Abstract

We measured changes to cone photoreceptors in patients with early age-related macular degeneration. The data of 53 patients were compared with normative data for color matching measurements of long- and middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the central macula. A four-parameter model quantified cone photopigment optical density and kinetics. Cone photopigment optical density was on average less for the patients than for normal subjects and was uncorrelated with visual acuity. More light was needed to reduce the photopigment density by 50% in the steady state for patients. These results imply that cone photopigment optical density is reduced by factors other than slowed kinetics.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. M. Leibowitz, D. E. Kruger, L. R. Maunder, R. C. Milton, M. M. Kini, H. A. Kahn, R. J. Nickerson, J. Pool, T. L. Colton, J. P. Ganley, J. I. Loewenstein, T. R. Dawber, “The Framingham Eye Study Monograph: an ophthalmological and epidemiological study of cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and visual acuity in a general population of 2631 adults,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 24 (Suppl.), 335–610 (1980).
    [PubMed]
  2. J. P. Sarks, S. H. Sarks, M. C. Killingsworth, “Evolution of soft drusen in age-related macular degeneration,” Eye 8, 269–283 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. R. Diddie, “Color matching and the Stiles–Crawford effect in observers with early age-related macular changes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2113–2121 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Eisner, M. L. Klein, J. D. Zilis, M. D. Watkins, “Visual function and the subsequent development of exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 3091–3102 (1992).
  5. A. E. Elsner, D.-U. Bartsch, J. J. Weiter, M. E. Hartnett, “New devices in retinal imaging and functional evaluation,” in Practical Atlas of Retinal Disease and Therapy, 2nd ed., W. Freeman, ed. (Lipincott-Raven, New York, 1998), pp. 19–55.
  6. D. C. Fletcher, R. A. Schuchard, “Preferred retinal loci relationship to macular scotomas in a low-vision population,” Ophthalmology 104, 632–638 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. J. Weiter, M. R. Kreitz, “Cone photopigment density in aging and AMD,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 194–197.
  8. R. Klein, B. E. Klein, K. L. Linton, “Prevalence of age-related maculopathy. The Beaver Dam Eye Study,” Ophthalmology 99, 933–943 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. S. Sunness, “The natural history of geographic atrophy, the advanced atrophic form of age-related macular degeneration,” Mol. Vision 5, 25 (1999).
  10. Macular Photocoagulation Study Group, “Laser photocoagulation for juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 500–509 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. E. Hartnett, J. J. Weiter, G. Staurenghi, A. E. Elsner, “Deep retinal vascular anomalous complexes in advanced age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 103, 2042–2053 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. H. Swanson, G. E. Fish, “Color matches in diseased eyes with good acuity: detection of deficits in cone optical density and in chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2230–2236 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, B. Brown, “Two-color increment threshold in early age-related maculopathy,” Clin. Vision Sci. 4, 165–172 (1989).
  14. B. Brown, J. Lovie-Kitchen, “Temporal function in age related maculopathy,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 70.4, 112–116 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. A. Applegate, A. J. Adams, J. C. Cavender, F. Zisman, “Early color vision changes in age-related maculopathy,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1458–1462 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. J. Mayer, S. J. Spiegler, B. Ward, A. Glucs, C. B. Kim, “Mid-frequency loss of foveal flicker sensitivity in early stages of age-related maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 3136–3142 (1992).
  17. M. A. Sandberg, A. Weiner, S. Miller, A. R. Gaudio, “High-risk characteristics of fellow eyes of patients with unilateral neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 105, 441–447 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. A. Sandberg, A. R. Gaudio, “Slow photostress recovery and disease severity in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina 15, 407–412 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, K. Lichtenberg, O. Arend, “Short wavelength automated perimetry in age-related maculopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. (to be published).
  20. L. Moraes, A. E. Elsner, C. Kunze, C. L. Trempe, M. E. Hartnett, “Correlation in patients with age-related maculopathy between retinal sensitivity and anatomic abnor-malities using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 39, B602 (1998).
  21. E. M. Stone, A. R. Webster, K. Vandenburgh, L. M. Streb, R. R. Hockey, A. J. Lotery, V. C. Sheffield, “Allelic variation in ABCR associated with Stargardt’s disease but not age-related macular degeneration,” Nat. Genet. 20, 328–329 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. E. H. Souied, D. Ducroq, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Perrault, A. Munnich, G. Coscas, G. Soubrane, J. Kaplan, “ABCR gene analysis in familial exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 244–247 (2000).
  23. J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, L. M. Kelley, E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, “Non-exudative age-related macular degeneration: association of fundus features with heart disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S94 (1997).
  24. R. F. Mullins, S. R. Russell, D. H. Anderson, G. S. Hageman, “Drusen associated with aging and age-related macular degeneration contain proteins common to extracellular deposits associated with atherosclerosis, elastosis, amyloidosis, and dense deposit disease,” Faseb J. 14, 835–846 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  25. C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, T. Bailey, H. S. Kruth, “Accumulation of cholesterol with age in human Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 265–274 (2001).
  26. J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of foveal cone pigments at older age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 985–991 (1987).
  27. D. C. Coile, H. D. Baker, “Foveal dark adaptation photopigment regeneration and aging,” Visual Neurosci. 8, 27–39 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. E. Elsner, L. Berk, S. A. Burns, P. A. Rosenberg, “Aging and human cone photopigments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2106–2112 (1988). See also Ref. 29.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, “Models of photopigment kinetics: changes with age,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 18 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 214.
  30. S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, “Color matching at high illuminances: the color-match-area effect and photopigment bleaching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 698–704 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, L. A. Lobes, B. H. Doft, “A psychophysical technique for measuring cone photopigment bleaching,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 711–717 (1987).
  32. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, S. J. Starr, “Variability of color mixture data—I. Interobserver variability in the unit coordinates,” Vision Res. 16, 1087–1094 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mouldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
  34. R. Lakowski, “Age and Colour vision,” Adv. Sci. 15, 231–236 (1958).
  35. M. Alpern, “Lack of uniformity in colour matching,” J. Physiol. (London) 288, 85–105 (1979).
  36. S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, “Color matching at high illuminances: photopigment optical density and pupil entry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 221–230 (1993).
  37. W. H. Swanson, G. E. Fish, “Age-related changes in the color-match-area effect,” Vision Res. 36, 2079–2085 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, J. J. Weiter, “Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394–2404 (1998).
  39. A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, L. A. Lobes, “Foveal cone pigment optical density in retinitis pigmentosa,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1378–1384 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, L. A. Lobes, “Foveal cone photopigment bleaching in central serous retinopathy,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1045–1049 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, L. A. Lobes, “Cone function deficits in patients with good visual acuity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 28, 128 (1987).
  42. A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, L. A. Lobes, B. H. Doft, “Cone photopigment abnormalities in diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 718–724 (1987).
  43. A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, L. A. Lobes, B. H. Doft, “Photopigment concentration, light and dark adaptation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 25, 311 (1984).
  44. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. R. Diddie, “Color matching and Stiles–Crawford effect in central serous choroidopathy,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 19, 284–295 (1978).
  45. A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of subretinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res. 36, 191–205 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. M. E. Hartnett, A. E. Elsner, “Characteristics of exudative age-related macular degeneration determined in vivo with confocal and indirect infrared imaging,” Ophthalmology 103, 58–71 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, T. Bailey, H. S. Kruth, “Accumulation of cholesterol with age in human Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 265–274 (2001).

2000 (2)

R. F. Mullins, S. R. Russell, D. H. Anderson, G. S. Hageman, “Drusen associated with aging and age-related macular degeneration contain proteins common to extracellular deposits associated with atherosclerosis, elastosis, amyloidosis, and dense deposit disease,” Faseb J. 14, 835–846 (2000).
[PubMed]

E. H. Souied, D. Ducroq, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Perrault, A. Munnich, G. Coscas, G. Soubrane, J. Kaplan, “ABCR gene analysis in familial exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 244–247 (2000).

1999 (1)

J. S. Sunness, “The natural history of geographic atrophy, the advanced atrophic form of age-related macular degeneration,” Mol. Vision 5, 25 (1999).

1998 (4)

L. Moraes, A. E. Elsner, C. Kunze, C. L. Trempe, M. E. Hartnett, “Correlation in patients with age-related maculopathy between retinal sensitivity and anatomic abnor-malities using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 39, B602 (1998).

E. M. Stone, A. R. Webster, K. Vandenburgh, L. M. Streb, R. R. Hockey, A. J. Lotery, V. C. Sheffield, “Allelic variation in ABCR associated with Stargardt’s disease but not age-related macular degeneration,” Nat. Genet. 20, 328–329 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Sandberg, A. Weiner, S. Miller, A. R. Gaudio, “High-risk characteristics of fellow eyes of patients with unilateral neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 105, 441–447 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, J. J. Weiter, “Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394–2404 (1998).

1997 (2)

J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, L. M. Kelley, E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, “Non-exudative age-related macular degeneration: association of fundus features with heart disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S94 (1997).

D. C. Fletcher, R. A. Schuchard, “Preferred retinal loci relationship to macular scotomas in a low-vision population,” Ophthalmology 104, 632–638 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (4)

M. E. Hartnett, J. J. Weiter, G. Staurenghi, A. E. Elsner, “Deep retinal vascular anomalous complexes in advanced age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 103, 2042–2053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of subretinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res. 36, 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Hartnett, A. E. Elsner, “Characteristics of exudative age-related macular degeneration determined in vivo with confocal and indirect infrared imaging,” Ophthalmology 103, 58–71 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Swanson, G. E. Fish, “Age-related changes in the color-match-area effect,” Vision Res. 36, 2079–2085 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

1994 (2)

J. P. Sarks, S. H. Sarks, M. C. Killingsworth, “Evolution of soft drusen in age-related macular degeneration,” Eye 8, 269–283 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macular Photocoagulation Study Group, “Laser photocoagulation for juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 500–509 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (4)

R. Klein, B. E. Klein, K. L. Linton, “Prevalence of age-related maculopathy. The Beaver Dam Eye Study,” Ophthalmology 99, 933–943 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Eisner, M. L. Klein, J. D. Zilis, M. D. Watkins, “Visual function and the subsequent development of exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 3091–3102 (1992).

M. J. Mayer, S. J. Spiegler, B. Ward, A. Glucs, C. B. Kim, “Mid-frequency loss of foveal flicker sensitivity in early stages of age-related maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 3136–3142 (1992).

D. C. Coile, H. D. Baker, “Foveal dark adaptation photopigment regeneration and aging,” Visual Neurosci. 8, 27–39 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, B. Brown, “Two-color increment threshold in early age-related maculopathy,” Clin. Vision Sci. 4, 165–172 (1989).

1988 (3)

1987 (8)

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, L. A. Lobes, “Foveal cone pigment optical density in retinitis pigmentosa,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1378–1384 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Applegate, A. J. Adams, J. C. Cavender, F. Zisman, “Early color vision changes in age-related maculopathy,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1458–1462 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, L. A. Lobes, “Cone function deficits in patients with good visual acuity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 28, 128 (1987).

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, L. A. Lobes, B. H. Doft, “Cone photopigment abnormalities in diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 718–724 (1987).

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, L. A. Lobes, B. H. Doft, “A psychophysical technique for measuring cone photopigment bleaching,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 711–717 (1987).

J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of foveal cone pigments at older age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 985–991 (1987).

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mouldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

B. Brown, J. Lovie-Kitchen, “Temporal function in age related maculopathy,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 70.4, 112–116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, L. A. Lobes, B. H. Doft, “Photopigment concentration, light and dark adaptation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 25, 311 (1984).

1980 (1)

H. M. Leibowitz, D. E. Kruger, L. R. Maunder, R. C. Milton, M. M. Kini, H. A. Kahn, R. J. Nickerson, J. Pool, T. L. Colton, J. P. Ganley, J. I. Loewenstein, T. R. Dawber, “The Framingham Eye Study Monograph: an ophthalmological and epidemiological study of cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and visual acuity in a general population of 2631 adults,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 24 (Suppl.), 335–610 (1980).
[PubMed]

1979 (1)

M. Alpern, “Lack of uniformity in colour matching,” J. Physiol. (London) 288, 85–105 (1979).

1978 (1)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. R. Diddie, “Color matching and Stiles–Crawford effect in central serous choroidopathy,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 19, 284–295 (1978).

1976 (1)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, S. J. Starr, “Variability of color mixture data—I. Interobserver variability in the unit coordinates,” Vision Res. 16, 1087–1094 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

R. Lakowski, “Age and Colour vision,” Adv. Sci. 15, 231–236 (1958).

Adams, A. J.

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, “Lack of uniformity in colour matching,” J. Physiol. (London) 288, 85–105 (1979).

Anderson, D. H.

R. F. Mullins, S. R. Russell, D. H. Anderson, G. S. Hageman, “Drusen associated with aging and age-related macular degeneration contain proteins common to extracellular deposits associated with atherosclerosis, elastosis, amyloidosis, and dense deposit disease,” Faseb J. 14, 835–846 (2000).
[PubMed]

Applegate, R. A.

Arend, O.

A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, K. Lichtenberg, O. Arend, “Short wavelength automated perimetry in age-related maculopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. (to be published).

Bailey, T.

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, T. Bailey, H. S. Kruth, “Accumulation of cholesterol with age in human Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 265–274 (2001).

Baker, H. D.

D. C. Coile, H. D. Baker, “Foveal dark adaptation photopigment regeneration and aging,” Visual Neurosci. 8, 27–39 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bartsch, D.-U.

A. E. Elsner, D.-U. Bartsch, J. J. Weiter, M. E. Hartnett, “New devices in retinal imaging and functional evaluation,” in Practical Atlas of Retinal Disease and Therapy, 2nd ed., W. Freeman, ed. (Lipincott-Raven, New York, 1998), pp. 19–55.

Beausencourt, E.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, J. J. Weiter, “Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394–2404 (1998).

J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, L. M. Kelley, E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, “Non-exudative age-related macular degeneration: association of fundus features with heart disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S94 (1997).

Berk, L.

Brown, B.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, B. Brown, “Two-color increment threshold in early age-related maculopathy,” Clin. Vision Sci. 4, 165–172 (1989).

B. Brown, J. Lovie-Kitchen, “Temporal function in age related maculopathy,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 70.4, 112–116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. A.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, J. J. Weiter, “Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394–2404 (1998).

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of subretinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res. 36, 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, “Color matching at high illuminances: photopigment optical density and pupil entry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 221–230 (1993).

A. E. Elsner, L. Berk, S. A. Burns, P. A. Rosenberg, “Aging and human cone photopigments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2106–2112 (1988). See also Ref. 29.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, L. A. Lobes, “Foveal cone photopigment bleaching in central serous retinopathy,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1045–1049 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, L. A. Lobes, “Foveal cone pigment optical density in retinitis pigmentosa,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1378–1384 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, L. A. Lobes, “Cone function deficits in patients with good visual acuity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 28, 128 (1987).

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, L. A. Lobes, B. H. Doft, “Cone photopigment abnormalities in diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 718–724 (1987).

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, L. A. Lobes, B. H. Doft, “A psychophysical technique for measuring cone photopigment bleaching,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 711–717 (1987).

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, “Color matching at high illuminances: the color-match-area effect and photopigment bleaching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 698–704 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, L. A. Lobes, B. H. Doft, “Photopigment concentration, light and dark adaptation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 25, 311 (1984).

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, “Models of photopigment kinetics: changes with age,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 18 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 214.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. J. Weiter, M. R. Kreitz, “Cone photopigment density in aging and AMD,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 194–197.

Cavender, J. C.

Coile, D. C.

D. C. Coile, H. D. Baker, “Foveal dark adaptation photopigment regeneration and aging,” Visual Neurosci. 8, 27–39 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Colton, T. L.

H. M. Leibowitz, D. E. Kruger, L. R. Maunder, R. C. Milton, M. M. Kini, H. A. Kahn, R. J. Nickerson, J. Pool, T. L. Colton, J. P. Ganley, J. I. Loewenstein, T. R. Dawber, “The Framingham Eye Study Monograph: an ophthalmological and epidemiological study of cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and visual acuity in a general population of 2631 adults,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 24 (Suppl.), 335–610 (1980).
[PubMed]

Coscas, G.

E. H. Souied, D. Ducroq, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Perrault, A. Munnich, G. Coscas, G. Soubrane, J. Kaplan, “ABCR gene analysis in familial exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 244–247 (2000).

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, T. Bailey, H. S. Kruth, “Accumulation of cholesterol with age in human Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 265–274 (2001).

Dawber, T. R.

H. M. Leibowitz, D. E. Kruger, L. R. Maunder, R. C. Milton, M. M. Kini, H. A. Kahn, R. J. Nickerson, J. Pool, T. L. Colton, J. P. Ganley, J. I. Loewenstein, T. R. Dawber, “The Framingham Eye Study Monograph: an ophthalmological and epidemiological study of cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and visual acuity in a general population of 2631 adults,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 24 (Suppl.), 335–610 (1980).
[PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of subretinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res. 36, 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddie, K. R.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. R. Diddie, “Color matching and the Stiles–Crawford effect in observers with early age-related macular changes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2113–2121 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. R. Diddie, “Color matching and Stiles–Crawford effect in central serous choroidopathy,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 19, 284–295 (1978).

Doft, B. H.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, L. A. Lobes, B. H. Doft, “Cone photopigment abnormalities in diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 718–724 (1987).

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, L. A. Lobes, B. H. Doft, “A psychophysical technique for measuring cone photopigment bleaching,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 711–717 (1987).

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, L. A. Lobes, B. H. Doft, “Photopigment concentration, light and dark adaptation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 25, 311 (1984).

Ducroq, D.

E. H. Souied, D. Ducroq, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Perrault, A. Munnich, G. Coscas, G. Soubrane, J. Kaplan, “ABCR gene analysis in familial exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 244–247 (2000).

Eisner, A.

A. Eisner, M. L. Klein, J. D. Zilis, M. D. Watkins, “Visual function and the subsequent development of exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 3091–3102 (1992).

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mouldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

Elsner, A. E.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, J. J. Weiter, “Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394–2404 (1998).

L. Moraes, A. E. Elsner, C. Kunze, C. L. Trempe, M. E. Hartnett, “Correlation in patients with age-related maculopathy between retinal sensitivity and anatomic abnor-malities using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 39, B602 (1998).

J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, L. M. Kelley, E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, “Non-exudative age-related macular degeneration: association of fundus features with heart disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S94 (1997).

M. E. Hartnett, A. E. Elsner, “Characteristics of exudative age-related macular degeneration determined in vivo with confocal and indirect infrared imaging,” Ophthalmology 103, 58–71 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of subretinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res. 36, 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Hartnett, J. J. Weiter, G. Staurenghi, A. E. Elsner, “Deep retinal vascular anomalous complexes in advanced age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 103, 2042–2053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, “Color matching at high illuminances: photopigment optical density and pupil entry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 221–230 (1993).

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, L. A. Lobes, “Foveal cone photopigment bleaching in central serous retinopathy,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1045–1049 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, L. Berk, S. A. Burns, P. A. Rosenberg, “Aging and human cone photopigments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2106–2112 (1988). See also Ref. 29.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, L. A. Lobes, B. H. Doft, “Cone photopigment abnormalities in diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 718–724 (1987).

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, L. A. Lobes, “Cone function deficits in patients with good visual acuity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 28, 128 (1987).

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, L. A. Lobes, B. H. Doft, “A psychophysical technique for measuring cone photopigment bleaching,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 711–717 (1987).

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, L. A. Lobes, “Foveal cone pigment optical density in retinitis pigmentosa,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1378–1384 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, “Color matching at high illuminances: the color-match-area effect and photopigment bleaching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 698–704 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, L. A. Lobes, B. H. Doft, “Photopigment concentration, light and dark adaptation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 25, 311 (1984).

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, “Models of photopigment kinetics: changes with age,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 18 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 214.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. J. Weiter, M. R. Kreitz, “Cone photopigment density in aging and AMD,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 194–197.

A. E. Elsner, D.-U. Bartsch, J. J. Weiter, M. E. Hartnett, “New devices in retinal imaging and functional evaluation,” in Practical Atlas of Retinal Disease and Therapy, 2nd ed., W. Freeman, ed. (Lipincott-Raven, New York, 1998), pp. 19–55.

A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, K. Lichtenberg, O. Arend, “Short wavelength automated perimetry in age-related maculopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. (to be published).

Fish, G. E.

Fleming, S. A.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mouldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

Fletcher, D. C.

D. C. Fletcher, R. A. Schuchard, “Preferred retinal loci relationship to macular scotomas in a low-vision population,” Ophthalmology 104, 632–638 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganley, J. P.

H. M. Leibowitz, D. E. Kruger, L. R. Maunder, R. C. Milton, M. M. Kini, H. A. Kahn, R. J. Nickerson, J. Pool, T. L. Colton, J. P. Ganley, J. I. Loewenstein, T. R. Dawber, “The Framingham Eye Study Monograph: an ophthalmological and epidemiological study of cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and visual acuity in a general population of 2631 adults,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 24 (Suppl.), 335–610 (1980).
[PubMed]

Gaudio, A. R.

M. A. Sandberg, A. Weiner, S. Miller, A. R. Gaudio, “High-risk characteristics of fellow eyes of patients with unilateral neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 105, 441–447 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Sandberg, A. R. Gaudio, “Slow photostress recovery and disease severity in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina 15, 407–412 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerber, S.

E. H. Souied, D. Ducroq, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Perrault, A. Munnich, G. Coscas, G. Soubrane, J. Kaplan, “ABCR gene analysis in familial exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 244–247 (2000).

Glucs, A.

M. J. Mayer, S. J. Spiegler, B. Ward, A. Glucs, C. B. Kim, “Mid-frequency loss of foveal flicker sensitivity in early stages of age-related maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 3136–3142 (1992).

Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, B. Brown, “Two-color increment threshold in early age-related maculopathy,” Clin. Vision Sci. 4, 165–172 (1989).

Hageman, G. S.

R. F. Mullins, S. R. Russell, D. H. Anderson, G. S. Hageman, “Drusen associated with aging and age-related macular degeneration contain proteins common to extracellular deposits associated with atherosclerosis, elastosis, amyloidosis, and dense deposit disease,” Faseb J. 14, 835–846 (2000).
[PubMed]

Hartnett, M. E.

L. Moraes, A. E. Elsner, C. Kunze, C. L. Trempe, M. E. Hartnett, “Correlation in patients with age-related maculopathy between retinal sensitivity and anatomic abnor-malities using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 39, B602 (1998).

M. E. Hartnett, J. J. Weiter, G. Staurenghi, A. E. Elsner, “Deep retinal vascular anomalous complexes in advanced age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 103, 2042–2053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Hartnett, A. E. Elsner, “Characteristics of exudative age-related macular degeneration determined in vivo with confocal and indirect infrared imaging,” Ophthalmology 103, 58–71 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, D.-U. Bartsch, J. J. Weiter, M. E. Hartnett, “New devices in retinal imaging and functional evaluation,” in Practical Atlas of Retinal Disease and Therapy, 2nd ed., W. Freeman, ed. (Lipincott-Raven, New York, 1998), pp. 19–55.

Hockey, R. R.

E. M. Stone, A. R. Webster, K. Vandenburgh, L. M. Streb, R. R. Hockey, A. J. Lotery, V. C. Sheffield, “Allelic variation in ABCR associated with Stargardt’s disease but not age-related macular degeneration,” Nat. Genet. 20, 328–329 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kahn, H. A.

H. M. Leibowitz, D. E. Kruger, L. R. Maunder, R. C. Milton, M. M. Kini, H. A. Kahn, R. J. Nickerson, J. Pool, T. L. Colton, J. P. Ganley, J. I. Loewenstein, T. R. Dawber, “The Framingham Eye Study Monograph: an ophthalmological and epidemiological study of cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and visual acuity in a general population of 2631 adults,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 24 (Suppl.), 335–610 (1980).
[PubMed]

Kaplan, J.

E. H. Souied, D. Ducroq, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Perrault, A. Munnich, G. Coscas, G. Soubrane, J. Kaplan, “ABCR gene analysis in familial exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 244–247 (2000).

Kelley, L. M.

J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, L. M. Kelley, E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, “Non-exudative age-related macular degeneration: association of fundus features with heart disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S94 (1997).

Keunen, J. E. E.

J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of foveal cone pigments at older age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 985–991 (1987).

Killingsworth, M. C.

J. P. Sarks, S. H. Sarks, M. C. Killingsworth, “Evolution of soft drusen in age-related macular degeneration,” Eye 8, 269–283 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C. B.

M. J. Mayer, S. J. Spiegler, B. Ward, A. Glucs, C. B. Kim, “Mid-frequency loss of foveal flicker sensitivity in early stages of age-related maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 3136–3142 (1992).

Kini, M. M.

H. M. Leibowitz, D. E. Kruger, L. R. Maunder, R. C. Milton, M. M. Kini, H. A. Kahn, R. J. Nickerson, J. Pool, T. L. Colton, J. P. Ganley, J. I. Loewenstein, T. R. Dawber, “The Framingham Eye Study Monograph: an ophthalmological and epidemiological study of cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and visual acuity in a general population of 2631 adults,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 24 (Suppl.), 335–610 (1980).
[PubMed]

Klein, B. E.

R. Klein, B. E. Klein, K. L. Linton, “Prevalence of age-related maculopathy. The Beaver Dam Eye Study,” Ophthalmology 99, 933–943 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, M. L.

A. Eisner, M. L. Klein, J. D. Zilis, M. D. Watkins, “Visual function and the subsequent development of exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 3091–3102 (1992).

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mouldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

Klein, R.

R. Klein, B. E. Klein, K. L. Linton, “Prevalence of age-related maculopathy. The Beaver Dam Eye Study,” Ophthalmology 99, 933–943 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreitz, M. R.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. J. Weiter, M. R. Kreitz, “Cone photopigment density in aging and AMD,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 194–197.

Kruger, D. E.

H. M. Leibowitz, D. E. Kruger, L. R. Maunder, R. C. Milton, M. M. Kini, H. A. Kahn, R. J. Nickerson, J. Pool, T. L. Colton, J. P. Ganley, J. I. Loewenstein, T. R. Dawber, “The Framingham Eye Study Monograph: an ophthalmological and epidemiological study of cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and visual acuity in a general population of 2631 adults,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 24 (Suppl.), 335–610 (1980).
[PubMed]

Kruth, H. S.

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, T. Bailey, H. S. Kruth, “Accumulation of cholesterol with age in human Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 265–274 (2001).

Kunze, C.

L. Moraes, A. E. Elsner, C. Kunze, C. L. Trempe, M. E. Hartnett, “Correlation in patients with age-related maculopathy between retinal sensitivity and anatomic abnor-malities using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 39, B602 (1998).

Lakowski, R.

R. Lakowski, “Age and Colour vision,” Adv. Sci. 15, 231–236 (1958).

Leibowitz, H. M.

H. M. Leibowitz, D. E. Kruger, L. R. Maunder, R. C. Milton, M. M. Kini, H. A. Kahn, R. J. Nickerson, J. Pool, T. L. Colton, J. P. Ganley, J. I. Loewenstein, T. R. Dawber, “The Framingham Eye Study Monograph: an ophthalmological and epidemiological study of cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and visual acuity in a general population of 2631 adults,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 24 (Suppl.), 335–610 (1980).
[PubMed]

Lichtenberg, K.

A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, K. Lichtenberg, O. Arend, “Short wavelength automated perimetry in age-related maculopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. (to be published).

Linton, K. L.

R. Klein, B. E. Klein, K. L. Linton, “Prevalence of age-related maculopathy. The Beaver Dam Eye Study,” Ophthalmology 99, 933–943 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lobes, L. A.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, L. A. Lobes, “Foveal cone photopigment bleaching in central serous retinopathy,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1045–1049 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, L. A. Lobes, “Foveal cone pigment optical density in retinitis pigmentosa,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1378–1384 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, L. A. Lobes, B. H. Doft, “A psychophysical technique for measuring cone photopigment bleaching,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 711–717 (1987).

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, L. A. Lobes, B. H. Doft, “Cone photopigment abnormalities in diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 718–724 (1987).

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, L. A. Lobes, “Cone function deficits in patients with good visual acuity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 28, 128 (1987).

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, L. A. Lobes, B. H. Doft, “Photopigment concentration, light and dark adaptation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 25, 311 (1984).

Loewenstein, J. I.

H. M. Leibowitz, D. E. Kruger, L. R. Maunder, R. C. Milton, M. M. Kini, H. A. Kahn, R. J. Nickerson, J. Pool, T. L. Colton, J. P. Ganley, J. I. Loewenstein, T. R. Dawber, “The Framingham Eye Study Monograph: an ophthalmological and epidemiological study of cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and visual acuity in a general population of 2631 adults,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 24 (Suppl.), 335–610 (1980).
[PubMed]

Lotery, A. J.

E. M. Stone, A. R. Webster, K. Vandenburgh, L. M. Streb, R. R. Hockey, A. J. Lotery, V. C. Sheffield, “Allelic variation in ABCR associated with Stargardt’s disease but not age-related macular degeneration,” Nat. Genet. 20, 328–329 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lovie-Kitchen, J.

B. Brown, J. Lovie-Kitchen, “Temporal function in age related maculopathy,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 70.4, 112–116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Maunder, L. R.

H. M. Leibowitz, D. E. Kruger, L. R. Maunder, R. C. Milton, M. M. Kini, H. A. Kahn, R. J. Nickerson, J. Pool, T. L. Colton, J. P. Ganley, J. I. Loewenstein, T. R. Dawber, “The Framingham Eye Study Monograph: an ophthalmological and epidemiological study of cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and visual acuity in a general population of 2631 adults,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 24 (Suppl.), 335–610 (1980).
[PubMed]

Mayer, M. J.

M. J. Mayer, S. J. Spiegler, B. Ward, A. Glucs, C. B. Kim, “Mid-frequency loss of foveal flicker sensitivity in early stages of age-related maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 3136–3142 (1992).

Miller, S.

M. A. Sandberg, A. Weiner, S. Miller, A. R. Gaudio, “High-risk characteristics of fellow eyes of patients with unilateral neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 105, 441–447 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millican, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, T. Bailey, H. S. Kruth, “Accumulation of cholesterol with age in human Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 265–274 (2001).

Milton, R. C.

H. M. Leibowitz, D. E. Kruger, L. R. Maunder, R. C. Milton, M. M. Kini, H. A. Kahn, R. J. Nickerson, J. Pool, T. L. Colton, J. P. Ganley, J. I. Loewenstein, T. R. Dawber, “The Framingham Eye Study Monograph: an ophthalmological and epidemiological study of cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and visual acuity in a general population of 2631 adults,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 24 (Suppl.), 335–610 (1980).
[PubMed]

Moraes, L.

L. Moraes, A. E. Elsner, C. Kunze, C. L. Trempe, M. E. Hartnett, “Correlation in patients with age-related maculopathy between retinal sensitivity and anatomic abnor-malities using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 39, B602 (1998).

Mouldin, W. M.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mouldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

Mullins, R. F.

R. F. Mullins, S. R. Russell, D. H. Anderson, G. S. Hageman, “Drusen associated with aging and age-related macular degeneration contain proteins common to extracellular deposits associated with atherosclerosis, elastosis, amyloidosis, and dense deposit disease,” Faseb J. 14, 835–846 (2000).
[PubMed]

Munnich, A.

E. H. Souied, D. Ducroq, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Perrault, A. Munnich, G. Coscas, G. Soubrane, J. Kaplan, “ABCR gene analysis in familial exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 244–247 (2000).

Nickerson, R. J.

H. M. Leibowitz, D. E. Kruger, L. R. Maunder, R. C. Milton, M. M. Kini, H. A. Kahn, R. J. Nickerson, J. Pool, T. L. Colton, J. P. Ganley, J. I. Loewenstein, T. R. Dawber, “The Framingham Eye Study Monograph: an ophthalmological and epidemiological study of cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and visual acuity in a general population of 2631 adults,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 24 (Suppl.), 335–610 (1980).
[PubMed]

Perrault, I.

E. H. Souied, D. Ducroq, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Perrault, A. Munnich, G. Coscas, G. Soubrane, J. Kaplan, “ABCR gene analysis in familial exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 244–247 (2000).

Pokorny, J.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. R. Diddie, “Color matching and the Stiles–Crawford effect in observers with early age-related macular changes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2113–2121 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. R. Diddie, “Color matching and Stiles–Crawford effect in central serous choroidopathy,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 19, 284–295 (1978).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, S. J. Starr, “Variability of color mixture data—I. Interobserver variability in the unit coordinates,” Vision Res. 16, 1087–1094 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pool, J.

H. M. Leibowitz, D. E. Kruger, L. R. Maunder, R. C. Milton, M. M. Kini, H. A. Kahn, R. J. Nickerson, J. Pool, T. L. Colton, J. P. Ganley, J. I. Loewenstein, T. R. Dawber, “The Framingham Eye Study Monograph: an ophthalmological and epidemiological study of cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and visual acuity in a general population of 2631 adults,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 24 (Suppl.), 335–610 (1980).
[PubMed]

Raskauskas, P. A.

J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, L. M. Kelley, E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, “Non-exudative age-related macular degeneration: association of fundus features with heart disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S94 (1997).

Remky, A.

J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, L. M. Kelley, E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, “Non-exudative age-related macular degeneration: association of fundus features with heart disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S94 (1997).

A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, K. Lichtenberg, O. Arend, “Short wavelength automated perimetry in age-related maculopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. (to be published).

Rosenberg, P. A.

Rozet, J. M.

E. H. Souied, D. Ducroq, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Perrault, A. Munnich, G. Coscas, G. Soubrane, J. Kaplan, “ABCR gene analysis in familial exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 244–247 (2000).

Russell, S. R.

R. F. Mullins, S. R. Russell, D. H. Anderson, G. S. Hageman, “Drusen associated with aging and age-related macular degeneration contain proteins common to extracellular deposits associated with atherosclerosis, elastosis, amyloidosis, and dense deposit disease,” Faseb J. 14, 835–846 (2000).
[PubMed]

Sandberg, M. A.

M. A. Sandberg, A. Weiner, S. Miller, A. R. Gaudio, “High-risk characteristics of fellow eyes of patients with unilateral neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 105, 441–447 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Sandberg, A. R. Gaudio, “Slow photostress recovery and disease severity in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina 15, 407–412 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarks, J. P.

J. P. Sarks, S. H. Sarks, M. C. Killingsworth, “Evolution of soft drusen in age-related macular degeneration,” Eye 8, 269–283 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarks, S. H.

J. P. Sarks, S. H. Sarks, M. C. Killingsworth, “Evolution of soft drusen in age-related macular degeneration,” Eye 8, 269–283 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuchard, R. A.

D. C. Fletcher, R. A. Schuchard, “Preferred retinal loci relationship to macular scotomas in a low-vision population,” Ophthalmology 104, 632–638 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheffield, V. C.

E. M. Stone, A. R. Webster, K. Vandenburgh, L. M. Streb, R. R. Hockey, A. J. Lotery, V. C. Sheffield, “Allelic variation in ABCR associated with Stargardt’s disease but not age-related macular degeneration,” Nat. Genet. 20, 328–329 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. R. Diddie, “Color matching and the Stiles–Crawford effect in observers with early age-related macular changes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2113–2121 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. R. Diddie, “Color matching and Stiles–Crawford effect in central serous choroidopathy,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 19, 284–295 (1978).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, S. J. Starr, “Variability of color mixture data—I. Interobserver variability in the unit coordinates,” Vision Res. 16, 1087–1094 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Soubrane, G.

E. H. Souied, D. Ducroq, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Perrault, A. Munnich, G. Coscas, G. Soubrane, J. Kaplan, “ABCR gene analysis in familial exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 244–247 (2000).

Souied, E. H.

E. H. Souied, D. Ducroq, J. M. Rozet, S. Gerber, I. Perrault, A. Munnich, G. Coscas, G. Soubrane, J. Kaplan, “ABCR gene analysis in familial exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 244–247 (2000).

Spiegler, S. J.

M. J. Mayer, S. J. Spiegler, B. Ward, A. Glucs, C. B. Kim, “Mid-frequency loss of foveal flicker sensitivity in early stages of age-related maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 3136–3142 (1992).

Starr, S. J.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, S. J. Starr, “Variability of color mixture data—I. Interobserver variability in the unit coordinates,” Vision Res. 16, 1087–1094 (1976).
[CrossRef]

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E. M. Stone, A. R. Webster, K. Vandenburgh, L. M. Streb, R. R. Hockey, A. J. Lotery, V. C. Sheffield, “Allelic variation in ABCR associated with Stargardt’s disease but not age-related macular degeneration,” Nat. Genet. 20, 328–329 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Streb, L. M.

E. M. Stone, A. R. Webster, K. Vandenburgh, L. M. Streb, R. R. Hockey, A. J. Lotery, V. C. Sheffield, “Allelic variation in ABCR associated with Stargardt’s disease but not age-related macular degeneration,” Nat. Genet. 20, 328–329 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sunness, J. S.

J. S. Sunness, “The natural history of geographic atrophy, the advanced atrophic form of age-related macular degeneration,” Mol. Vision 5, 25 (1999).

Swanson, W. H.

Trempe, C. L.

L. Moraes, A. E. Elsner, C. Kunze, C. L. Trempe, M. E. Hartnett, “Correlation in patients with age-related maculopathy between retinal sensitivity and anatomic abnor-malities using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 39, B602 (1998).

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van Norren, D.

J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of foveal cone pigments at older age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 985–991 (1987).

Vandenburgh, K.

E. M. Stone, A. R. Webster, K. Vandenburgh, L. M. Streb, R. R. Hockey, A. J. Lotery, V. C. Sheffield, “Allelic variation in ABCR associated with Stargardt’s disease but not age-related macular degeneration,” Nat. Genet. 20, 328–329 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, L. M. Kelley, E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, “Non-exudative age-related macular degeneration: association of fundus features with heart disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S94 (1997).

Ward, B.

M. J. Mayer, S. J. Spiegler, B. Ward, A. Glucs, C. B. Kim, “Mid-frequency loss of foveal flicker sensitivity in early stages of age-related maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 3136–3142 (1992).

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Webster, A. R.

E. M. Stone, A. R. Webster, K. Vandenburgh, L. M. Streb, R. R. Hockey, A. J. Lotery, V. C. Sheffield, “Allelic variation in ABCR associated with Stargardt’s disease but not age-related macular degeneration,” Nat. Genet. 20, 328–329 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. A. Sandberg, A. Weiner, S. Miller, A. R. Gaudio, “High-risk characteristics of fellow eyes of patients with unilateral neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 105, 441–447 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of subretinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res. 36, 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Hartnett, J. J. Weiter, G. Staurenghi, A. E. Elsner, “Deep retinal vascular anomalous complexes in advanced age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 103, 2042–2053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. J. Weiter, M. R. Kreitz, “Cone photopigment density in aging and AMD,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 194–197.

A. E. Elsner, D.-U. Bartsch, J. J. Weiter, M. E. Hartnett, “New devices in retinal imaging and functional evaluation,” in Practical Atlas of Retinal Disease and Therapy, 2nd ed., W. Freeman, ed. (Lipincott-Raven, New York, 1998), pp. 19–55.

Wing, G. L.

J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, L. M. Kelley, E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, “Non-exudative age-related macular degeneration: association of fundus features with heart disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S94 (1997).

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A. Eisner, M. L. Klein, J. D. Zilis, M. D. Watkins, “Visual function and the subsequent development of exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 3091–3102 (1992).

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A. Eisner, M. L. Klein, J. D. Zilis, M. D. Watkins, “Visual function and the subsequent development of exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 3091–3102 (1992).

M. J. Mayer, S. J. Spiegler, B. Ward, A. Glucs, C. B. Kim, “Mid-frequency loss of foveal flicker sensitivity in early stages of age-related maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 3136–3142 (1992).

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A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, J. J. Weiter, “Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394–2404 (1998).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. (4)

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, L. A. Lobes, “Cone function deficits in patients with good visual acuity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 28, 128 (1987).

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L. Moraes, A. E. Elsner, C. Kunze, C. L. Trempe, M. E. Hartnett, “Correlation in patients with age-related maculopathy between retinal sensitivity and anatomic abnor-malities using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 39, B602 (1998).

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, L. A. Lobes, B. H. Doft, “Photopigment concentration, light and dark adaptation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 25, 311 (1984).

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J. S. Sunness, “The natural history of geographic atrophy, the advanced atrophic form of age-related macular degeneration,” Mol. Vision 5, 25 (1999).

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E. M. Stone, A. R. Webster, K. Vandenburgh, L. M. Streb, R. R. Hockey, A. J. Lotery, V. C. Sheffield, “Allelic variation in ABCR associated with Stargardt’s disease but not age-related macular degeneration,” Nat. Genet. 20, 328–329 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (5)

M. A. Sandberg, A. Weiner, S. Miller, A. R. Gaudio, “High-risk characteristics of fellow eyes of patients with unilateral neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 105, 441–447 (1998).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[PubMed]

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V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, S. J. Starr, “Variability of color mixture data—I. Interobserver variability in the unit coordinates,” Vision Res. 16, 1087–1094 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of subretinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res. 36, 191–205 (1996).
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A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, K. Lichtenberg, O. Arend, “Short wavelength automated perimetry in age-related maculopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. (to be published).

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. J. Weiter, M. R. Kreitz, “Cone photopigment density in aging and AMD,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 194–197.

A. E. Elsner, D.-U. Bartsch, J. J. Weiter, M. E. Hartnett, “New devices in retinal imaging and functional evaluation,” in Practical Atlas of Retinal Disease and Therapy, 2nd ed., W. Freeman, ed. (Lipincott-Raven, New York, 1998), pp. 19–55.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, “Models of photopigment kinetics: changes with age,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 18 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 214.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Color matching data from a control subject, showing how color matches change as a function of increasing retinal illuminance and the bleaching of photopigments. The four-parameter Gaussian model of these data provides quantitative estimates of cone photopigment optical density (OD), the amount of light required to bleach half the photopigment (I0), and the effect of preretinal filtering from cataractous lens or other sources on the height of the curve. The standard deviation is not shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two examples of color matching data. (a) Color matching data as a function of retinal illuminance from a control subject, showing individual data points. (b) Same experimental procedure, but with a patient having early AMD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Maximum possible optical density of cone photopigment, ODmax, showing the wide range for patients with AMD. ODmax is plotted against visual acuity to show no correlation. Solid line, the mean optical density of normal subjects. Dashed line, 2 standard deviations less than the mean. Dotted line, 3 standard deviations less than the mean.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Amount of light needed to bleach half the photopigment (I0), plotted as a function of ODmax, indicating that the majority of values are larger than the average of 4.37 log Td found in control subjects.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Individual color match settings at the two lowest retinal illuminances, showing no change in the settings with increasing time spent at that retinal illuminance, regardless of whether a patient had normal or decreased cone photopigment optical density. (a) Lowest intensity, (b) second intensity. Note the consistency of the settings of each patient.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Several Types of Potential Changes of Aging and Disease to Cone Photoreceptor/Retinal Pigment Epithelial Complex and the Result on Color Matching.

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