Abstract

In color halftoning, moiré is the low-frequency spatial artifact generated by the interference of superimposed primary color dot screens that adds an unwanted artificial texture to the printed image. When these overlapping dot screens are irregular, as in the case of stochastic dot screens, this interference pattern follows a random spatial distribution resulting in “stochastic” moiré. This stochastic moiré is at its most visible when the overlapping dither patterns have the same relative spacing between dots. We study the occurrence of stochastic moiré in green-noise halftones where dither patterns are composed of clusters of varying sizes and where the visibility of stochastic moiré can be reduced by varying the coarseness of dither patterns between the component cyan, magenta, yellow, and black colors.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. A. Ulichney, Digital Halftoning (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1987).
  2. D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, Modern Digital Halftoning (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001).
  3. H. R. Kang, Digital Color Halftoning (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1999).
  4. D. L. Lau, A. M. Khan, G. R. Arce, “Stochastic moiré,” in Proceedings of the IS&T’s PICS 2001: Image Processing, Image Quality, Image Capture Systems Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 2001), pp. 96–100.
  5. L. Glass, “Moiré effect from random dots,” Nature 223, 578–580 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. Glass, “Perception of random dot interference patterns,” Nature 246, 360–362 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, N. C. Gallagher, “Green-noise digital halftoning,” in Proc. IEEE 86, 2424–2444 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Mitsa, K. J. Parker, “Digital halftoning technique using a blue noise mask,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1920–1929 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, N. C. Gallagher, “Digital halftoning by means of green-noise masks,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1575–1586 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Amidror, R. D. Hersch, V. Ostromoukhov, “Spectral analysis and minimization of moiré patterns in color separation,” J. Electron. Imaging 3, 295–317 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. W. Campbell, R. H. Carpenter, J. Levinson, “Visibility of aperiodic patterns compared with that of sinusoidal gratings,” J. Physiol. 190, 283–298 (1969).
  12. A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994).
  13. J. Sullivan, L. Ray, R. Miller, “Design of minimum visual modulation halftone patterns,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 21, 33–38 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. W. Floyd, L. Steinberg, “An adaptive algorithm for spatial gray-scale,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 17, 75–78 (1976).
  15. J. F. Jarvis, C. N. Judice, W. H. Ninke, “A survey of techniques for the display of continuous-tone pictures on bilevel displays,” Comput. Graph. Image Process. 5, 13–40 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Stucki, “Mecca-a multiple-error correcting computation algorithm for bilevel image hard-copy reproduction,” (IBM Research Laboratory, Zurich, Switzerland, 1981).
  17. R. A. Ulichney, “Dithering with blue noise,” Proc. IEEE 76, 56–79 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Yao, K. J. Parker, “Application of the blue-noise mask in color halftoning,” in Visual Communications and Image Processing, R. Ansari, M. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE2727, 876–880 (1996).
  19. D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, N. C. Gallagher, “Digital color halftoning via generalized error-diffusion and multi-channel green-noise masks,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9, 923–935 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. J. Lieberman, J. P. Allebach, “Model based direct binary search halftone optimization with a dual interpretation,” in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, R. Werner, ed. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 44–48.
  21. R. Levien, “Output dependent feedback in error diffusion halftoning,” in Proceedings of the IS&T’s Eighth International Congress on Advances in Non-Impact Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1992), pp. 280–282.
  22. F. Faheem, D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, “Multilevel halftoning using bi-level quantization,” in Proceedings of the IS&T’s PICS 2001: Image Processing, Image Quality, Image Capture Systems Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 2001), pp. 64–67.

2000 (1)

D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, N. C. Gallagher, “Digital color halftoning via generalized error-diffusion and multi-channel green-noise masks,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9, 923–935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, N. C. Gallagher, “Green-noise digital halftoning,” in Proc. IEEE 86, 2424–2444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

I. Amidror, R. D. Hersch, V. Ostromoukhov, “Spectral analysis and minimization of moiré patterns in color separation,” J. Electron. Imaging 3, 295–317 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

J. Sullivan, L. Ray, R. Miller, “Design of minimum visual modulation halftone patterns,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 21, 33–38 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. A. Ulichney, “Dithering with blue noise,” Proc. IEEE 76, 56–79 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

R. W. Floyd, L. Steinberg, “An adaptive algorithm for spatial gray-scale,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 17, 75–78 (1976).

J. F. Jarvis, C. N. Judice, W. H. Ninke, “A survey of techniques for the display of continuous-tone pictures on bilevel displays,” Comput. Graph. Image Process. 5, 13–40 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

L. Glass, “Perception of random dot interference patterns,” Nature 246, 360–362 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (2)

L. Glass, “Moiré effect from random dots,” Nature 223, 578–580 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. W. Campbell, R. H. Carpenter, J. Levinson, “Visibility of aperiodic patterns compared with that of sinusoidal gratings,” J. Physiol. 190, 283–298 (1969).

Allebach, J. P.

D. J. Lieberman, J. P. Allebach, “Model based direct binary search halftone optimization with a dual interpretation,” in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, R. Werner, ed. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 44–48.

Amidror, I.

I. Amidror, R. D. Hersch, V. Ostromoukhov, “Spectral analysis and minimization of moiré patterns in color separation,” J. Electron. Imaging 3, 295–317 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arce, G. R.

D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, N. C. Gallagher, “Digital color halftoning via generalized error-diffusion and multi-channel green-noise masks,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9, 923–935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, N. C. Gallagher, “Digital halftoning by means of green-noise masks,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1575–1586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, N. C. Gallagher, “Green-noise digital halftoning,” in Proc. IEEE 86, 2424–2444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, Modern Digital Halftoning (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001).

F. Faheem, D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, “Multilevel halftoning using bi-level quantization,” in Proceedings of the IS&T’s PICS 2001: Image Processing, Image Quality, Image Capture Systems Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 2001), pp. 64–67.

D. L. Lau, A. M. Khan, G. R. Arce, “Stochastic moiré,” in Proceedings of the IS&T’s PICS 2001: Image Processing, Image Quality, Image Capture Systems Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 2001), pp. 96–100.

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell, R. H. Carpenter, J. Levinson, “Visibility of aperiodic patterns compared with that of sinusoidal gratings,” J. Physiol. 190, 283–298 (1969).

Carpenter, R. H.

F. W. Campbell, R. H. Carpenter, J. Levinson, “Visibility of aperiodic patterns compared with that of sinusoidal gratings,” J. Physiol. 190, 283–298 (1969).

Faheem, F.

F. Faheem, D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, “Multilevel halftoning using bi-level quantization,” in Proceedings of the IS&T’s PICS 2001: Image Processing, Image Quality, Image Capture Systems Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 2001), pp. 64–67.

Floyd, R. W.

R. W. Floyd, L. Steinberg, “An adaptive algorithm for spatial gray-scale,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 17, 75–78 (1976).

Gallagher, N. C.

D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, N. C. Gallagher, “Digital color halftoning via generalized error-diffusion and multi-channel green-noise masks,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9, 923–935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, N. C. Gallagher, “Digital halftoning by means of green-noise masks,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1575–1586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, N. C. Gallagher, “Green-noise digital halftoning,” in Proc. IEEE 86, 2424–2444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glass, L.

L. Glass, “Perception of random dot interference patterns,” Nature 246, 360–362 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Glass, “Moiré effect from random dots,” Nature 223, 578–580 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hersch, R. D.

I. Amidror, R. D. Hersch, V. Ostromoukhov, “Spectral analysis and minimization of moiré patterns in color separation,” J. Electron. Imaging 3, 295–317 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jarvis, J. F.

J. F. Jarvis, C. N. Judice, W. H. Ninke, “A survey of techniques for the display of continuous-tone pictures on bilevel displays,” Comput. Graph. Image Process. 5, 13–40 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Judice, C. N.

J. F. Jarvis, C. N. Judice, W. H. Ninke, “A survey of techniques for the display of continuous-tone pictures on bilevel displays,” Comput. Graph. Image Process. 5, 13–40 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H. R.

H. R. Kang, Digital Color Halftoning (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1999).

Khan, A. M.

D. L. Lau, A. M. Khan, G. R. Arce, “Stochastic moiré,” in Proceedings of the IS&T’s PICS 2001: Image Processing, Image Quality, Image Capture Systems Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 2001), pp. 96–100.

Lau, D. L.

D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, N. C. Gallagher, “Digital color halftoning via generalized error-diffusion and multi-channel green-noise masks,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9, 923–935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, N. C. Gallagher, “Digital halftoning by means of green-noise masks,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1575–1586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, N. C. Gallagher, “Green-noise digital halftoning,” in Proc. IEEE 86, 2424–2444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, Modern Digital Halftoning (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001).

F. Faheem, D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, “Multilevel halftoning using bi-level quantization,” in Proceedings of the IS&T’s PICS 2001: Image Processing, Image Quality, Image Capture Systems Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 2001), pp. 64–67.

D. L. Lau, A. M. Khan, G. R. Arce, “Stochastic moiré,” in Proceedings of the IS&T’s PICS 2001: Image Processing, Image Quality, Image Capture Systems Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 2001), pp. 96–100.

Levien, R.

R. Levien, “Output dependent feedback in error diffusion halftoning,” in Proceedings of the IS&T’s Eighth International Congress on Advances in Non-Impact Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1992), pp. 280–282.

Levinson, J.

F. W. Campbell, R. H. Carpenter, J. Levinson, “Visibility of aperiodic patterns compared with that of sinusoidal gratings,” J. Physiol. 190, 283–298 (1969).

Lieberman, D. J.

D. J. Lieberman, J. P. Allebach, “Model based direct binary search halftone optimization with a dual interpretation,” in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, R. Werner, ed. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 44–48.

Miller, R.

J. Sullivan, L. Ray, R. Miller, “Design of minimum visual modulation halftone patterns,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 21, 33–38 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mitsa, T.

Ninke, W. H.

J. F. Jarvis, C. N. Judice, W. H. Ninke, “A survey of techniques for the display of continuous-tone pictures on bilevel displays,” Comput. Graph. Image Process. 5, 13–40 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ostromoukhov, V.

I. Amidror, R. D. Hersch, V. Ostromoukhov, “Spectral analysis and minimization of moiré patterns in color separation,” J. Electron. Imaging 3, 295–317 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Papoulis, A.

A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994).

Parker, K. J.

T. Mitsa, K. J. Parker, “Digital halftoning technique using a blue noise mask,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1920–1929 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Yao, K. J. Parker, “Application of the blue-noise mask in color halftoning,” in Visual Communications and Image Processing, R. Ansari, M. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE2727, 876–880 (1996).

Ray, L.

J. Sullivan, L. Ray, R. Miller, “Design of minimum visual modulation halftone patterns,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 21, 33–38 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Steinberg, L.

R. W. Floyd, L. Steinberg, “An adaptive algorithm for spatial gray-scale,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 17, 75–78 (1976).

Stucki, P.

P. Stucki, “Mecca-a multiple-error correcting computation algorithm for bilevel image hard-copy reproduction,” (IBM Research Laboratory, Zurich, Switzerland, 1981).

Sullivan, J.

J. Sullivan, L. Ray, R. Miller, “Design of minimum visual modulation halftone patterns,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 21, 33–38 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ulichney, R. A.

R. A. Ulichney, “Dithering with blue noise,” Proc. IEEE 76, 56–79 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ulichney, Digital Halftoning (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1987).

Yao, M.

M. Yao, K. J. Parker, “Application of the blue-noise mask in color halftoning,” in Visual Communications and Image Processing, R. Ansari, M. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE2727, 876–880 (1996).

Comput. Graph. Image Process. (1)

J. F. Jarvis, C. N. Judice, W. H. Ninke, “A survey of techniques for the display of continuous-tone pictures on bilevel displays,” Comput. Graph. Image Process. 5, 13–40 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, N. C. Gallagher, “Digital color halftoning via generalized error-diffusion and multi-channel green-noise masks,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9, 923–935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. (1)

J. Sullivan, L. Ray, R. Miller, “Design of minimum visual modulation halftone patterns,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 21, 33–38 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

I. Amidror, R. D. Hersch, V. Ostromoukhov, “Spectral analysis and minimization of moiré patterns in color separation,” J. Electron. Imaging 3, 295–317 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Physiol. (1)

F. W. Campbell, R. H. Carpenter, J. Levinson, “Visibility of aperiodic patterns compared with that of sinusoidal gratings,” J. Physiol. 190, 283–298 (1969).

Nature (2)

L. Glass, “Moiré effect from random dots,” Nature 223, 578–580 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Glass, “Perception of random dot interference patterns,” Nature 246, 360–362 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (2)

D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, N. C. Gallagher, “Green-noise digital halftoning,” in Proc. IEEE 86, 2424–2444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ulichney, “Dithering with blue noise,” Proc. IEEE 76, 56–79 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Inf. Display (1)

R. W. Floyd, L. Steinberg, “An adaptive algorithm for spatial gray-scale,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 17, 75–78 (1976).

Other (10)

A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994).

M. Yao, K. J. Parker, “Application of the blue-noise mask in color halftoning,” in Visual Communications and Image Processing, R. Ansari, M. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE2727, 876–880 (1996).

P. Stucki, “Mecca-a multiple-error correcting computation algorithm for bilevel image hard-copy reproduction,” (IBM Research Laboratory, Zurich, Switzerland, 1981).

R. A. Ulichney, Digital Halftoning (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1987).

D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, Modern Digital Halftoning (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001).

H. R. Kang, Digital Color Halftoning (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1999).

D. L. Lau, A. M. Khan, G. R. Arce, “Stochastic moiré,” in Proceedings of the IS&T’s PICS 2001: Image Processing, Image Quality, Image Capture Systems Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 2001), pp. 96–100.

D. J. Lieberman, J. P. Allebach, “Model based direct binary search halftone optimization with a dual interpretation,” in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, R. Werner, ed. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 44–48.

R. Levien, “Output dependent feedback in error diffusion halftoning,” in Proceedings of the IS&T’s Eighth International Congress on Advances in Non-Impact Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1992), pp. 280–282.

F. Faheem, D. L. Lau, G. R. Arce, “Multilevel halftoning using bi-level quantization,” in Proceedings of the IS&T’s PICS 2001: Image Processing, Image Quality, Image Capture Systems Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 2001), pp. 64–67.

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