Abstract

We measured the monochromatic aberrations of five subjects’ right eyes both temporally and nasally out to 40° from fixation. We used a Hartmann–Shack sensor with modifications to equipment and software to enable off-axis measurements. Results were standardized for 6-mm pupils. There was considerable variation among subjects in the pattern of aberrations. Aberrations were generally greater in the nasal visual field than in the temporal visual field; in the case of third-order aberrations, this was true for all subjects. The contribution of third-order Zernike aberrations to the root-mean-square aberration increased up to four times from the center to the edge of the field, but the contribution of fourth- to sixth-order Zernike aberrations varied little across the visual field. Results were similar to those of a previous investigation using laser ray tracing and were of the order of those predicted by Navarro’s finite schematic eye.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, C. Hardy, “Refraction for the peripheral field of vision,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 9, 925–938 (1931).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, C. Hardy, “Refractive asymmetry in the temporal and nasal halves of the visual field,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 15, 513–522 (1932).
  3. C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, “Interpretation of refractive conditions in the peripheral field of vision,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 5, 717–731 (1933).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. C. A. Jenkins, “Aberrations of the eye and their effects on vision: part 2,” Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 20, 161–201 (1963).
    [PubMed]
  5. F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, W. P. H. Hoogenbloom, “Peripheral retinoscopy and the skiagram,” Ophthalmologica 162, 1–10 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Millodot, “Effect of ametropia on peripheral refraction,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 82, 461–465 (1981).
  7. G. Smith, M. Millodot, N. McBrien, “The effect of accommodation on oblique astigmatism and field curvature of the human eye,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 71, 119–125 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Gustafsson, E. Terenius, J. Buchheister, P. Unsbo, “Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21, 393–400 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. A. M. Jennings, W. N. Charman, “Optical image quality in the peripheral retina,” Amer. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 55, 582–590 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. M. Jennings, W. N. Charman, “Off-axis image quality in the human eye,” Vision Res. 21, 445–455 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. A. M. Jennings, W. N. Charman, “Analytic approximation of the off-axis modulation transfer function of the eye,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 697–704 (1997).
  13. R. Navarro, E. Moreno, C. Dorronsoro, “Monochromatic aberrations and point-spread functions of the human eye across the visual field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2522–2529 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand, “Laser safety. Part 1: equipment classification, requirements and user’s guide” (Standards Australia, Sydney, Australia, 1997).
  15. L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb and VSIA standards taskforce members, “Report from the VSIA taskforce on standards for reporting optical aberrations of the eye,” J. Refract. Surg.16, S654–S655 (2000).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. I. Escudero-Sanz, R. Navarro, “Off-axis aberrations of a wide-angle schematic eye model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1881–1891 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. A. Atchison, G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 2000), pp. 147–149, 173–176.

2001 (1)

J. Gustafsson, E. Terenius, J. Buchheister, P. Unsbo, “Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21, 393–400 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

J. A. M. Jennings, W. N. Charman, “Analytic approximation of the off-axis modulation transfer function of the eye,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 697–704 (1997).

1996 (1)

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

G. Smith, M. Millodot, N. McBrien, “The effect of accommodation on oblique astigmatism and field curvature of the human eye,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 71, 119–125 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1981 (2)

J. A. M. Jennings, W. N. Charman, “Off-axis image quality in the human eye,” Vision Res. 21, 445–455 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Millodot, “Effect of ametropia on peripheral refraction,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 82, 461–465 (1981).

1978 (1)

J. A. M. Jennings, W. N. Charman, “Optical image quality in the peripheral retina,” Amer. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 55, 582–590 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, W. P. H. Hoogenbloom, “Peripheral retinoscopy and the skiagram,” Ophthalmologica 162, 1–10 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1963 (1)

T. C. A. Jenkins, “Aberrations of the eye and their effects on vision: part 2,” Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 20, 161–201 (1963).
[PubMed]

1933 (1)

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, “Interpretation of refractive conditions in the peripheral field of vision,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 5, 717–731 (1933).
[CrossRef]

1932 (1)

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, C. Hardy, “Refractive asymmetry in the temporal and nasal halves of the visual field,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 15, 513–522 (1932).

1931 (1)

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, C. Hardy, “Refraction for the peripheral field of vision,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 9, 925–938 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Applegate, R. A.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb and VSIA standards taskforce members, “Report from the VSIA taskforce on standards for reporting optical aberrations of the eye,” J. Refract. Surg.16, S654–S655 (2000).
[PubMed]

Artal, P.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atchison, D. A.

D. A. Atchison, G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 2000), pp. 147–149, 173–176.

Bescós, J.

Brainard, D. H.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchheister, J.

J. Gustafsson, E. Terenius, J. Buchheister, P. Unsbo, “Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21, 393–400 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charman, W. N.

J. A. M. Jennings, W. N. Charman, “Analytic approximation of the off-axis modulation transfer function of the eye,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 697–704 (1997).

J. A. M. Jennings, W. N. Charman, “Off-axis image quality in the human eye,” Vision Res. 21, 445–455 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. M. Jennings, W. N. Charman, “Optical image quality in the peripheral retina,” Amer. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 55, 582–590 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Dorronsoro, C.

Escudero-Sanz, I.

Ferree, C. E.

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, “Interpretation of refractive conditions in the peripheral field of vision,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 5, 717–731 (1933).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, C. Hardy, “Refractive asymmetry in the temporal and nasal halves of the visual field,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 15, 513–522 (1932).

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, C. Hardy, “Refraction for the peripheral field of vision,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 9, 925–938 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, J.

J. Gustafsson, E. Terenius, J. Buchheister, P. Unsbo, “Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21, 393–400 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hardy, C.

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, C. Hardy, “Refractive asymmetry in the temporal and nasal halves of the visual field,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 15, 513–522 (1932).

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, C. Hardy, “Refraction for the peripheral field of vision,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 9, 925–938 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Hoogenbloom, W. P. H.

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, W. P. H. Hoogenbloom, “Peripheral retinoscopy and the skiagram,” Ophthalmologica 162, 1–10 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoogerheide, J.

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, W. P. H. Hoogenbloom, “Peripheral retinoscopy and the skiagram,” Ophthalmologica 162, 1–10 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkins, T. C. A.

T. C. A. Jenkins, “Aberrations of the eye and their effects on vision: part 2,” Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 20, 161–201 (1963).
[PubMed]

Jennings, J. A. M.

J. A. M. Jennings, W. N. Charman, “Analytic approximation of the off-axis modulation transfer function of the eye,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 697–704 (1997).

J. A. M. Jennings, W. N. Charman, “Off-axis image quality in the human eye,” Vision Res. 21, 445–455 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. M. Jennings, W. N. Charman, “Optical image quality in the peripheral retina,” Amer. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 55, 582–590 (1978).
[CrossRef]

McBrien, N.

G. Smith, M. Millodot, N. McBrien, “The effect of accommodation on oblique astigmatism and field curvature of the human eye,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 71, 119–125 (1988).
[CrossRef]

McMahon, M. J.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millodot, M.

G. Smith, M. Millodot, N. McBrien, “The effect of accommodation on oblique astigmatism and field curvature of the human eye,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 71, 119–125 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Millodot, “Effect of ametropia on peripheral refraction,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 82, 461–465 (1981).

Moreno, E.

Navarro, R.

Rand, G.

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, “Interpretation of refractive conditions in the peripheral field of vision,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 5, 717–731 (1933).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, C. Hardy, “Refractive asymmetry in the temporal and nasal halves of the visual field,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 15, 513–522 (1932).

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, C. Hardy, “Refraction for the peripheral field of vision,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 9, 925–938 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Rempt, F.

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, W. P. H. Hoogenbloom, “Peripheral retinoscopy and the skiagram,” Ophthalmologica 162, 1–10 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santamari´a, J.

Schwiegerling, J. T.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb and VSIA standards taskforce members, “Report from the VSIA taskforce on standards for reporting optical aberrations of the eye,” J. Refract. Surg.16, S654–S655 (2000).
[PubMed]

Smith, G.

G. Smith, M. Millodot, N. McBrien, “The effect of accommodation on oblique astigmatism and field curvature of the human eye,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 71, 119–125 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Atchison, G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 2000), pp. 147–149, 173–176.

Terenius, E.

J. Gustafsson, E. Terenius, J. Buchheister, P. Unsbo, “Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21, 393–400 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb and VSIA standards taskforce members, “Report from the VSIA taskforce on standards for reporting optical aberrations of the eye,” J. Refract. Surg.16, S654–S655 (2000).
[PubMed]

Unsbo, P.

J. Gustafsson, E. Terenius, J. Buchheister, P. Unsbo, “Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21, 393–400 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb and VSIA standards taskforce members, “Report from the VSIA taskforce on standards for reporting optical aberrations of the eye,” J. Refract. Surg.16, S654–S655 (2000).
[PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, C. Hardy, “Refractive asymmetry in the temporal and nasal halves of the visual field,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 15, 513–522 (1932).

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (1)

M. Millodot, “Effect of ametropia on peripheral refraction,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 82, 461–465 (1981).

Amer. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (1)

J. A. M. Jennings, W. N. Charman, “Optical image quality in the peripheral retina,” Amer. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 55, 582–590 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, “Interpretation of refractive conditions in the peripheral field of vision,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 5, 717–731 (1933).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, C. Hardy, “Refraction for the peripheral field of vision,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 9, 925–938 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Physiol. Opt. (1)

T. C. A. Jenkins, “Aberrations of the eye and their effects on vision: part 2,” Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 20, 161–201 (1963).
[PubMed]

Clin. Exp. Optom. (1)

G. Smith, M. Millodot, N. McBrien, “The effect of accommodation on oblique astigmatism and field curvature of the human eye,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 71, 119–125 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (2)

J. A. M. Jennings, W. N. Charman, “Analytic approximation of the off-axis modulation transfer function of the eye,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 697–704 (1997).

J. Gustafsson, E. Terenius, J. Buchheister, P. Unsbo, “Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21, 393–400 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmologica (1)

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, W. P. H. Hoogenbloom, “Peripheral retinoscopy and the skiagram,” Ophthalmologica 162, 1–10 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (2)

J. A. M. Jennings, W. N. Charman, “Off-axis image quality in the human eye,” Vision Res. 21, 445–455 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand, “Laser safety. Part 1: equipment classification, requirements and user’s guide” (Standards Australia, Sydney, Australia, 1997).

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb and VSIA standards taskforce members, “Report from the VSIA taskforce on standards for reporting optical aberrations of the eye,” J. Refract. Surg.16, S654–S655 (2000).
[PubMed]

D. A. Atchison, G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 2000), pp. 147–149, 173–176.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Apparatus for measuring aberrations of the eye. M1, mirror; L1L6 lenses; A1A3, apertures; PBS1PBS3, pellicle beam splitters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Rms aberrations (waves) as a function of visual field angle for our subjects. All second-order results have been corrected for the on-axis defocus. (a)–(e) Second to sixth orders for individual subjects, (f) third to sixth orders for the mean results. Note that the vertical scale is different in (f) from that of the other figures. The error bars in (f) indicate standard deviations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Rms aberrations (waves) as a function of visual field angle for (a) the experimental study of Navarro et al.13 along the nasal semi-meridian and (b) the Navarro model eye. The experimental results are the means and standard deviations for four subjects except at 5°, for which only three subjects were measured.

Equations (5)

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W(x, y)x=-Δxf ,W(x, y)y=-Δyf,
Δx=x-xa,Δy=y-ya.
x=x/cos θ,xa=xa/cos θ.
Δx=(x-xa)cos2 θ,Δy=(y-ya),
W(x, y)x=-Δxf,W(x, y)y=-Δyf.

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