Abstract

In subjects with normal vision, binocular contrast sensitivity is generally higher than monocular sensitivity, indicating summation of contrast in the two eyes. We have compared monocular and binocular contrast sensitivity and acuity for a group of 13 subjects with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Relative to a normal control group, many of the AMD subjects showed reduced binocular contrast summation, and binocular inhibition was found for eight subjects for a narrow or an extended frequency band. A better monocular than binocular function may have practical implications for reading and orientation in AMD.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. E. Legge, “Binocular contrast summation. I. Detection and discrimination,” Vision Res. 24, 373–383 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. E. Legge, “Binocular contrast summation. II. Quadratic summation,” Vision Res. 24, 385–394 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Monocular versus binocular visual acuity,” Nature 208, 191–192 (1965).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Gilchrist, C. McIver, “Fechner’s paradox in binocular contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 25, 609–613 (1985).
  5. J. Gilchrist, S. Pardhan, “Binocular contrast detection with unequal monocular illuminance,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 373–377 (1987).
    [PubMed]
  6. S. Pardhan, D. B. Elliott, “Clinical measurements of binocular summation and inhibition in patients with cataract,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 355–359 (1991).
  7. T. L. van der Schaft, “Age-related macular degeneration. A light and electronmicroscopic study,” Ph.D. thesis (Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1993).
  8. L. Laatikainen, H. Hirvelä, “Prevalence and visual consequences of macular changes in a population aged 70 years and older,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 73, 105–110 (1995).
    [PubMed]
  9. M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, “Reading and eye movements in age-related maculopathy,” Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 125–138 (1995).
  10. B. Brown, “Reading performance in low vision patients: Relation to contrast and contrast sensitivity,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 58, 218–226 (1981).
    [PubMed]
  11. G. E. Legge, G. S. Rubin, A. Luebker, “Psychophysics of reading. V. The role of contrast in normal vision,” Vision Res. 27, 1165–1171 (1987).
  12. G. S. Rubin, G. E. Legge, “Psychophysics of reading. VI. The role of contrast in low vision,” Vision Res. 29, 79–91 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Whittaker, J. Lovie-Kitchin, “Visual requirements for reading,” Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 54–65 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Fosse, A. Valberg, “Contrast sensitivity and reading in subjects with age-related macular degeneration,” manuscript available from the authors at Tambartun National Resource Centre, N-7224 Melhus, Norway.
  15. J. A. Marron, I. L. Bailey, “Visual factors and orientation-mobility performance,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59, 413–426 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Contrast sensitivity, acuity, and the perception of ‘real-world’ targets,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 71, 791–796 (1987).
  17. L. Hyvärinen, “Classification of visual impairment,” Chibret Int. J. Ophthalmol. 6, 1–7 (1989).
  18. G. Lennerstrand, C.-O. Ahlström, “Contrast sensitivity in macular degeneration and the relation to subjective visual impairment,” Acta Ophthalmol. 67, 225–233 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. van Meeteren, J. J. Vos, “Resolution and contrast sensitivity at low luminances,” Vision Res. 12, 825–833 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. F. W. Cornelissen, A. C. Kooijman, A. Bootsma, G.-J. van der Wildt, “Light and objects; perceiving the real thing,” in Low Vision. Research and Developments in Rehabilitation, A. C. Kooijman, P. L. Looijestijn, J. A. Welling, G.-J. van der Wildt, eds. (IOS Press, Amsterdam1994).
  21. F. W. Cornelissen, A. Bootsma, A. C. Kooijman, “Object perception by visually impaired people at different light levels,” Vision Res. 35, 161–168 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. P. Fosse, A. Valberg, H. M. Arnljot, “Retinal illuminance and the dissociation of optotype- and grating acuity in age-related macular degeneration,” Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 162–168 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Valberg, T. Seim, W. Zhang, P. Fosse, “VIGRA-C,” Optikeren, 4, 3–5 (1994).
  24. T. Gjerde, “Evaluering av et videografisk system (Vigra) for synstesting” (“Evaluation of a videographic system for visual testing”), thesis in biophysics at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), (Trondheim, Norway, 1997).
  25. G. T. Fechner, Elements of Psychophysics (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1860/1966).
  26. E. R. Strahlman, S. L. Fine, A. Hillis, “The second eye of patients with senile macular degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 101, 1191–1193 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. Owsley, G. R. Jackson, A. V. Cideciyan, “Psychophysical evidence for rod vulnerability in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 267–273 (2000).
  28. C. A. Curcio, C. Owsley, G. R. Jackson, “Spare the rods, save the cones in aging and age-related macular maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 2015–2018 (2000).
  29. R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, R. P. Sharpe, A. J. Cottingham, R. W. Yee, “Corneal aberrations and visual performance after radial keratotomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 397–407 (1998).
    [PubMed]

2001 (1)

P. Fosse, A. Valberg, H. M. Arnljot, “Retinal illuminance and the dissociation of optotype- and grating acuity in age-related macular degeneration,” Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 162–168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

C. Owsley, G. R. Jackson, A. V. Cideciyan, “Psychophysical evidence for rod vulnerability in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 267–273 (2000).

C. A. Curcio, C. Owsley, G. R. Jackson, “Spare the rods, save the cones in aging and age-related macular maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 2015–2018 (2000).

1998 (1)

R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, R. P. Sharpe, A. J. Cottingham, R. W. Yee, “Corneal aberrations and visual performance after radial keratotomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 397–407 (1998).
[PubMed]

1995 (3)

F. W. Cornelissen, A. Bootsma, A. C. Kooijman, “Object perception by visually impaired people at different light levels,” Vision Res. 35, 161–168 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Laatikainen, H. Hirvelä, “Prevalence and visual consequences of macular changes in a population aged 70 years and older,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 73, 105–110 (1995).
[PubMed]

M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, “Reading and eye movements in age-related maculopathy,” Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 125–138 (1995).

1994 (1)

A. Valberg, T. Seim, W. Zhang, P. Fosse, “VIGRA-C,” Optikeren, 4, 3–5 (1994).

1993 (1)

S. Whittaker, J. Lovie-Kitchin, “Visual requirements for reading,” Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 54–65 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Pardhan, D. B. Elliott, “Clinical measurements of binocular summation and inhibition in patients with cataract,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 355–359 (1991).

1989 (3)

G. S. Rubin, G. E. Legge, “Psychophysics of reading. VI. The role of contrast in low vision,” Vision Res. 29, 79–91 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Hyvärinen, “Classification of visual impairment,” Chibret Int. J. Ophthalmol. 6, 1–7 (1989).

G. Lennerstrand, C.-O. Ahlström, “Contrast sensitivity in macular degeneration and the relation to subjective visual impairment,” Acta Ophthalmol. 67, 225–233 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Contrast sensitivity, acuity, and the perception of ‘real-world’ targets,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 71, 791–796 (1987).

G. E. Legge, G. S. Rubin, A. Luebker, “Psychophysics of reading. V. The role of contrast in normal vision,” Vision Res. 27, 1165–1171 (1987).

J. Gilchrist, S. Pardhan, “Binocular contrast detection with unequal monocular illuminance,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 373–377 (1987).
[PubMed]

1985 (1)

J. Gilchrist, C. McIver, “Fechner’s paradox in binocular contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 25, 609–613 (1985).

1984 (2)

G. E. Legge, “Binocular contrast summation. I. Detection and discrimination,” Vision Res. 24, 373–383 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Legge, “Binocular contrast summation. II. Quadratic summation,” Vision Res. 24, 385–394 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

E. R. Strahlman, S. L. Fine, A. Hillis, “The second eye of patients with senile macular degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 101, 1191–1193 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. A. Marron, I. L. Bailey, “Visual factors and orientation-mobility performance,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59, 413–426 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

B. Brown, “Reading performance in low vision patients: Relation to contrast and contrast sensitivity,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 58, 218–226 (1981).
[PubMed]

1972 (1)

A. van Meeteren, J. J. Vos, “Resolution and contrast sensitivity at low luminances,” Vision Res. 12, 825–833 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Monocular versus binocular visual acuity,” Nature 208, 191–192 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahlström, C.-O.

G. Lennerstrand, C.-O. Ahlström, “Contrast sensitivity in macular degeneration and the relation to subjective visual impairment,” Acta Ophthalmol. 67, 225–233 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Applegate, R. A.

R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, R. P. Sharpe, A. J. Cottingham, R. W. Yee, “Corneal aberrations and visual performance after radial keratotomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 397–407 (1998).
[PubMed]

Arnljot, H. M.

P. Fosse, A. Valberg, H. M. Arnljot, “Retinal illuminance and the dissociation of optotype- and grating acuity in age-related macular degeneration,” Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 162–168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, I. L.

M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, “Reading and eye movements in age-related maculopathy,” Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 125–138 (1995).

J. A. Marron, I. L. Bailey, “Visual factors and orientation-mobility performance,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59, 413–426 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bootsma, A.

F. W. Cornelissen, A. Bootsma, A. C. Kooijman, “Object perception by visually impaired people at different light levels,” Vision Res. 35, 161–168 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. W. Cornelissen, A. C. Kooijman, A. Bootsma, G.-J. van der Wildt, “Light and objects; perceiving the real thing,” in Low Vision. Research and Developments in Rehabilitation, A. C. Kooijman, P. L. Looijestijn, J. A. Welling, G.-J. van der Wildt, eds. (IOS Press, Amsterdam1994).

Brown, B.

B. Brown, “Reading performance in low vision patients: Relation to contrast and contrast sensitivity,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 58, 218–226 (1981).
[PubMed]

Bullimore, M. A.

M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, “Reading and eye movements in age-related maculopathy,” Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 125–138 (1995).

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Monocular versus binocular visual acuity,” Nature 208, 191–192 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cideciyan, A. V.

C. Owsley, G. R. Jackson, A. V. Cideciyan, “Psychophysical evidence for rod vulnerability in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 267–273 (2000).

Cornelissen, F. W.

F. W. Cornelissen, A. Bootsma, A. C. Kooijman, “Object perception by visually impaired people at different light levels,” Vision Res. 35, 161–168 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. W. Cornelissen, A. C. Kooijman, A. Bootsma, G.-J. van der Wildt, “Light and objects; perceiving the real thing,” in Low Vision. Research and Developments in Rehabilitation, A. C. Kooijman, P. L. Looijestijn, J. A. Welling, G.-J. van der Wildt, eds. (IOS Press, Amsterdam1994).

Cottingham, A. J.

R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, R. P. Sharpe, A. J. Cottingham, R. W. Yee, “Corneal aberrations and visual performance after radial keratotomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 397–407 (1998).
[PubMed]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, C. Owsley, G. R. Jackson, “Spare the rods, save the cones in aging and age-related macular maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 2015–2018 (2000).

Elliott, D. B.

S. Pardhan, D. B. Elliott, “Clinical measurements of binocular summation and inhibition in patients with cataract,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 355–359 (1991).

Fechner, G. T.

G. T. Fechner, Elements of Psychophysics (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1860/1966).

Fine, S. L.

E. R. Strahlman, S. L. Fine, A. Hillis, “The second eye of patients with senile macular degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 101, 1191–1193 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fosse, P.

P. Fosse, A. Valberg, H. M. Arnljot, “Retinal illuminance and the dissociation of optotype- and grating acuity in age-related macular degeneration,” Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 162–168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Valberg, T. Seim, W. Zhang, P. Fosse, “VIGRA-C,” Optikeren, 4, 3–5 (1994).

P. Fosse, A. Valberg, “Contrast sensitivity and reading in subjects with age-related macular degeneration,” manuscript available from the authors at Tambartun National Resource Centre, N-7224 Melhus, Norway.

Gilchrist, J.

J. Gilchrist, S. Pardhan, “Binocular contrast detection with unequal monocular illuminance,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 373–377 (1987).
[PubMed]

J. Gilchrist, C. McIver, “Fechner’s paradox in binocular contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 25, 609–613 (1985).

Gjerde, T.

T. Gjerde, “Evaluering av et videografisk system (Vigra) for synstesting” (“Evaluation of a videographic system for visual testing”), thesis in biophysics at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), (Trondheim, Norway, 1997).

Green, D. G.

F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Monocular versus binocular visual acuity,” Nature 208, 191–192 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillis, A.

E. R. Strahlman, S. L. Fine, A. Hillis, “The second eye of patients with senile macular degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 101, 1191–1193 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hirvelä, H.

L. Laatikainen, H. Hirvelä, “Prevalence and visual consequences of macular changes in a population aged 70 years and older,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 73, 105–110 (1995).
[PubMed]

Howland, H. C.

R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, R. P. Sharpe, A. J. Cottingham, R. W. Yee, “Corneal aberrations and visual performance after radial keratotomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 397–407 (1998).
[PubMed]

Hyvärinen, L.

L. Hyvärinen, “Classification of visual impairment,” Chibret Int. J. Ophthalmol. 6, 1–7 (1989).

Jackson, G. R.

C. Owsley, G. R. Jackson, A. V. Cideciyan, “Psychophysical evidence for rod vulnerability in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 267–273 (2000).

C. A. Curcio, C. Owsley, G. R. Jackson, “Spare the rods, save the cones in aging and age-related macular maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 2015–2018 (2000).

Kooijman, A. C.

F. W. Cornelissen, A. Bootsma, A. C. Kooijman, “Object perception by visually impaired people at different light levels,” Vision Res. 35, 161–168 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. W. Cornelissen, A. C. Kooijman, A. Bootsma, G.-J. van der Wildt, “Light and objects; perceiving the real thing,” in Low Vision. Research and Developments in Rehabilitation, A. C. Kooijman, P. L. Looijestijn, J. A. Welling, G.-J. van der Wildt, eds. (IOS Press, Amsterdam1994).

Laatikainen, L.

L. Laatikainen, H. Hirvelä, “Prevalence and visual consequences of macular changes in a population aged 70 years and older,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 73, 105–110 (1995).
[PubMed]

Legge, G. E.

G. S. Rubin, G. E. Legge, “Psychophysics of reading. VI. The role of contrast in low vision,” Vision Res. 29, 79–91 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Legge, G. S. Rubin, A. Luebker, “Psychophysics of reading. V. The role of contrast in normal vision,” Vision Res. 27, 1165–1171 (1987).

G. E. Legge, “Binocular contrast summation. I. Detection and discrimination,” Vision Res. 24, 373–383 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Legge, “Binocular contrast summation. II. Quadratic summation,” Vision Res. 24, 385–394 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lennerstrand, G.

G. Lennerstrand, C.-O. Ahlström, “Contrast sensitivity in macular degeneration and the relation to subjective visual impairment,” Acta Ophthalmol. 67, 225–233 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lovie-Kitchin, J.

S. Whittaker, J. Lovie-Kitchin, “Visual requirements for reading,” Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 54–65 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Luebker, A.

G. E. Legge, G. S. Rubin, A. Luebker, “Psychophysics of reading. V. The role of contrast in normal vision,” Vision Res. 27, 1165–1171 (1987).

Marron, J. A.

J. A. Marron, I. L. Bailey, “Visual factors and orientation-mobility performance,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59, 413–426 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McIver, C.

J. Gilchrist, C. McIver, “Fechner’s paradox in binocular contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 25, 609–613 (1985).

Owsley, C.

C. A. Curcio, C. Owsley, G. R. Jackson, “Spare the rods, save the cones in aging and age-related macular maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 2015–2018 (2000).

C. Owsley, G. R. Jackson, A. V. Cideciyan, “Psychophysical evidence for rod vulnerability in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 267–273 (2000).

C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Contrast sensitivity, acuity, and the perception of ‘real-world’ targets,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 71, 791–796 (1987).

Pardhan, S.

S. Pardhan, D. B. Elliott, “Clinical measurements of binocular summation and inhibition in patients with cataract,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 355–359 (1991).

J. Gilchrist, S. Pardhan, “Binocular contrast detection with unequal monocular illuminance,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 373–377 (1987).
[PubMed]

Rubin, G. S.

G. S. Rubin, G. E. Legge, “Psychophysics of reading. VI. The role of contrast in low vision,” Vision Res. 29, 79–91 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Legge, G. S. Rubin, A. Luebker, “Psychophysics of reading. V. The role of contrast in normal vision,” Vision Res. 27, 1165–1171 (1987).

Seim, T.

A. Valberg, T. Seim, W. Zhang, P. Fosse, “VIGRA-C,” Optikeren, 4, 3–5 (1994).

Sharpe, R. P.

R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, R. P. Sharpe, A. J. Cottingham, R. W. Yee, “Corneal aberrations and visual performance after radial keratotomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 397–407 (1998).
[PubMed]

Sloane, M. E.

C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Contrast sensitivity, acuity, and the perception of ‘real-world’ targets,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 71, 791–796 (1987).

Strahlman, E. R.

E. R. Strahlman, S. L. Fine, A. Hillis, “The second eye of patients with senile macular degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 101, 1191–1193 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Valberg, A.

P. Fosse, A. Valberg, H. M. Arnljot, “Retinal illuminance and the dissociation of optotype- and grating acuity in age-related macular degeneration,” Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 162–168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Valberg, T. Seim, W. Zhang, P. Fosse, “VIGRA-C,” Optikeren, 4, 3–5 (1994).

P. Fosse, A. Valberg, “Contrast sensitivity and reading in subjects with age-related macular degeneration,” manuscript available from the authors at Tambartun National Resource Centre, N-7224 Melhus, Norway.

van der Schaft, T. L.

T. L. van der Schaft, “Age-related macular degeneration. A light and electronmicroscopic study,” Ph.D. thesis (Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1993).

van der Wildt, G.-J.

F. W. Cornelissen, A. C. Kooijman, A. Bootsma, G.-J. van der Wildt, “Light and objects; perceiving the real thing,” in Low Vision. Research and Developments in Rehabilitation, A. C. Kooijman, P. L. Looijestijn, J. A. Welling, G.-J. van der Wildt, eds. (IOS Press, Amsterdam1994).

van Meeteren, A.

A. van Meeteren, J. J. Vos, “Resolution and contrast sensitivity at low luminances,” Vision Res. 12, 825–833 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vos, J. J.

A. van Meeteren, J. J. Vos, “Resolution and contrast sensitivity at low luminances,” Vision Res. 12, 825–833 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whittaker, S.

S. Whittaker, J. Lovie-Kitchin, “Visual requirements for reading,” Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 54–65 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yee, R. W.

R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, R. P. Sharpe, A. J. Cottingham, R. W. Yee, “Corneal aberrations and visual performance after radial keratotomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 397–407 (1998).
[PubMed]

Zhang, W.

A. Valberg, T. Seim, W. Zhang, P. Fosse, “VIGRA-C,” Optikeren, 4, 3–5 (1994).

Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

G. Lennerstrand, C.-O. Ahlström, “Contrast sensitivity in macular degeneration and the relation to subjective visual impairment,” Acta Ophthalmol. 67, 225–233 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. (1)

L. Laatikainen, H. Hirvelä, “Prevalence and visual consequences of macular changes in a population aged 70 years and older,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 73, 105–110 (1995).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (2)

J. A. Marron, I. L. Bailey, “Visual factors and orientation-mobility performance,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59, 413–426 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Brown, “Reading performance in low vision patients: Relation to contrast and contrast sensitivity,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 58, 218–226 (1981).
[PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) (1)

E. R. Strahlman, S. L. Fine, A. Hillis, “The second eye of patients with senile macular degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 101, 1191–1193 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Contrast sensitivity, acuity, and the perception of ‘real-world’ targets,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 71, 791–796 (1987).

Chibret Int. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

L. Hyvärinen, “Classification of visual impairment,” Chibret Int. J. Ophthalmol. 6, 1–7 (1989).

Clin. Vision Sci. (1)

S. Pardhan, D. B. Elliott, “Clinical measurements of binocular summation and inhibition in patients with cataract,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 355–359 (1991).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (2)

C. Owsley, G. R. Jackson, A. V. Cideciyan, “Psychophysical evidence for rod vulnerability in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 267–273 (2000).

C. A. Curcio, C. Owsley, G. R. Jackson, “Spare the rods, save the cones in aging and age-related macular maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 2015–2018 (2000).

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, R. P. Sharpe, A. J. Cottingham, R. W. Yee, “Corneal aberrations and visual performance after radial keratotomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 397–407 (1998).
[PubMed]

Nature (1)

F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, “Monocular versus binocular visual acuity,” Nature 208, 191–192 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

J. Gilchrist, S. Pardhan, “Binocular contrast detection with unequal monocular illuminance,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 373–377 (1987).
[PubMed]

Optikeren (1)

A. Valberg, T. Seim, W. Zhang, P. Fosse, “VIGRA-C,” Optikeren, 4, 3–5 (1994).

Optom. Vision Sci. (3)

P. Fosse, A. Valberg, H. M. Arnljot, “Retinal illuminance and the dissociation of optotype- and grating acuity in age-related macular degeneration,” Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 162–168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, “Reading and eye movements in age-related maculopathy,” Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 125–138 (1995).

S. Whittaker, J. Lovie-Kitchin, “Visual requirements for reading,” Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 54–65 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (7)

G. E. Legge, G. S. Rubin, A. Luebker, “Psychophysics of reading. V. The role of contrast in normal vision,” Vision Res. 27, 1165–1171 (1987).

G. S. Rubin, G. E. Legge, “Psychophysics of reading. VI. The role of contrast in low vision,” Vision Res. 29, 79–91 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. van Meeteren, J. J. Vos, “Resolution and contrast sensitivity at low luminances,” Vision Res. 12, 825–833 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mean monocular and binocular spatial contrast sensitivities, with 1 standard deviation, for ten normally sighted subjects (mean age 46±5 yr). Monocular sensitivity is lower than binocular sensitivity for all spatial frequencies, showing that the normally sighted subjects experienced binocular summation of contrast sensitivity. The linear area under the monocular curve is 54% of that under the binocular curve. The lower graph shows the ratio (and standard deviation) of monocular to binocular contrast sensitivity computed separately for each of the ten subjects before averaging.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A, Monocular and binocular spatial contrast sensitivities for subject I with AMD. In this case binocular contrast sensitivity was lower than that for each of the two eyes. Data are averages of two repetitions. Short-term test–retest variability (maximum deviation) was ±0.1 log unit for curves OS and OD and ±0.05 for curve Bin, as shown by one example for each curve to avoid cluttering. The ratios M/B of best-monocular to binocular contrast sensitivity show that this AMD subject experiences binocular inhibition of contrast sensitivity. B and C, Two additional examples of binocular inhibition of contrast sensitivity with a greater difference between the two eyes. D, In this case where the M/B ratio for ICS was smaller than 1 (0.94), the figure shows binocular inhibition at lower spatial frequencies and summation at the higher frequencies. The data points are averages of two to four repetitions. Representative ranges of reproducibility are shown by bars. Curves have been fitted by eye.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Monocular-to-binocular ratio (M/B) ratio of ICS for all 13 AMD subjects. N is the average and standard deviation of our reference group of 10 subjects with normal vision. For the AMD subjects, maximum deviation, or short-term test–retest reproducibility, is indicated where such repeated assessments were available.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Integrated Contrast Sensitivities (ICS) and Grating Acuities (GA) for Binocular and Best Monocular Viewing

Metrics