Abstract

We present experimental measurements of the angular distribution of light scattered from large-scale composite randomly rough surfaces (oceanlike surfaces) with different statistical parameters illuminated at small and large angles of incidence. The surfaces are composed of a small-scale roughness superimposed on a slowly (large-scale) varying surface. The large-scale surfaces are diamond-machined periodic surfaces made on aluminum substrates and have either a sinusoidal or a Stokes wave profile. The small-scale roughness is added with microlithographic techniques, and the surfaces are then gold coated. For a linearly polarized incident beam, it is found that the diffusely scattered light is strongly depolarized and that its pattern is rather different for each large-scale surface profile. Enhanced backscattering is also observed.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. R. Méndez, K. A. O’Donnell, “Observation of depolarization and backscattering enhancement in light scattering from Gaussian random surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 61, 91–95 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. A. O’Donnell, E. R. Méndez, “Experimental study of scattering from characterized random surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1194–1205 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Nieto-Vesperinas, Scattering and Diffraction in Physical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1991).
  4. G. R. Valenzuela, “Theories for the interaction of electromagnetic and oceanic waves—a review,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 13, 61–85 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. B. Shmelev, “Wave scattering by statistically uneven surfaces,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 15, 173–183 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1965).
  7. A. A. Maradudin, T. Michel, A. R. McGurn, E. R. Méndez, “Enhanced backscattering of light from a random grating,” Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 203, 255–307 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. B. Baker, E. T. Copson, The Mathematical Theory of Huygens’ Principle, 2nd ed. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1950).
  9. P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1963).
  10. F. G. Bass, I. M. Fuks, Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces, Vol. 93 of International Series in Natural Philosophy (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1979).
  11. J. A. Ogilvy, Theory of Wave Scattering from Random Rough Surfaces (Hilger, London, 1991).
  12. M. J. Kim, “Light scattering from characterised random rough surfaces,” Ph.D. thesis (Imperial College, University of London, London, 1989).
  13. J. Renau, P. K. Cheo, H. G. Cooper, “Depolarisation of linearly polarised electromagnetic waves backscattered from rough metals and inhomogeneous dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 459–467 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. I. Thorsos, “The validity of Kirchhoff approximation for rough surface scattering using a Gaussian roughness spectrum,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, 78–92 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Depolarization of electromagnetic waves scattered from slightly rough random surfaces: a study by means of the extinction theorem,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 539–547 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. M. Soto-Crespo, Nieto-Vesperinas, “Electromagnetic scattering from very rough random surfaces and deep reflection gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 367–384 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. O. Rice, “Reflection of electromagnetic waves from slightly rough surfaces,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 4, 351–378 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. S. West, K. A. O’Donnell, “Observations of backscattering enhancement from polaritons on a rough metal surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 390–397 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Jei S. Chen, A. Ishimaru, “Numerical simulation of the second order Kirchhoff approximation from very rough surfaces and a study of backscattering enhancement,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 1846–1850 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. C. Bruce, J. C. Dainty, “Multiple scattering from random rough surfaces using the Kirchhoff approximation,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 579–590 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. C. Bruce, J. C. Dainty, “Multiple scattering from rough dielectric and metal surfaces using the Kirchhoff approximation,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1471–1481 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Monte Carlo simulations for scattering of electromagnetic waves from perfectly conductive random rough surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 12, 979–981 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. A. Maradudin, E. R. Méndez, T. Michel, “Backscattering effects in the elastic scattering of p-polarized light from a large-amplitude random metallic grating,” Opt. Lett. 14, 151–153 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. E. L. Dereniak, T. W. Stuhlinger, F. O. Bartell, “Bidirectional reflectance distribution function of gold-plated sandpaper,” in Radiation Scattering in Optical Systems, G. H. Hunt, ed., Proc. SPIE257, 184–191 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  25. V. Ruiz-Cortés, M. A. Ponce, E. R. Méndez, “Light scattering from gold-coated glass and chemically etched surfaces,” in Wave Propagation and Scattering in Varied Media II, V. K. Varadan, ed., Proc. SPIE1558, 222–232 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. R. Valenzuela, “Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a tilted slightly rough surface,” Radio Sci. 3, 1057–1066 (1968).
  27. J. A. DeSanto, “Theoretical methods in ocean acoustics,” in Ocean Acoustics, J. A. DeSanto, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979).
  28. J. F. Ward, “Power spectra from ocean movements measured remotely by ionospheric radio backscatter,” Nature (London) 223, 1325–1330 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. W. Wright, “A new model for sea clutter,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-16, 217–223 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  30. H. F. Helmken, “Low-grazing-angle radar backscatter from the ocean surface,” IEE Proc. F 137, 113–117 (1990).
  31. B. Kinsman, Wind Waves: Their Generation and Propagation on the Ocean Surface (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1965).
  32. H. Lamb, Hydrodynamics, 6th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1971).
  33. P. A. Le Blond, L. A. Mysak, Waves in the Ocean (Elsevier, New York, 1978).
  34. I. S. Robinson, J. O. Thomas, K. Ouchi, Y. C. Robertson, Study of the Sea Surface, Ocean Waves and Dynamics with Special Reference to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imagery (Oxford Computer Services, Oxford, UK, 1981).
  35. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).
  36. P. F. Gray, “A method of forming optical diffusers of simple known statistical properties,” Opt. Acta 25, 765–775 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  37. J. S. Bendat, A. G. Piersol, Random Data—Analysis and Measurement Procedures, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1986).
  38. A. J. Sant, “Enhanced backscattering of light from randomly rough diffusers,” Ph.D. dissertation (Imperial College, University of London, London, 1990).
  39. E. R. Méndez, M. A. Ponce, V. Ruiz-Cortés, Zu-Han Gu, “Photofabrication of one-dimensional rough surfaces for light-scattering experiments,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4103–4112 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. M. E. Knotts, T. R. Michel, K. A. O’Donnell, “Comparison of theory and experiment in light scattering from randomly rough surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 928–941 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  41. A. A. Maradudin, E. R. Méndez, T. Michel, “Backscattering effects in the elastic scattering of p-polarized light from a large-amplitude random grating,” in Scattering in Volumes and Surfaces, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J. C. Dainty, eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1990).
  42. J. C. Dainty, M-J Kim, A. J. Sant, “Measurements of angular scattering by randomly rough metal and dielectric surfaces,” in Scattering in Volumes and Surfaces, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J. C. Dainty, eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1990).
  43. M. J. Kim, J. C. Dainty, A. T. Friberg, A. J. Sant, “Experimental study of enhanced backscattering from one and two dimensional random rough surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 569–577 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1995

1993

1991

N. C. Bruce, J. C. Dainty, “Multiple scattering from random rough surfaces using the Kirchhoff approximation,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 579–590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Bruce, J. C. Dainty, “Multiple scattering from rough dielectric and metal surfaces using the Kirchhoff approximation,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1471–1481 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Méndez, M. A. Ponce, V. Ruiz-Cortés, Zu-Han Gu, “Photofabrication of one-dimensional rough surfaces for light-scattering experiments,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4103–4112 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

Jei S. Chen, A. Ishimaru, “Numerical simulation of the second order Kirchhoff approximation from very rough surfaces and a study of backscattering enhancement,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 1846–1850 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Maradudin, T. Michel, A. R. McGurn, E. R. Méndez, “Enhanced backscattering of light from a random grating,” Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 203, 255–307 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kim, J. C. Dainty, A. T. Friberg, A. J. Sant, “Experimental study of enhanced backscattering from one and two dimensional random rough surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 569–577 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Helmken, “Low-grazing-angle radar backscatter from the ocean surface,” IEE Proc. F 137, 113–117 (1990).

1989

1988

E. I. Thorsos, “The validity of Kirchhoff approximation for rough surface scattering using a Gaussian roughness spectrum,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, 78–92 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

1982

1978

P. F. Gray, “A method of forming optical diffusers of simple known statistical properties,” Opt. Acta 25, 765–775 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Valenzuela, “Theories for the interaction of electromagnetic and oceanic waves—a review,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 13, 61–85 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1972

A. B. Shmelev, “Wave scattering by statistically uneven surfaces,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 15, 173–183 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969

J. F. Ward, “Power spectra from ocean movements measured remotely by ionospheric radio backscatter,” Nature (London) 223, 1325–1330 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968

J. W. Wright, “A new model for sea clutter,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-16, 217–223 (1968).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Valenzuela, “Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a tilted slightly rough surface,” Radio Sci. 3, 1057–1066 (1968).

1967

1951

S. O. Rice, “Reflection of electromagnetic waves from slightly rough surfaces,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 4, 351–378 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Baker, B. B.

B. B. Baker, E. T. Copson, The Mathematical Theory of Huygens’ Principle, 2nd ed. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1950).

Bartell, F. O.

E. L. Dereniak, T. W. Stuhlinger, F. O. Bartell, “Bidirectional reflectance distribution function of gold-plated sandpaper,” in Radiation Scattering in Optical Systems, G. H. Hunt, ed., Proc. SPIE257, 184–191 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bass, F. G.

F. G. Bass, I. M. Fuks, Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces, Vol. 93 of International Series in Natural Philosophy (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1979).

Beckmann, P.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1963).

Bendat, J. S.

J. S. Bendat, A. G. Piersol, Random Data—Analysis and Measurement Procedures, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Bruce, N. C.

N. C. Bruce, J. C. Dainty, “Multiple scattering from random rough surfaces using the Kirchhoff approximation,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 579–590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Bruce, J. C. Dainty, “Multiple scattering from rough dielectric and metal surfaces using the Kirchhoff approximation,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1471–1481 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Jei S.

Jei S. Chen, A. Ishimaru, “Numerical simulation of the second order Kirchhoff approximation from very rough surfaces and a study of backscattering enhancement,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 1846–1850 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cheo, P. K.

Cooper, H. G.

Copson, E. T.

B. B. Baker, E. T. Copson, The Mathematical Theory of Huygens’ Principle, 2nd ed. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1950).

Dainty, J. C.

N. C. Bruce, J. C. Dainty, “Multiple scattering from random rough surfaces using the Kirchhoff approximation,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 579–590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Bruce, J. C. Dainty, “Multiple scattering from rough dielectric and metal surfaces using the Kirchhoff approximation,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1471–1481 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kim, J. C. Dainty, A. T. Friberg, A. J. Sant, “Experimental study of enhanced backscattering from one and two dimensional random rough surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 569–577 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Dainty, M-J Kim, A. J. Sant, “Measurements of angular scattering by randomly rough metal and dielectric surfaces,” in Scattering in Volumes and Surfaces, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J. C. Dainty, eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1990).

Dereniak, E. L.

E. L. Dereniak, T. W. Stuhlinger, F. O. Bartell, “Bidirectional reflectance distribution function of gold-plated sandpaper,” in Radiation Scattering in Optical Systems, G. H. Hunt, ed., Proc. SPIE257, 184–191 (1980).
[CrossRef]

DeSanto, J. A.

J. A. DeSanto, “Theoretical methods in ocean acoustics,” in Ocean Acoustics, J. A. DeSanto, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979).

Friberg, A. T.

Fuks, I. M.

F. G. Bass, I. M. Fuks, Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces, Vol. 93 of International Series in Natural Philosophy (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1979).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).

Gray, P. F.

P. F. Gray, “A method of forming optical diffusers of simple known statistical properties,” Opt. Acta 25, 765–775 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Zu-Han

Helmken, H. F.

H. F. Helmken, “Low-grazing-angle radar backscatter from the ocean surface,” IEE Proc. F 137, 113–117 (1990).

Ishimaru, A.

Jei S. Chen, A. Ishimaru, “Numerical simulation of the second order Kirchhoff approximation from very rough surfaces and a study of backscattering enhancement,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 1846–1850 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1965).

Kim, M. J.

M. J. Kim, J. C. Dainty, A. T. Friberg, A. J. Sant, “Experimental study of enhanced backscattering from one and two dimensional random rough surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 569–577 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kim, “Light scattering from characterised random rough surfaces,” Ph.D. thesis (Imperial College, University of London, London, 1989).

Kim, M-J

J. C. Dainty, M-J Kim, A. J. Sant, “Measurements of angular scattering by randomly rough metal and dielectric surfaces,” in Scattering in Volumes and Surfaces, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J. C. Dainty, eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1990).

Kinsman, B.

B. Kinsman, Wind Waves: Their Generation and Propagation on the Ocean Surface (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1965).

Knotts, M. E.

Lamb, H.

H. Lamb, Hydrodynamics, 6th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1971).

Le Blond, P. A.

P. A. Le Blond, L. A. Mysak, Waves in the Ocean (Elsevier, New York, 1978).

Maradudin, A. A.

A. A. Maradudin, T. Michel, A. R. McGurn, E. R. Méndez, “Enhanced backscattering of light from a random grating,” Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 203, 255–307 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Maradudin, E. R. Méndez, T. Michel, “Backscattering effects in the elastic scattering of p-polarized light from a large-amplitude random metallic grating,” Opt. Lett. 14, 151–153 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Maradudin, E. R. Méndez, T. Michel, “Backscattering effects in the elastic scattering of p-polarized light from a large-amplitude random grating,” in Scattering in Volumes and Surfaces, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J. C. Dainty, eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1990).

McGurn, A. R.

A. A. Maradudin, T. Michel, A. R. McGurn, E. R. Méndez, “Enhanced backscattering of light from a random grating,” Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 203, 255–307 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Méndez, E. R.

E. R. Méndez, M. A. Ponce, V. Ruiz-Cortés, Zu-Han Gu, “Photofabrication of one-dimensional rough surfaces for light-scattering experiments,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4103–4112 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Maradudin, T. Michel, A. R. McGurn, E. R. Méndez, “Enhanced backscattering of light from a random grating,” Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 203, 255–307 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Maradudin, E. R. Méndez, T. Michel, “Backscattering effects in the elastic scattering of p-polarized light from a large-amplitude random metallic grating,” Opt. Lett. 14, 151–153 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. O’Donnell, E. R. Méndez, “Experimental study of scattering from characterized random surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1194–1205 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Méndez, K. A. O’Donnell, “Observation of depolarization and backscattering enhancement in light scattering from Gaussian random surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 61, 91–95 (1987).
[CrossRef]

V. Ruiz-Cortés, M. A. Ponce, E. R. Méndez, “Light scattering from gold-coated glass and chemically etched surfaces,” in Wave Propagation and Scattering in Varied Media II, V. K. Varadan, ed., Proc. SPIE1558, 222–232 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Maradudin, E. R. Méndez, T. Michel, “Backscattering effects in the elastic scattering of p-polarized light from a large-amplitude random grating,” in Scattering in Volumes and Surfaces, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J. C. Dainty, eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1990).

Michel, T.

A. A. Maradudin, T. Michel, A. R. McGurn, E. R. Méndez, “Enhanced backscattering of light from a random grating,” Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 203, 255–307 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Maradudin, E. R. Méndez, T. Michel, “Backscattering effects in the elastic scattering of p-polarized light from a large-amplitude random metallic grating,” Opt. Lett. 14, 151–153 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Maradudin, E. R. Méndez, T. Michel, “Backscattering effects in the elastic scattering of p-polarized light from a large-amplitude random grating,” in Scattering in Volumes and Surfaces, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J. C. Dainty, eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1990).

Michel, T. R.

Mysak, L. A.

P. A. Le Blond, L. A. Mysak, Waves in the Ocean (Elsevier, New York, 1978).

Nieto-Vesperinas,

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

O’Donnell, K. A.

Ogilvy, J. A.

J. A. Ogilvy, Theory of Wave Scattering from Random Rough Surfaces (Hilger, London, 1991).

Ouchi, K.

I. S. Robinson, J. O. Thomas, K. Ouchi, Y. C. Robertson, Study of the Sea Surface, Ocean Waves and Dynamics with Special Reference to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imagery (Oxford Computer Services, Oxford, UK, 1981).

Piersol, A. G.

J. S. Bendat, A. G. Piersol, Random Data—Analysis and Measurement Procedures, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Ponce, M. A.

E. R. Méndez, M. A. Ponce, V. Ruiz-Cortés, Zu-Han Gu, “Photofabrication of one-dimensional rough surfaces for light-scattering experiments,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4103–4112 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ruiz-Cortés, M. A. Ponce, E. R. Méndez, “Light scattering from gold-coated glass and chemically etched surfaces,” in Wave Propagation and Scattering in Varied Media II, V. K. Varadan, ed., Proc. SPIE1558, 222–232 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Renau, J.

Rice, S. O.

S. O. Rice, “Reflection of electromagnetic waves from slightly rough surfaces,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 4, 351–378 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, Y. C.

I. S. Robinson, J. O. Thomas, K. Ouchi, Y. C. Robertson, Study of the Sea Surface, Ocean Waves and Dynamics with Special Reference to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imagery (Oxford Computer Services, Oxford, UK, 1981).

Robinson, I. S.

I. S. Robinson, J. O. Thomas, K. Ouchi, Y. C. Robertson, Study of the Sea Surface, Ocean Waves and Dynamics with Special Reference to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imagery (Oxford Computer Services, Oxford, UK, 1981).

Ruiz-Cortés, V.

E. R. Méndez, M. A. Ponce, V. Ruiz-Cortés, Zu-Han Gu, “Photofabrication of one-dimensional rough surfaces for light-scattering experiments,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4103–4112 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ruiz-Cortés, M. A. Ponce, E. R. Méndez, “Light scattering from gold-coated glass and chemically etched surfaces,” in Wave Propagation and Scattering in Varied Media II, V. K. Varadan, ed., Proc. SPIE1558, 222–232 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sant, A. J.

M. J. Kim, J. C. Dainty, A. T. Friberg, A. J. Sant, “Experimental study of enhanced backscattering from one and two dimensional random rough surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 569–577 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Dainty, M-J Kim, A. J. Sant, “Measurements of angular scattering by randomly rough metal and dielectric surfaces,” in Scattering in Volumes and Surfaces, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J. C. Dainty, eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1990).

A. J. Sant, “Enhanced backscattering of light from randomly rough diffusers,” Ph.D. dissertation (Imperial College, University of London, London, 1990).

Shmelev, A. B.

A. B. Shmelev, “Wave scattering by statistically uneven surfaces,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 15, 173–183 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

Spizzichino, A.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1963).

Stuhlinger, T. W.

E. L. Dereniak, T. W. Stuhlinger, F. O. Bartell, “Bidirectional reflectance distribution function of gold-plated sandpaper,” in Radiation Scattering in Optical Systems, G. H. Hunt, ed., Proc. SPIE257, 184–191 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J. O.

I. S. Robinson, J. O. Thomas, K. Ouchi, Y. C. Robertson, Study of the Sea Surface, Ocean Waves and Dynamics with Special Reference to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imagery (Oxford Computer Services, Oxford, UK, 1981).

Thorsos, E. I.

E. I. Thorsos, “The validity of Kirchhoff approximation for rough surface scattering using a Gaussian roughness spectrum,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, 78–92 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Valenzuela, G. R.

G. R. Valenzuela, “Theories for the interaction of electromagnetic and oceanic waves—a review,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 13, 61–85 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Valenzuela, “Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a tilted slightly rough surface,” Radio Sci. 3, 1057–1066 (1968).

Ward, J. F.

J. F. Ward, “Power spectra from ocean movements measured remotely by ionospheric radio backscatter,” Nature (London) 223, 1325–1330 (1969).
[CrossRef]

West, C. S.

Wright, J. W.

J. W. Wright, “A new model for sea clutter,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-16, 217–223 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (N.Y.)

A. A. Maradudin, T. Michel, A. R. McGurn, E. R. Méndez, “Enhanced backscattering of light from a random grating,” Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 203, 255–307 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Boundary-Layer Meteorol.

G. R. Valenzuela, “Theories for the interaction of electromagnetic and oceanic waves—a review,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 13, 61–85 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Commun. Pure Appl. Math.

S. O. Rice, “Reflection of electromagnetic waves from slightly rough surfaces,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 4, 351–378 (1951).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. F

H. F. Helmken, “Low-grazing-angle radar backscatter from the ocean surface,” IEE Proc. F 137, 113–117 (1990).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

J. W. Wright, “A new model for sea clutter,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-16, 217–223 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am.

E. I. Thorsos, “The validity of Kirchhoff approximation for rough surface scattering using a Gaussian roughness spectrum,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, 78–92 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jei S. Chen, A. Ishimaru, “Numerical simulation of the second order Kirchhoff approximation from very rough surfaces and a study of backscattering enhancement,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 1846–1850 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

N. C. Bruce, J. C. Dainty, “Multiple scattering from random rough surfaces using the Kirchhoff approximation,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 579–590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Bruce, J. C. Dainty, “Multiple scattering from rough dielectric and metal surfaces using the Kirchhoff approximation,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1471–1481 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nature (London)

J. F. Ward, “Power spectra from ocean movements measured remotely by ionospheric radio backscatter,” Nature (London) 223, 1325–1330 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta

P. F. Gray, “A method of forming optical diffusers of simple known statistical properties,” Opt. Acta 25, 765–775 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

E. R. Méndez, K. A. O’Donnell, “Observation of depolarization and backscattering enhancement in light scattering from Gaussian random surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 61, 91–95 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Radio Sci.

G. R. Valenzuela, “Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a tilted slightly rough surface,” Radio Sci. 3, 1057–1066 (1968).

Sov. Phys. Usp.

A. B. Shmelev, “Wave scattering by statistically uneven surfaces,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 15, 173–183 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1965).

M. Nieto-Vesperinas, Scattering and Diffraction in Physical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1991).

B. B. Baker, E. T. Copson, The Mathematical Theory of Huygens’ Principle, 2nd ed. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1950).

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1963).

F. G. Bass, I. M. Fuks, Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces, Vol. 93 of International Series in Natural Philosophy (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1979).

J. A. Ogilvy, Theory of Wave Scattering from Random Rough Surfaces (Hilger, London, 1991).

M. J. Kim, “Light scattering from characterised random rough surfaces,” Ph.D. thesis (Imperial College, University of London, London, 1989).

J. A. DeSanto, “Theoretical methods in ocean acoustics,” in Ocean Acoustics, J. A. DeSanto, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979).

E. L. Dereniak, T. W. Stuhlinger, F. O. Bartell, “Bidirectional reflectance distribution function of gold-plated sandpaper,” in Radiation Scattering in Optical Systems, G. H. Hunt, ed., Proc. SPIE257, 184–191 (1980).
[CrossRef]

V. Ruiz-Cortés, M. A. Ponce, E. R. Méndez, “Light scattering from gold-coated glass and chemically etched surfaces,” in Wave Propagation and Scattering in Varied Media II, V. K. Varadan, ed., Proc. SPIE1558, 222–232 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Bendat, A. G. Piersol, Random Data—Analysis and Measurement Procedures, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1986).

A. J. Sant, “Enhanced backscattering of light from randomly rough diffusers,” Ph.D. dissertation (Imperial College, University of London, London, 1990).

A. A. Maradudin, E. R. Méndez, T. Michel, “Backscattering effects in the elastic scattering of p-polarized light from a large-amplitude random grating,” in Scattering in Volumes and Surfaces, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J. C. Dainty, eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1990).

J. C. Dainty, M-J Kim, A. J. Sant, “Measurements of angular scattering by randomly rough metal and dielectric surfaces,” in Scattering in Volumes and Surfaces, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J. C. Dainty, eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1990).

B. Kinsman, Wind Waves: Their Generation and Propagation on the Ocean Surface (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1965).

H. Lamb, Hydrodynamics, 6th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1971).

P. A. Le Blond, L. A. Mysak, Waves in the Ocean (Elsevier, New York, 1978).

I. S. Robinson, J. O. Thomas, K. Ouchi, Y. C. Robertson, Study of the Sea Surface, Ocean Waves and Dynamics with Special Reference to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imagery (Oxford Computer Services, Oxford, UK, 1981).

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sea surface modeling: high-frequency random ripples (capillary waves) on top of large gravity waves (low frequency).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Talystep profile traces taken from large-scale composite surfaces: (a) surface SIN-A with a sinusoidal profile and a standard deviation of heights of σζ=0.56 μm and a 1/e autocorrelation width of a=2.17 μm for the small-scale component, (b) surface STOKES-A with a Stokes wave to the fourth order and a standard deviation of heights of σζ=0.73 μm and a 1/e autocorrelation width of a=2.22 μm for the small-scale component.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Angular distribution of the measured mean scattering intensity from surface SIN-A with s-polarized incident light at normal incidence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 3 but for p-polarized light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Angular distribution of the measured mean scattering intensity (MSI) from surface SIN-A with s-polarized incident light at different angles of incidence (in degrees): (a) co-polarized component data (ss), (b) cross-polarized component data (sp).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Angular distribution of the MSI from surface SIN-A with p-polarized incident light at different angles of incidence (in degrees): (a) co-polarized component data (pp), (b) cross-polarized component data (ps).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Angular distribution of the measured mean scattering intensity from surface STOKES-A with s-polarized incident light at normal incidence.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Same as Fig. 7 but for p-polarized light.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Angular distribution of the measured MSI from surface STOKES-A with s-polarized incident light at different angles of incidence (in degrees): (a) co-polarized component data (ss), (b) cross-polarized component data (sp).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Angular distribution of the measured MSI from surface STOKES-A with p-polarized incident light at different angles of incidence (in degrees): (a) co-polarized component data (pp), (b) cross-polarized component data (ps).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Angular distribution of the measured polarized and randomly polarized scattering intensities from surface SIN-A with s-polarized incident light at (a) θinc=0 and (b) θinc=60° angles of incidence.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Same as Fig. 11 but for surface STOKES-A.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Surface Parameters for the Large and Small Components of the Large-Scale Composite Randomly Rough Surfaces

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ζ(x)=Ap sin(Kx),
ζ(x)=-Ap cos(Kx)+12KAp2+1724K3Ap4cos(2kx)-38K2Ap3 cos(3Kx)+13K3Ap4 cos(4Kx).
p(ζ)=12πσζ2exp-ζ22σζ2,-<ζ<,
W(|x-x|)=exp-(x-x)2a2,
ζfit(x)=c1+c2 cos(Kx)+c3 cos(2Kx)+c4 cos(3Kx)+c5 cos(4Kx),
Ipol=Iss(θsc)-Isp(θinc),
Ir-pol=2Isp(θsc),

Metrics