a stellar interferometer using single-mode infrared fibers,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J. Beckers, F. Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1991), pp. 731–740.

Crawford, S. L.

M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. Van Belle, G. Vasicht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “The Keck Interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haguenauer, P.

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perrault, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry II: first laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, G. J.

E. Serabyn, J. K. Wallace, H. T. Nguyen, E. G. H. Schmidtlin, G. J. Hardy, “Nulling interferometry: working on the dark fringe,” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 437–442.

Hill, J. M.

J. R. P. Angel, J. M. Hill, P. A. Strittmatter, P. Salinari, G. Weigelt, “Interferometry with the large binocular telescope,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 881–889 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kern, P.

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perrault, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry II: first laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perrault, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, P. Kern, F. Malbet, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry,” in Proceedings of the Astrofib’96 Conference, P. Kern, F. Malbet eds. (Bastianelli and Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), pp. 99–108.

Lacasse, M.

V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, C. Ruilier, B. Mennesson, W. Traub, M. Lacasse, “The FLUOR fibered instrument at the IOTA interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 856–863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lacasse, M. G.

B. Mennesson, J. M. Mariotti, V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, S. Ridgway, C. Ruilier, W. A. Traub, N. P. Carleton, M. G. Lacasse, G. Mazé, “Thermal infrared stellar interferometry using single-mode optics: first results with the TISIS experiment on IOTA,” Astron. Astrophys. 346, 181–189 (1999).

Léger, A.

M. Ollivier, J-M. Mariotti, A. Léger, P. Sékulic, J. Brunaud, G. Michel, “Interferometric coronography for the DARWIN space mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” Astron. Astrophys. 370, 1128–1136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Léger, J. M. Mariotti, B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, J. L. Puget, D. Rouan, J. Schneider, “Could we search for primitive life on extrasolar planets in the near future? The DARWIN project,” Icarus 123, 249–255 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Ollivier, A. Léger, P. Sekulic, C. Anceau, J. Brunaud, G. Artzner, J. M. Mariotti, G. Michel, V. Coudé Du Foresto, B. Mennesson, P. Bouchareine, T. Lépine, F. Malbet, “Nulling interferometry for the DARWIN mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 443–447.

Lépine, T.

M. Ollivier, A. Léger, P. Sekulic, C. Anceau, J. Brunaud, G. Artzner, J. M. Mariotti, G. Michel, V. Coudé Du Foresto, B. Mennesson, P. Bouchareine, T. Lépine, F. Malbet, “Nulling interferometry for the DARWIN mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 443–447.

Malbet, F.

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perrault, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perrault, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry II: first laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, P. Kern, F. Malbet, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry,” in Proceedings of the Astrofib’96 Conference, P. Kern, F. Malbet eds. (Bastianelli and Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), pp. 99–108.

M. Ollivier, A. Léger, P. Sekulic, C. Anceau, J. Brunaud, G. Artzner, J. M. Mariotti, G. Michel, V. Coudé Du Foresto, B. Mennesson, P. Bouchareine, T. Lépine, F. Malbet, “Nulling interferometry for the DARWIN mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 443–447.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, “Excitation of parabolic-index fibers with incoherent sources,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1507–1530 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mariotti, J. M.

B. Mennesson, J. M. Mariotti, V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, S. Ridgway, C. Ruilier, W. A. Traub, N. P. Carleton, M. G. Lacasse, G. Mazé, “Thermal infrared stellar interferometry using single-mode optics: first results with the TISIS experiment on IOTA,” Astron. Astrophys. 346, 181–189 (1999).

B. Mennesson, J. M. Mariotti, “Array configurations for a space nulling interferometer dedicated to the search for Earth-like extrasolar planets,” Icarus 128, 202–212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Ollivier, J. M. Mariotti, “Improvement in the rejection rate of a nulling interferometer by spatial filtering,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5340–5346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Léger, J. M. Mariotti, B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, J. L. Puget, D. Rouan, J. Schneider, “Could we search for primitive life on extrasolar planets in the near future? The DARWIN project,” Icarus 123, 249–255 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Ollivier, A. Léger, P. Sekulic, C. Anceau, J. Brunaud, G. Artzner, J. M. Mariotti, G. Michel, V. Coudé Du Foresto, B. Mennesson, P. Bouchareine, T. Lépine, F. Malbet, “Nulling interferometry for the DARWIN mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 443–447.

Mariotti, J-M.

M. Ollivier, J-M. Mariotti, A. Léger, P. Sékulic, J. Brunaud, G. Michel, “Interferometric coronography for the DARWIN space mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” Astron. Astrophys. 370, 1128–1136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mazé, G.

B. Mennesson, J. M. Mariotti, V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, S. Ridgway, C. Ruilier, W. A. Traub, N. P. Carleton, M. G. Lacasse, G. Mazé, “Thermal infrared stellar interferometry using single-mode optics: first results with the TISIS experiment on IOTA,” Astron. Astrophys. 346, 181–189 (1999).

M. Monerie, F. Alard, G. Mazé, “Fabrication and characterization of fluoride-glass single-mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 21(25/26), 1179–1181 (1985).
[CrossRef]

McPhie, R. H.

R. N. Bracewell, R. H. McPhie, “Searching for nonsolar planets,” Icarus 38, 136–147 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Meinel, A. B.

M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. Van Belle, G. Vasicht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “The Keck Interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mennesson, B.

B. Mennesson, J. M. Mariotti, V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, S. Ridgway, C. Ruilier, W. A. Traub, N. P. Carleton, M. G. Lacasse, G. Mazé, “Thermal infrared stellar interferometry using single-mode optics: first results with the TISIS experiment on IOTA,” Astron. Astrophys. 346, 181–189 (1999).

B. Mennesson, J. M. Mariotti, “Array configurations for a space nulling interferometer dedicated to the search for Earth-like extrasolar planets,” Icarus 128, 202–212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Léger, J. M. Mariotti, B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, J. L. Puget, D. Rouan, J. Schneider, “Could we search for primitive life on extrasolar planets in the near future? The DARWIN project,” Icarus 123, 249–255 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Ollivier, A. Léger, P. Sekulic, C. Anceau, J. Brunaud, G. Artzner, J. M. Mariotti, G. Michel, V. Coudé Du Foresto, B. Mennesson, P. Bouchareine, T. Lépine, F. Malbet, “Nulling interferometry for the DARWIN mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 443–447.

B. Mennesson, “Thermal infrared stellar interferometry: observations of circumstellar environments using single-mode guided optics and contributions to the DARWIN space mission,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Paris VII, 1999).

V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, C. Ruilier, B. Mennesson, W. Traub, M. Lacasse, “The FLUOR fibered instrument at the IOTA interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 856–863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michel, G.

M. Ollivier, J-M. Mariotti, A. Léger, P. Sékulic, J. Brunaud, G. Michel, “Interferometric coronography for the DARWIN space mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” Astron. Astrophys. 370, 1128–1136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ollivier, A. Léger, P. Sekulic, C. Anceau, J. Brunaud, G. Artzner, J. M. Mariotti, G. Michel, V. Coudé Du Foresto, B. Mennesson, P. Bouchareine, T. Lépine, F. Malbet, “Nulling interferometry for the DARWIN mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 443–447.

Monerie, M.

M. Monerie, F. Alard, G. Mazé, “Fabrication and characterization of fluoride-glass single-mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 21(25/26), 1179–1181 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. T.

E. Serabyn, J. K. Wallace, H. T. Nguyen, E. G. H. Schmidtlin, G. J. Hardy, “Nulling interferometry: working on the dark fringe,” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 437–442.

Ollivier, M.

M. Ollivier, J-M. Mariotti, A. Léger, P. Sékulic, J. Brunaud, G. Michel, “Interferometric coronography for the DARWIN space mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” Astron. Astrophys. 370, 1128–1136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ollivier, J. M. Mariotti, “Improvement in the rejection rate of a nulling interferometer by spatial filtering,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5340–5346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Léger, J. M. Mariotti, B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, J. L. Puget, D. Rouan, J. Schneider, “Could we search for primitive life on extrasolar planets in the near future? The DARWIN project,” Icarus 123, 249–255 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Ollivier, A. Léger, P. Sekulic, C. Anceau, J. Brunaud, G. Artzner, J. M. Mariotti, G. Michel, V. Coudé Du Foresto, B. Mennesson, P. Bouchareine, T. Lépine, F. Malbet, “Nulling interferometry for the DARWIN mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 443–447.

Pelat, D.

D. Pelat, Course titled “ Bruits et signaux,” Ecole doctorale d’lle de France, Department Astronomie-Astrophysique, Paris, 1994, p. 40.

Perrin, G.

B. Mennesson, J. M. Mariotti, V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, S. Ridgway, C. Ruilier, W. A. Traub, N. P. Carleton, M. G. Lacasse, G. Mazé, “Thermal infrared stellar interferometry using single-mode optics: first results with the TISIS experiment on IOTA,” Astron. Astrophys. 346, 181–189 (1999).

V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, C. Ruilier, B. Mennesson, W. Traub, M. Lacasse, “The FLUOR fibered instrument at the IOTA interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 856–863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Perrin, “Une unité de recombinaison à fibres pour l’interféromètre IOTA. Application à l’étude des étoiles de type tardif,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Paris VII, 1996).

Puget, J. L.

A. Léger, J. M. Mariotti, B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, J. L. Puget, D. Rouan, J. Schneider, “Could we search for primitive life on extrasolar planets in the near future? The DARWIN project,” Icarus 123, 249–255 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, F.

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perrault, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry II: first laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ridgway, S.

B. Mennesson, J. M. Mariotti, V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, S. Ridgway, C. Ruilier, W. A. Traub, N. P. Carleton, M. G. Lacasse, G. Mazé, “Thermal infrared stellar interferometry using single-mode optics: first results with the TISIS experiment on IOTA,” Astron. Astrophys. 346, 181–189 (1999).

Ridgway, S. T.

V. Coudé du Foresto, S. T. Ridgway, “FLUOR: a stellar interferometer using single-mode infrared fibers,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J. Beckers, F. Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1991), pp. 731–740.

Roddier, F.

S. Shaklan, F. Roddier, “Coupling starlight into single-mode fiber optics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2234–2238 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rouan, D.

A. Léger, J. M. Mariotti, B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, J. L. Puget, D. Rouan, J. Schneider, “Could we search for primitive life on extrasolar planets in the near future? The DARWIN project,” Icarus 123, 249–255 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rousselet-Perrault, K.

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perrault, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry II: first laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perrault, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ruilier, C.

C. Ruilier, F. Cassaing, “Coupling of large telescopes and single-mode waveguides: application to stellar interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 143–149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Mennesson, J. M. Mariotti, V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, S. Ridgway, C. Ruilier, W. A. Traub, N. P. Carleton, M. G. Lacasse, G. Mazé, “Thermal infrared stellar interferometry using single-mode optics: first results with the TISIS experiment on IOTA,” Astron. Astrophys. 346, 181–189 (1999).

C. Ruilier, “A study of degraded light coupling into single-mode fibers,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 319–327 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, C. Ruilier, B. Mennesson, W. Traub, M. Lacasse, “The FLUOR fibered instrument at the IOTA interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 856–863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Ruilier, “Filtrage modal et recombinaison de grands télescopes. Contributions à l’instrument FLUOR,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Paris VII, 1999).

Salinari, P.

J. R. P. Angel, J. M. Hill, P. A. Strittmatter, P. Salinari, G. Weigelt, “Interferometry with the large binocular telescope,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 881–889 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schanen-Duport, I.

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perrault, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perrault, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry II: first laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, P. Kern, F. Malbet, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry,” in Proceedings of the Astrofib’96 Conference, P. Kern, F. Malbet eds. (Bastianelli and Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), pp. 99–108.

Schmidtlin, E. G. H.

E. Serabyn, J. K. Wallace, H. T. Nguyen, E. G. H. Schmidtlin, G. J. Hardy, “Nulling interferometry: working on the dark fringe,” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 437–442.

Schneider, J.

A. Léger, J. M. Mariotti, B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, J. L. Puget, D. Rouan, J. Schneider, “Could we search for primitive life on extrasolar planets in the near future? The DARWIN project,” Icarus 123, 249–255 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sekulic, P.

M. Ollivier, A. Léger, P. Sekulic, C. Anceau, J. Brunaud, G. Artzner, J. M. Mariotti, G. Michel, V. Coudé Du Foresto, B. Mennesson, P. Bouchareine, T. Lépine, F. Malbet, “Nulling interferometry for the DARWIN mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 443–447.

Sékulic, P.

M. Ollivier, J-M. Mariotti, A. Léger, P. Sékulic, J. Brunaud, G. Michel, “Interferometric coronography for the DARWIN space mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” Astron. Astrophys. 370, 1128–1136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Serabyn, E.

E. Serabyn, J. K. Wallace, H. T. Nguyen, E. G. H. Schmidtlin, G. J. Hardy, “Nulling interferometry: working on the dark fringe,” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 437–442.

E. Serabyn, “Nulling interferometry: symmetry requirements and experimental results,” Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Léna, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 328–339 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shaklan, S.

S. Shaklan, F. Roddier, “Coupling starlight into single-mode fiber optics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2234–2238 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shao, M.

M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. Van Belle, G. Vasicht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “The Keck Interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Strittmatter, P. A.

J. R. P. Angel, J. M. Hill, P. A. Strittmatter, P. Salinari, G. Weigelt, “Interferometry with the large binocular telescope,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 881–889 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, P. N.

M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. Van Belle, G. Vasicht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “The Keck Interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Traub, W.

V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, C. Ruilier, B. Mennesson, W. Traub, M. Lacasse, “The FLUOR fibered instrument at the IOTA interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 856–863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Traub, W. A.

B. Mennesson, J. M. Mariotti, V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, S. Ridgway, C. Ruilier, W. A. Traub, N. P. Carleton, M. G. Lacasse, G. Mazé, “Thermal infrared stellar interferometry using single-mode optics: first results with the TISIS experiment on IOTA,” Astron. Astrophys. 346, 181–189 (1999).

Van Belle, G. T.

M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. Van Belle, G. Vasicht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “The Keck Interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vasicht, G.

M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. Van Belle, G. Vasicht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “The Keck Interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Voit, G. M.

G. M. Voit, “On nulling interferometers and the line emitting regions of active galactic nuclei,” Astrophys. J. 487, L109–113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. M.

M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. Van Belle, G. Vasicht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “The Keck Interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, J. K.

M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. Van Belle, G. Vasicht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “The Keck Interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, J. K. Wallace, H. T. Nguyen, E. G. H. Schmidtlin, G. J. Hardy, “Nulling interferometry: working on the dark fringe,” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 437–442.

Weigelt, G.

J. R. P. Angel, J. M. Hill, P. A. Strittmatter, P. Salinari, G. Weigelt, “Interferometry with the large binocular telescope,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 881–889 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wizinowich, P. L.

M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. Van Belle, G. Vasicht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “The Keck Interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Woolf, N. J.

J. R. P. Angel, N. J. Woolf, “An imaging nulling interferometer to study extrasolar planets,” Astrophys. J. 475, 373–379 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

B. Mennesson, J. M. Mariotti, V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, S. Ridgway, C. Ruilier, W. A. Traub, N. P. Carleton, M. G. Lacasse, G. Mazé, “Thermal infrared stellar interferometry using single-mode optics: first results with the TISIS experiment on IOTA,” Astron. Astrophys. 346, 181–189 (1999).

M. Ollivier, J-M. Mariotti, A. Léger, P. Sékulic, J. Brunaud, G. Michel, “Interferometric coronography for the DARWIN space mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” Astron. Astrophys. 370, 1128–1136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. (2)

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perrault, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perrault, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry II: first laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (2)

J. R. P. Angel, N. J. Woolf, “An imaging nulling interferometer to study extrasolar planets,” Astrophys. J. 475, 373–379 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Voit, “On nulling interferometers and the line emitting regions of active galactic nuclei,” Astrophys. J. 487, L109–113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Marcuse, “Excitation of parabolic-index fibers with incoherent sources,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1507–1530 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Monerie, F. Alard, G. Mazé, “Fabrication and characterization of fluoride-glass single-mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 21(25/26), 1179–1181 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Icarus (3)

A. Léger, J. M. Mariotti, B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, J. L. Puget, D. Rouan, J. Schneider, “Could we search for primitive life on extrasolar planets in the near future? The DARWIN project,” Icarus 123, 249–255 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Mennesson, J. M. Mariotti, “Array configurations for a space nulling interferometer dedicated to the search for Earth-like extrasolar planets,” Icarus 128, 202–212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Bracewell, R. H. McPhie, “Searching for nonsolar planets,” Icarus 38, 136–147 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Other (15)

M. Ollivier, A. Léger, P. Sekulic, C. Anceau, J. Brunaud, G. Artzner, J. M. Mariotti, G. Michel, V. Coudé Du Foresto, B. Mennesson, P. Bouchareine, T. Lépine, F. Malbet, “Nulling interferometry for the DARWIN mission—laboratory demonstration experiment,” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 443–447.

E. Serabyn, J. K. Wallace, H. T. Nguyen, E. G. H. Schmidtlin, G. J. Hardy, “Nulling interferometry: working on the dark fringe,” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 437–442.

B. Mennesson, “Thermal infrared stellar interferometry: observations of circumstellar environments using single-mode guided optics and contributions to the DARWIN space mission,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Paris VII, 1999).

E. Serabyn, “Nulling interferometry: symmetry requirements and experimental results,” Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Léna, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 328–339 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Conan, “Etude de la correction partielle en optique adaptative,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Paris XI, 1994).

G. Perrin, “Une unité de recombinaison à fibres pour l’interféromètre IOTA. Application à l’étude des étoiles de type tardif,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Paris VII, 1996).

C. Beichman, “The terrestrial planet finder: the search for life bearing planets around other stars,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 719–723 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. Van Belle, G. Vasicht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “The Keck Interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. P. Angel, J. M. Hill, P. A. Strittmatter, P. Salinari, G. Weigelt, “Interferometry with the large binocular telescope,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 881–889 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Coudé du Foresto, S. T. Ridgway, “FLUOR: a stellar interferometer using single-mode infrared fibers,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J. Beckers, F. Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1991), pp. 731–740.

V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, C. Ruilier, B. Mennesson, W. Traub, M. Lacasse, “The FLUOR fibered instrument at the IOTA interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, Robert D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 856–863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, P. Kern, F. Malbet, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry,” in Proceedings of the Astrofib’96 Conference, P. Kern, F. Malbet eds. (Bastianelli and Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), pp. 99–108.

C. Ruilier, “A study of degraded light coupling into single-mode fibers,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 319–327 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Pelat, Course titled “ Bruits et signaux,” Ecole doctorale d’lle de France, Department Astronomie-Astrophysique, Paris, 1994, p. 40.

C. Ruilier, “Filtrage modal et recombinaison de grands télescopes. Contributions à l’instrument FLUOR,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Paris VII, 1999).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized stellar leaks at the nulled output of a Bracewell interferometer, as a function of Zernike index i with the assumptions ai=0.1 and ji, aj=0. Besides the piston (i=1), which is assumed to be perfectly corrected by an active delay line, the first 66 Zernike polynomials have been used, which goes up to a radial degree n=10. Solid curve: level of residual stellar leaks when using pinholes as spatial filters—physical size λf/D—located in the focal plane of each telescope and assuming equal beam amplitudes. For a given value of n, the spatial frequency of the defect is fixed, and the rejection factor is more or less affected by the various possible defects, which explains the irregularities of the curve. The stellar leakage is otherwise a monotonic decreasing function of n, i.e., of the spatial frequency. Dotted line: residual stellar leaks without spatial filtering. Dashed line, residual stellar leaks observed with single-mode fibers, without correction of amplitude imbalance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Stellar leaks in a Bracewell interferometer as a function of the rms pointing error, assumed to be of equal strength for both telescopes. Tilt rms error is given as a fraction of the Airy disk (λ/D) at the working scientific wavelength. Solid curve, with a single-mode fiber—optimum physical size for coupling—at the focus of each telescope, or better, after recombination of the beams, without any amplitude correction. Dashed curve, with a pinhole—physical size λf/D—as spatial filter, after amplitude correction. Dotted curve, without any filtering. Even without correction of the relative amplitudes of the beams, single-mode fibers drastically relax the requirement on telescope pointing accuracy.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Coupling efficiency into a single-mode fiber (at the cutoff wavelength) as a function of tilt for different injection f ratios. Triangles f ratio f, optimum for coupling at perfect pointing. Diamonds f ratio 2 f. Squares, f ratio f/2. In each case, the coupling efficiency is normalized to coupling efficiency at perfect pointing: 0.78 (focal f ), 0.44 (focal 2 f), and 0.38 (focal f/2). The coupling efficiency becomes less sensitive to pointing defects as f decreases.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simple Bracewell concept showing spatial filtering through a common single-mode fiber located after recombination of the beams in the focal plane. The fiber can be directly inserted into the cold part of the detector block in order to minimize the amount of thermal background seen by the detector. The gray box symbolically represents a recombining device producing an achromatic π phase shift on one output and constructive interference on the other.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Solid curve, radius w0 of the fiber’s fundamental mode expressed in units of core radius, as a function of the wavelength in number of cutoff wavelengths. Dashed line, best fit with a w0=kλ law.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Injection efficiency (relative to theoretical maximum) of an Airy pattern into a single-mode waveguide as a function of wavelength between the cutoff wavelength λc and twice its value. No Gaussian approximation has been made. The fundamental mode used in this simulation is the true solution of Maxwell equations in a cylindrical stepindex single-mode waveguide.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical Constraints on the Phase,a the Amplitude,a and the Polarizationb of the Different Beams in the Case of Spatial Filtering through a Single-Mode Waveguide through a Pinhole and without Any Correction for a Two-Telescope Nulling Interferometer

Equations (16)

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Φ(r)=i=1aiZi(r).
V=exp(-1/2σϕ12)exp(-1/2σϕ22),
sl=1-V2,
sl=σϕ12+σϕ224=ai24,
V=21+x/(2+x),
sl=(1-V)/2x2/16.
1+x=exp(-σϕ22)exp(-σϕ12),
x=σϕ12-σϕ22.
sl=(σϕ12-σϕ22)216.
sl=ai4/16.
σϕ1,22(t)=(1/4)[πDδθ1,2(t)/λ]2.
sl=(πDσθ/λ)28.
sl=(πD/λ)4(δθ12(t)-δθ22(t))2256.
[δθ12(t)-δθ22(t)]2=4σθ4
sl=(πDσθ/λ)464.
w0=0.71λf/D.

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