Abstract

We cross-sectionally examined the relationship between age, optic disc area, refraction, and gender and optic disc topography and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements, using optical imaging techniques. One eye from each of 155 Caucasian subjects (age range 23.0–80.8 y) without ocular pathology was included. Measurements were obtained by using the Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT), the GDx Nerve Fiber Analyzer, and the Optical Coherence Tomograph (OCT). The effects of age were small (R2<17%) and were limited to specific HRT, GDx, and OCT parameters. Disc area was significantly associated with most HRT parameters and isolated GDx and OCT parameters. Refraction and gender were not significantly associated with any optic disc or RNFL parameters. Although effects of age on the optic disc and RNFL are small, they should be considered in monitoring ocular disease. Optic disc area should be considered when cross-sectionally evaluating disc topography and, to a lesser extent, RNFL thickness.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  3. E. Z. Blumenthal, J. M. Williams, R. N. Weinreb, C. A. Girkin, C. C. Berry, L. M. Zangwill, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements by use of optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 107, 2278–2282 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluating the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer in glaucoma II: optical image analysis,” Semin. Ophthalmol. 15, 206–220 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Janknecht, J. Funk, “Optic nerve head analyser and Heidelberg retina tomograph: accuracy and reproducibility of topographic measurements in a model eye and in volunteers,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 78, 760–768 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. S. Mikelberg, K. Wijsman, M. Schulzer, “Reproducibility of topographic parameters obtained with the Heidelberg retina tomograph,” J. Glaucoma 2, 101–103 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103, 1889–1889 (1996).
  8. C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, J. M. Williams, L. M. Zangwill, “The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in ocular hypertensive, normal, and glaucomatous eyes with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 118, 22–26 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. N. Weinreb, M. Lusky, D. U. Bartsch, D. Morsman, “Effect of repetitive imaging on topographic measurements of the optic nerve head,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 636–638 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Zangwill, C. A. Berry, V. S. Garden, R. N. Weinreb, “Reproducibility of retardation measurements with the nerve fiber analyzer II,” J. Glaucoma 6, 384–389 (1997).
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  11. M. J. Tjon-Fo-Sang, H. G. Lemij, “The sensitivity and specificity of nerve fiber layer measurements in glaucomaas determined with scanning laser polarimetry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 123, 62–68 (1997).
    [PubMed]
  12. A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber popula-tion of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
    [PubMed]
  13. C. L. Dolman, A. Q. McCormick, S. M. Drance, “Aging of the optic nerve,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 2053–2058 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Q. Chi, G. Tomita, K. Inazumi, T. Hayakawa, I. Tadayoshi, Y. Kitazawa, “Evaluation of the effect of aging on the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness using scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Glaucoma 4, 406–413 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. F. Garway-Heath, G. Wollstein, R. A. Hitchings, “Aging changes of the optic nerve head in relation to open angle glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 81, 840–845 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Funaki, M. Shirakashi, H. Funaki, K. Yaoeda, H. Abe, “Relationship between age and the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal subjects,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 180–185 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. G. Gundersen, A. Heijl, B. Bengtsson, “Age, gender, IOP, refraction and optic disc topography in normal eyes. A cross-sectional study using raster and scanning laser tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 76, 170–175 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Suzuki, Y. Inoue, “Scanning laser tomography to evaluate optic discs of normal eyes,” Jpn J Ophthalmol. 43, 410–414 (1999).
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  19. S. C. Özdek, M. Onol, G. Gurelik, B. Hasanreisoglu, “Scanning laser polarimetry in normal subjects and patients with myopia,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 84, 264–267 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Poinoosawmy, L. Fontana, J. X. Wu, F. W. Fitzke, R. A. Hitchings, “Variation of nerve fibre layer thickness measurements with age and ethnicity by scanning laser polarimetry,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 81, 350–354 (1997).
  21. M. X. Repka, H. A. Quigley, “The effect of age on normal human optic nerve fiber number and diameter,” Ophthalmology 96, 26–32 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. J. Tjon-Fo-Sang, J. de Vries, H. G. Lemij, “Measurement by nerve fiber analyzer of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in normal subjects and patients with ocular hypertension,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 122, 220–227 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  23. R. N. Weinreb, S. Shakiba, L. Zangwill, “Scanning laser polarimetry to measure the nerve fiber layer of normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 627–636 (1995).
    [PubMed]
  24. F. S. Mikelberg, C. M. Parfitt, N. V. Swindale, S. L. Graham, S.-M. Drance, R. Gosine, “Ability of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph to detect early glaucomatous visual field loss,” J. Glaucoma 4, 242–247 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. S. Greenfield, R. W. Knighton, X. R. Huang, “Effect of corneal polarization axis on assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness by scanning laser polarimetry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 129, 715–722 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. R. N. Weinreb, L. M. Zangwill, C. C. Berry, R. Bathija, P. A. Sample, “Detection of glaucoma with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 1583–1590 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. L. M. Zangwill, J. Williams, C. C. Berry, S. Knauer, R. N. Weinreb, “A comparison of optical coherence tomography and retinal nerve fiber layer photography for detection of nerve fiber layer damage in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 107, 1309–1315 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, C. C. Berry, J. Williams, E. Z. Blumenthal, C. Sanchez-Galeana, C. Vasile, R. N. Weinreb, “Discriminating between normal and glaucomatous eyes using the Heidelberg retina tomograph, GDx nerve fiber analyzer, and optical coherence tomograph,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 985–993 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, B. Lee, A. Emdadi, L. M. Zangwill, “Optic disk topography after medical treatment to reduce intraocular pressure,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 130, 280–286 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. I. Irak, L. Zangwill, V. Garden, S. Shakiba, R. N. Weinreb, “Change in optic disk topography after trabeculectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 122, 690–695 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  31. H. A. Quigley, N. R. Miller, T. George, “Clinical evaluation of nerve fiber layer atrophy as an indicator of glauco-matous optic nerve damage,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 1564–1571 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. A. Sommer, N. R. Miller, I. Pollack, A. E. Maumenee, T. George, “The nerve fiber layer in the diagnosis of glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 2149–2156 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, L. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. R. J. Britton, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, D. K. Mawson, “The area of the neuroretinal rim of the optic nerve in normal eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 497–504 (1987).
    [PubMed]
  35. J. B. Jonas, G. C. Gusek, G. O. Naumann, “Optic disc, cup and neuroretinal rim size, configuration and correla-tions in normal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 1151–1158 (1988).
  36. J. B. Jonas, J. A. Muller-Bergh, U. M. Schlotzer-Schrehardt, G. O. Naumann, “Histomorphometry of the human optic nerve,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 31, 736–744 (1990).
  37. J. B. Jonas, A. M. Schmidt, J. A. Muller-Bergh, U. M. Schlotzer-Schrehardt, G. O. Naumann, “Human optic nerve fiber count and optic disc size,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 2012–2018 (1992).
  38. B. Bengtsson, “The alteration and asymmetry of cup and disc diameters,” Acta Ophthalmol. 58, 726–732 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  39. J. Caprioli, J. M. Miller, “Optic disc rim area is related to disc size in normal subjects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1683–1685 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, C. C. Berry, J. Williams, E. Z. Blumenthal, C. Sanchez-Galeana, C. Vasile, R. N. Weinreb, “Discriminating between normal and glaucomatous eyes using the Heidelberg retina tomograph, GDx nerve fiber analyzer, and optical coherence tomograph,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 985–993 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (7)

C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, B. Lee, A. Emdadi, L. M. Zangwill, “Optic disk topography after medical treatment to reduce intraocular pressure,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 130, 280–286 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Zangwill, J. Williams, C. C. Berry, S. Knauer, R. N. Weinreb, “A comparison of optical coherence tomography and retinal nerve fiber layer photography for detection of nerve fiber layer damage in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 107, 1309–1315 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Özdek, M. Onol, G. Gurelik, B. Hasanreisoglu, “Scanning laser polarimetry in normal subjects and patients with myopia,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 84, 264–267 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Greenfield, R. W. Knighton, X. R. Huang, “Effect of corneal polarization axis on assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness by scanning laser polarimetry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 129, 715–722 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Blumenthal, J. M. Williams, R. N. Weinreb, C. A. Girkin, C. C. Berry, L. M. Zangwill, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements by use of optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 107, 2278–2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluating the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer in glaucoma II: optical image analysis,” Semin. Ophthalmol. 15, 206–220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, J. M. Williams, L. M. Zangwill, “The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in ocular hypertensive, normal, and glaucomatous eyes with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 118, 22–26 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

S. Funaki, M. Shirakashi, H. Funaki, K. Yaoeda, H. Abe, “Relationship between age and the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal subjects,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 180–185 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Suzuki, Y. Inoue, “Scanning laser tomography to evaluate optic discs of normal eyes,” Jpn J Ophthalmol. 43, 410–414 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

R. N. Weinreb, L. M. Zangwill, C. C. Berry, R. Bathija, P. A. Sample, “Detection of glaucoma with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 1583–1590 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Gundersen, A. Heijl, B. Bengtsson, “Age, gender, IOP, refraction and optic disc topography in normal eyes. A cross-sectional study using raster and scanning laser tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 76, 170–175 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Baumann, R. C. Gentile, J. M. Liebmann, R. Ritch, “Reproducibility of retinal thickness measurements in normal eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 29, 280–285 (1998).
[PubMed]

1997 (4)

L. Zangwill, C. A. Berry, V. S. Garden, R. N. Weinreb, “Reproducibility of retardation measurements with the nerve fiber analyzer II,” J. Glaucoma 6, 384–389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Tjon-Fo-Sang, H. G. Lemij, “The sensitivity and specificity of nerve fiber layer measurements in glaucomaas determined with scanning laser polarimetry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 123, 62–68 (1997).
[PubMed]

D. F. Garway-Heath, G. Wollstein, R. A. Hitchings, “Aging changes of the optic nerve head in relation to open angle glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 81, 840–845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Poinoosawmy, L. Fontana, J. X. Wu, F. W. Fitzke, R. A. Hitchings, “Variation of nerve fibre layer thickness measurements with age and ethnicity by scanning laser polarimetry,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 81, 350–354 (1997).

1996 (3)

M. J. Tjon-Fo-Sang, J. de Vries, H. G. Lemij, “Measurement by nerve fiber analyzer of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in normal subjects and patients with ocular hypertension,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 122, 220–227 (1996).
[PubMed]

I. Irak, L. Zangwill, V. Garden, S. Shakiba, R. N. Weinreb, “Change in optic disk topography after trabeculectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 122, 690–695 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103, 1889–1889 (1996).

1995 (4)

Q. Chi, G. Tomita, K. Inazumi, T. Hayakawa, I. Tadayoshi, Y. Kitazawa, “Evaluation of the effect of aging on the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness using scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Glaucoma 4, 406–413 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, L. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, S. Shakiba, L. Zangwill, “Scanning laser polarimetry to measure the nerve fiber layer of normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 627–636 (1995).
[PubMed]

F. S. Mikelberg, C. M. Parfitt, N. V. Swindale, S. L. Graham, S.-M. Drance, R. Gosine, “Ability of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph to detect early glaucomatous visual field loss,” J. Glaucoma 4, 242–247 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

P. Janknecht, J. Funk, “Optic nerve head analyser and Heidelberg retina tomograph: accuracy and reproducibility of topographic measurements in a model eye and in volunteers,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 78, 760–768 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

F. S. Mikelberg, K. Wijsman, M. Schulzer, “Reproducibility of topographic parameters obtained with the Heidelberg retina tomograph,” J. Glaucoma 2, 101–103 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, M. Lusky, D. U. Bartsch, D. Morsman, “Effect of repetitive imaging on topographic measurements of the optic nerve head,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 636–638 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J. B. Jonas, A. M. Schmidt, J. A. Muller-Bergh, U. M. Schlotzer-Schrehardt, G. O. Naumann, “Human optic nerve fiber count and optic disc size,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 2012–2018 (1992).

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. B. Jonas, J. A. Muller-Bergh, U. M. Schlotzer-Schrehardt, G. O. Naumann, “Histomorphometry of the human optic nerve,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 31, 736–744 (1990).

1989 (1)

M. X. Repka, H. A. Quigley, “The effect of age on normal human optic nerve fiber number and diameter,” Ophthalmology 96, 26–32 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

J. B. Jonas, G. C. Gusek, G. O. Naumann, “Optic disc, cup and neuroretinal rim size, configuration and correla-tions in normal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 1151–1158 (1988).

1987 (2)

R. J. Britton, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, D. K. Mawson, “The area of the neuroretinal rim of the optic nerve in normal eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 497–504 (1987).
[PubMed]

J. Caprioli, J. M. Miller, “Optic disc rim area is related to disc size in normal subjects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1683–1685 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber popula-tion of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

1980 (3)

C. L. Dolman, A. Q. McCormick, S. M. Drance, “Aging of the optic nerve,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 2053–2058 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Quigley, N. R. Miller, T. George, “Clinical evaluation of nerve fiber layer atrophy as an indicator of glauco-matous optic nerve damage,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 1564–1571 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bengtsson, “The alteration and asymmetry of cup and disc diameters,” Acta Ophthalmol. 58, 726–732 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Sommer, N. R. Miller, I. Pollack, A. E. Maumenee, T. George, “The nerve fiber layer in the diagnosis of glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 2149–2156 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abe, H.

S. Funaki, M. Shirakashi, H. Funaki, K. Yaoeda, H. Abe, “Relationship between age and the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal subjects,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 180–185 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balazsi, A. G.

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber popula-tion of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

Bartsch, D. U.

R. N. Weinreb, M. Lusky, D. U. Bartsch, D. Morsman, “Effect of repetitive imaging on topographic measurements of the optic nerve head,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 636–638 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bathija, R.

R. N. Weinreb, L. M. Zangwill, C. C. Berry, R. Bathija, P. A. Sample, “Detection of glaucoma with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 1583–1590 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, M.

M. Baumann, R. C. Gentile, J. M. Liebmann, R. Ritch, “Reproducibility of retinal thickness measurements in normal eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 29, 280–285 (1998).
[PubMed]

Bengtsson, B.

K. G. Gundersen, A. Heijl, B. Bengtsson, “Age, gender, IOP, refraction and optic disc topography in normal eyes. A cross-sectional study using raster and scanning laser tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 76, 170–175 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bengtsson, “The alteration and asymmetry of cup and disc diameters,” Acta Ophthalmol. 58, 726–732 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Berry, C. A.

L. Zangwill, C. A. Berry, V. S. Garden, R. N. Weinreb, “Reproducibility of retardation measurements with the nerve fiber analyzer II,” J. Glaucoma 6, 384–389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Berry, C. C.

L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, C. C. Berry, J. Williams, E. Z. Blumenthal, C. Sanchez-Galeana, C. Vasile, R. N. Weinreb, “Discriminating between normal and glaucomatous eyes using the Heidelberg retina tomograph, GDx nerve fiber analyzer, and optical coherence tomograph,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 985–993 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Blumenthal, J. M. Williams, R. N. Weinreb, C. A. Girkin, C. C. Berry, L. M. Zangwill, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements by use of optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 107, 2278–2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Zangwill, J. Williams, C. C. Berry, S. Knauer, R. N. Weinreb, “A comparison of optical coherence tomography and retinal nerve fiber layer photography for detection of nerve fiber layer damage in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 107, 1309–1315 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, L. M. Zangwill, C. C. Berry, R. Bathija, P. A. Sample, “Detection of glaucoma with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 1583–1590 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blumenthal, E. Z.

L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, C. C. Berry, J. Williams, E. Z. Blumenthal, C. Sanchez-Galeana, C. Vasile, R. N. Weinreb, “Discriminating between normal and glaucomatous eyes using the Heidelberg retina tomograph, GDx nerve fiber analyzer, and optical coherence tomograph,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 985–993 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Blumenthal, J. M. Williams, R. N. Weinreb, C. A. Girkin, C. C. Berry, L. M. Zangwill, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements by use of optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 107, 2278–2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowd, C.

L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, C. C. Berry, J. Williams, E. Z. Blumenthal, C. Sanchez-Galeana, C. Vasile, R. N. Weinreb, “Discriminating between normal and glaucomatous eyes using the Heidelberg retina tomograph, GDx nerve fiber analyzer, and optical coherence tomograph,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 985–993 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluating the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer in glaucoma II: optical image analysis,” Semin. Ophthalmol. 15, 206–220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, B. Lee, A. Emdadi, L. M. Zangwill, “Optic disk topography after medical treatment to reduce intraocular pressure,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 130, 280–286 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, J. M. Williams, L. M. Zangwill, “The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in ocular hypertensive, normal, and glaucomatous eyes with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 118, 22–26 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Britton, R. J.

R. J. Britton, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, D. K. Mawson, “The area of the neuroretinal rim of the optic nerve in normal eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 497–504 (1987).
[PubMed]

Caprioli, J.

J. Caprioli, J. M. Miller, “Optic disc rim area is related to disc size in normal subjects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1683–1685 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chi, Q.

Q. Chi, G. Tomita, K. Inazumi, T. Hayakawa, I. Tadayoshi, Y. Kitazawa, “Evaluation of the effect of aging on the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness using scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Glaucoma 4, 406–413 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coker, J. G.

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103, 1889–1889 (1996).

de Vries, J.

M. J. Tjon-Fo-Sang, J. de Vries, H. G. Lemij, “Measurement by nerve fiber analyzer of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in normal subjects and patients with ocular hypertension,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 122, 220–227 (1996).
[PubMed]

Dolman, C. L.

C. L. Dolman, A. Q. McCormick, S. M. Drance, “Aging of the optic nerve,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 2053–2058 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douglas, G. R.

R. J. Britton, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, D. K. Mawson, “The area of the neuroretinal rim of the optic nerve in normal eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 497–504 (1987).
[PubMed]

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber popula-tion of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

Drance, S. M.

R. J. Britton, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, D. K. Mawson, “The area of the neuroretinal rim of the optic nerve in normal eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 497–504 (1987).
[PubMed]

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber popula-tion of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

C. L. Dolman, A. Q. McCormick, S. M. Drance, “Aging of the optic nerve,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 2053–2058 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drance, S.-M.

F. S. Mikelberg, C. M. Parfitt, N. V. Swindale, S. L. Graham, S.-M. Drance, R. Gosine, “Ability of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph to detect early glaucomatous visual field loss,” J. Glaucoma 4, 242–247 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emdadi, A.

C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, B. Lee, A. Emdadi, L. M. Zangwill, “Optic disk topography after medical treatment to reduce intraocular pressure,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 130, 280–286 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzke, F. W.

D. Poinoosawmy, L. Fontana, J. X. Wu, F. W. Fitzke, R. A. Hitchings, “Variation of nerve fibre layer thickness measurements with age and ethnicity by scanning laser polarimetry,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 81, 350–354 (1997).

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fontana, L.

D. Poinoosawmy, L. Fontana, J. X. Wu, F. W. Fitzke, R. A. Hitchings, “Variation of nerve fibre layer thickness measurements with age and ethnicity by scanning laser polarimetry,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 81, 350–354 (1997).

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103, 1889–1889 (1996).

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, L. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Funaki, H.

S. Funaki, M. Shirakashi, H. Funaki, K. Yaoeda, H. Abe, “Relationship between age and the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal subjects,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 180–185 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Funaki, S.

S. Funaki, M. Shirakashi, H. Funaki, K. Yaoeda, H. Abe, “Relationship between age and the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal subjects,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 180–185 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Funk, J.

P. Janknecht, J. Funk, “Optic nerve head analyser and Heidelberg retina tomograph: accuracy and reproducibility of topographic measurements in a model eye and in volunteers,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 78, 760–768 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Garden, V.

I. Irak, L. Zangwill, V. Garden, S. Shakiba, R. N. Weinreb, “Change in optic disk topography after trabeculectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 122, 690–695 (1996).
[PubMed]

Garden, V. S.

L. Zangwill, C. A. Berry, V. S. Garden, R. N. Weinreb, “Reproducibility of retardation measurements with the nerve fiber analyzer II,” J. Glaucoma 6, 384–389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Garway-Heath, D. F.

D. F. Garway-Heath, G. Wollstein, R. A. Hitchings, “Aging changes of the optic nerve head in relation to open angle glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 81, 840–845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gentile, R. C.

M. Baumann, R. C. Gentile, J. M. Liebmann, R. Ritch, “Reproducibility of retinal thickness measurements in normal eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 29, 280–285 (1998).
[PubMed]

George, T.

H. A. Quigley, N. R. Miller, T. George, “Clinical evaluation of nerve fiber layer atrophy as an indicator of glauco-matous optic nerve damage,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 1564–1571 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sommer, N. R. Miller, I. Pollack, A. E. Maumenee, T. George, “The nerve fiber layer in the diagnosis of glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 2149–2156 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girkin, C. A.

E. Z. Blumenthal, J. M. Williams, R. N. Weinreb, C. A. Girkin, C. C. Berry, L. M. Zangwill, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements by use of optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 107, 2278–2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gosine, R.

F. S. Mikelberg, C. M. Parfitt, N. V. Swindale, S. L. Graham, S.-M. Drance, R. Gosine, “Ability of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph to detect early glaucomatous visual field loss,” J. Glaucoma 4, 242–247 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graham, S. L.

F. S. Mikelberg, C. M. Parfitt, N. V. Swindale, S. L. Graham, S.-M. Drance, R. Gosine, “Ability of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph to detect early glaucomatous visual field loss,” J. Glaucoma 4, 242–247 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenfield, D. S.

D. S. Greenfield, R. W. Knighton, X. R. Huang, “Effect of corneal polarization axis on assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness by scanning laser polarimetry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 129, 715–722 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gundersen, K. G.

K. G. Gundersen, A. Heijl, B. Bengtsson, “Age, gender, IOP, refraction and optic disc topography in normal eyes. A cross-sectional study using raster and scanning laser tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 76, 170–175 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurelik, G.

S. C. Özdek, M. Onol, G. Gurelik, B. Hasanreisoglu, “Scanning laser polarimetry in normal subjects and patients with myopia,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 84, 264–267 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gusek, G. C.

J. B. Jonas, G. C. Gusek, G. O. Naumann, “Optic disc, cup and neuroretinal rim size, configuration and correla-tions in normal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 1151–1158 (1988).

Hasanreisoglu, B.

S. C. Özdek, M. Onol, G. Gurelik, B. Hasanreisoglu, “Scanning laser polarimetry in normal subjects and patients with myopia,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 84, 264–267 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hayakawa, T.

Q. Chi, G. Tomita, K. Inazumi, T. Hayakawa, I. Tadayoshi, Y. Kitazawa, “Evaluation of the effect of aging on the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness using scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Glaucoma 4, 406–413 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103, 1889–1889 (1996).

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, L. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heijl, A.

K. G. Gundersen, A. Heijl, B. Bengtsson, “Age, gender, IOP, refraction and optic disc topography in normal eyes. A cross-sectional study using raster and scanning laser tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 76, 170–175 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertzmark, E.

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103, 1889–1889 (1996).

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, L. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitchings, R. A.

D. F. Garway-Heath, G. Wollstein, R. A. Hitchings, “Aging changes of the optic nerve head in relation to open angle glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 81, 840–845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Poinoosawmy, L. Fontana, J. X. Wu, F. W. Fitzke, R. A. Hitchings, “Variation of nerve fibre layer thickness measurements with age and ethnicity by scanning laser polarimetry,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 81, 350–354 (1997).

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X. R.

D. S. Greenfield, R. W. Knighton, X. R. Huang, “Effect of corneal polarization axis on assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness by scanning laser polarimetry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 129, 715–722 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inazumi, K.

Q. Chi, G. Tomita, K. Inazumi, T. Hayakawa, I. Tadayoshi, Y. Kitazawa, “Evaluation of the effect of aging on the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness using scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Glaucoma 4, 406–413 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, Y.

H. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Suzuki, Y. Inoue, “Scanning laser tomography to evaluate optic discs of normal eyes,” Jpn J Ophthalmol. 43, 410–414 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irak, I.

I. Irak, L. Zangwill, V. Garden, S. Shakiba, R. N. Weinreb, “Change in optic disk topography after trabeculectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 122, 690–695 (1996).
[PubMed]

Izatt, L. A.

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, L. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janknecht, P.

P. Janknecht, J. Funk, “Optic nerve head analyser and Heidelberg retina tomograph: accuracy and reproducibility of topographic measurements in a model eye and in volunteers,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 78, 760–768 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jonas, J. B.

J. B. Jonas, A. M. Schmidt, J. A. Muller-Bergh, U. M. Schlotzer-Schrehardt, G. O. Naumann, “Human optic nerve fiber count and optic disc size,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 2012–2018 (1992).

J. B. Jonas, J. A. Muller-Bergh, U. M. Schlotzer-Schrehardt, G. O. Naumann, “Histomorphometry of the human optic nerve,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 31, 736–744 (1990).

J. B. Jonas, G. C. Gusek, G. O. Naumann, “Optic disc, cup and neuroretinal rim size, configuration and correla-tions in normal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 1151–1158 (1988).

Kitazawa, Y.

Q. Chi, G. Tomita, K. Inazumi, T. Hayakawa, I. Tadayoshi, Y. Kitazawa, “Evaluation of the effect of aging on the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness using scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Glaucoma 4, 406–413 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knauer, S.

L. M. Zangwill, J. Williams, C. C. Berry, S. Knauer, R. N. Weinreb, “A comparison of optical coherence tomography and retinal nerve fiber layer photography for detection of nerve fiber layer damage in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 107, 1309–1315 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knighton, R. W.

D. S. Greenfield, R. W. Knighton, X. R. Huang, “Effect of corneal polarization axis on assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness by scanning laser polarimetry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 129, 715–722 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, B. Lee, A. Emdadi, L. M. Zangwill, “Optic disk topography after medical treatment to reduce intraocular pressure,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 130, 280–286 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemij, H. G.

M. J. Tjon-Fo-Sang, H. G. Lemij, “The sensitivity and specificity of nerve fiber layer measurements in glaucomaas determined with scanning laser polarimetry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 123, 62–68 (1997).
[PubMed]

M. J. Tjon-Fo-Sang, J. de Vries, H. G. Lemij, “Measurement by nerve fiber analyzer of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in normal subjects and patients with ocular hypertension,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 122, 220–227 (1996).
[PubMed]

Liebmann, J. M.

M. Baumann, R. C. Gentile, J. M. Liebmann, R. Ritch, “Reproducibility of retinal thickness measurements in normal eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 29, 280–285 (1998).
[PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, L. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lusky, M.

R. N. Weinreb, M. Lusky, D. U. Bartsch, D. Morsman, “Effect of repetitive imaging on topographic measurements of the optic nerve head,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 636–638 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeda, T.

H. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Suzuki, Y. Inoue, “Scanning laser tomography to evaluate optic discs of normal eyes,” Jpn J Ophthalmol. 43, 410–414 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maumenee, A. E.

A. Sommer, N. R. Miller, I. Pollack, A. E. Maumenee, T. George, “The nerve fiber layer in the diagnosis of glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 2149–2156 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mawson, D. K.

R. J. Britton, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, D. K. Mawson, “The area of the neuroretinal rim of the optic nerve in normal eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 497–504 (1987).
[PubMed]

McCormick, A. Q.

C. L. Dolman, A. Q. McCormick, S. M. Drance, “Aging of the optic nerve,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 2053–2058 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikelberg, F. S.

F. S. Mikelberg, C. M. Parfitt, N. V. Swindale, S. L. Graham, S.-M. Drance, R. Gosine, “Ability of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph to detect early glaucomatous visual field loss,” J. Glaucoma 4, 242–247 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. S. Mikelberg, K. Wijsman, M. Schulzer, “Reproducibility of topographic parameters obtained with the Heidelberg retina tomograph,” J. Glaucoma 2, 101–103 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, J. M.

J. Caprioli, J. M. Miller, “Optic disc rim area is related to disc size in normal subjects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1683–1685 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, N. R.

H. A. Quigley, N. R. Miller, T. George, “Clinical evaluation of nerve fiber layer atrophy as an indicator of glauco-matous optic nerve damage,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 1564–1571 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sommer, N. R. Miller, I. Pollack, A. E. Maumenee, T. George, “The nerve fiber layer in the diagnosis of glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 2149–2156 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morsman, D.

R. N. Weinreb, M. Lusky, D. U. Bartsch, D. Morsman, “Effect of repetitive imaging on topographic measurements of the optic nerve head,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 636–638 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller-Bergh, J. A.

J. B. Jonas, A. M. Schmidt, J. A. Muller-Bergh, U. M. Schlotzer-Schrehardt, G. O. Naumann, “Human optic nerve fiber count and optic disc size,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 2012–2018 (1992).

J. B. Jonas, J. A. Muller-Bergh, U. M. Schlotzer-Schrehardt, G. O. Naumann, “Histomorphometry of the human optic nerve,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 31, 736–744 (1990).

Nakamura, H.

H. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Suzuki, Y. Inoue, “Scanning laser tomography to evaluate optic discs of normal eyes,” Jpn J Ophthalmol. 43, 410–414 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naumann, G. O.

J. B. Jonas, A. M. Schmidt, J. A. Muller-Bergh, U. M. Schlotzer-Schrehardt, G. O. Naumann, “Human optic nerve fiber count and optic disc size,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 2012–2018 (1992).

J. B. Jonas, J. A. Muller-Bergh, U. M. Schlotzer-Schrehardt, G. O. Naumann, “Histomorphometry of the human optic nerve,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 31, 736–744 (1990).

J. B. Jonas, G. C. Gusek, G. O. Naumann, “Optic disc, cup and neuroretinal rim size, configuration and correla-tions in normal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 1151–1158 (1988).

Onol, M.

S. C. Özdek, M. Onol, G. Gurelik, B. Hasanreisoglu, “Scanning laser polarimetry in normal subjects and patients with myopia,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 84, 264–267 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Özdek, S. C.

S. C. Özdek, M. Onol, G. Gurelik, B. Hasanreisoglu, “Scanning laser polarimetry in normal subjects and patients with myopia,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 84, 264–267 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Parfitt, C. M.

F. S. Mikelberg, C. M. Parfitt, N. V. Swindale, S. L. Graham, S.-M. Drance, R. Gosine, “Ability of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph to detect early glaucomatous visual field loss,” J. Glaucoma 4, 242–247 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedut-Kloizman, T.

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103, 1889–1889 (1996).

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, L. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poinoosawmy, D.

D. Poinoosawmy, L. Fontana, J. X. Wu, F. W. Fitzke, R. A. Hitchings, “Variation of nerve fibre layer thickness measurements with age and ethnicity by scanning laser polarimetry,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 81, 350–354 (1997).

Pollack, I.

A. Sommer, N. R. Miller, I. Pollack, A. E. Maumenee, T. George, “The nerve fiber layer in the diagnosis of glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 2149–2156 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103, 1889–1889 (1996).

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, L. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quigley, H. A.

M. X. Repka, H. A. Quigley, “The effect of age on normal human optic nerve fiber number and diameter,” Ophthalmology 96, 26–32 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Quigley, N. R. Miller, T. George, “Clinical evaluation of nerve fiber layer atrophy as an indicator of glauco-matous optic nerve damage,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 1564–1571 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Repka, M. X.

M. X. Repka, H. A. Quigley, “The effect of age on normal human optic nerve fiber number and diameter,” Ophthalmology 96, 26–32 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritch, R.

M. Baumann, R. C. Gentile, J. M. Liebmann, R. Ritch, “Reproducibility of retinal thickness measurements in normal eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 29, 280–285 (1998).
[PubMed]

Rootman, J.

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber popula-tion of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

Sample, P. A.

R. N. Weinreb, L. M. Zangwill, C. C. Berry, R. Bathija, P. A. Sample, “Detection of glaucoma with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 1583–1590 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez-Galeana, C.

L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, C. C. Berry, J. Williams, E. Z. Blumenthal, C. Sanchez-Galeana, C. Vasile, R. N. Weinreb, “Discriminating between normal and glaucomatous eyes using the Heidelberg retina tomograph, GDx nerve fiber analyzer, and optical coherence tomograph,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 985–993 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlotzer-Schrehardt, U. M.

J. B. Jonas, A. M. Schmidt, J. A. Muller-Bergh, U. M. Schlotzer-Schrehardt, G. O. Naumann, “Human optic nerve fiber count and optic disc size,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 2012–2018 (1992).

J. B. Jonas, J. A. Muller-Bergh, U. M. Schlotzer-Schrehardt, G. O. Naumann, “Histomorphometry of the human optic nerve,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 31, 736–744 (1990).

Schmidt, A. M.

J. B. Jonas, A. M. Schmidt, J. A. Muller-Bergh, U. M. Schlotzer-Schrehardt, G. O. Naumann, “Human optic nerve fiber count and optic disc size,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 2012–2018 (1992).

Schulzer, M.

F. S. Mikelberg, K. Wijsman, M. Schulzer, “Reproducibility of topographic parameters obtained with the Heidelberg retina tomograph,” J. Glaucoma 2, 101–103 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Britton, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, D. K. Mawson, “The area of the neuroretinal rim of the optic nerve in normal eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 497–504 (1987).
[PubMed]

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber popula-tion of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103, 1889–1889 (1996).

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, L. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shakiba, S.

I. Irak, L. Zangwill, V. Garden, S. Shakiba, R. N. Weinreb, “Change in optic disk topography after trabeculectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 122, 690–695 (1996).
[PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, S. Shakiba, L. Zangwill, “Scanning laser polarimetry to measure the nerve fiber layer of normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 627–636 (1995).
[PubMed]

Shirakashi, M.

S. Funaki, M. Shirakashi, H. Funaki, K. Yaoeda, H. Abe, “Relationship between age and the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal subjects,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 180–185 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sommer, A.

A. Sommer, N. R. Miller, I. Pollack, A. E. Maumenee, T. George, “The nerve fiber layer in the diagnosis of glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 2149–2156 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, Y.

H. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Suzuki, Y. Inoue, “Scanning laser tomography to evaluate optic discs of normal eyes,” Jpn J Ophthalmol. 43, 410–414 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103, 1889–1889 (1996).

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, L. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swindale, N. V.

F. S. Mikelberg, C. M. Parfitt, N. V. Swindale, S. L. Graham, S.-M. Drance, R. Gosine, “Ability of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph to detect early glaucomatous visual field loss,” J. Glaucoma 4, 242–247 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tadayoshi, I.

Q. Chi, G. Tomita, K. Inazumi, T. Hayakawa, I. Tadayoshi, Y. Kitazawa, “Evaluation of the effect of aging on the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness using scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Glaucoma 4, 406–413 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tjon-Fo-Sang, M. J.

M. J. Tjon-Fo-Sang, H. G. Lemij, “The sensitivity and specificity of nerve fiber layer measurements in glaucomaas determined with scanning laser polarimetry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 123, 62–68 (1997).
[PubMed]

M. J. Tjon-Fo-Sang, J. de Vries, H. G. Lemij, “Measurement by nerve fiber analyzer of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in normal subjects and patients with ocular hypertension,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 122, 220–227 (1996).
[PubMed]

Tomita, G.

Q. Chi, G. Tomita, K. Inazumi, T. Hayakawa, I. Tadayoshi, Y. Kitazawa, “Evaluation of the effect of aging on the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness using scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Glaucoma 4, 406–413 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasile, C.

L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, C. C. Berry, J. Williams, E. Z. Blumenthal, C. Sanchez-Galeana, C. Vasile, R. N. Weinreb, “Discriminating between normal and glaucomatous eyes using the Heidelberg retina tomograph, GDx nerve fiber analyzer, and optical coherence tomograph,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 985–993 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinreb, R. N.

L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, C. C. Berry, J. Williams, E. Z. Blumenthal, C. Sanchez-Galeana, C. Vasile, R. N. Weinreb, “Discriminating between normal and glaucomatous eyes using the Heidelberg retina tomograph, GDx nerve fiber analyzer, and optical coherence tomograph,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 985–993 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Blumenthal, J. M. Williams, R. N. Weinreb, C. A. Girkin, C. C. Berry, L. M. Zangwill, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements by use of optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 107, 2278–2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, B. Lee, A. Emdadi, L. M. Zangwill, “Optic disk topography after medical treatment to reduce intraocular pressure,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 130, 280–286 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluating the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer in glaucoma II: optical image analysis,” Semin. Ophthalmol. 15, 206–220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, J. M. Williams, L. M. Zangwill, “The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in ocular hypertensive, normal, and glaucomatous eyes with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 118, 22–26 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Zangwill, J. Williams, C. C. Berry, S. Knauer, R. N. Weinreb, “A comparison of optical coherence tomography and retinal nerve fiber layer photography for detection of nerve fiber layer damage in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 107, 1309–1315 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, L. M. Zangwill, C. C. Berry, R. Bathija, P. A. Sample, “Detection of glaucoma with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 1583–1590 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zangwill, C. A. Berry, V. S. Garden, R. N. Weinreb, “Reproducibility of retardation measurements with the nerve fiber analyzer II,” J. Glaucoma 6, 384–389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Irak, L. Zangwill, V. Garden, S. Shakiba, R. N. Weinreb, “Change in optic disk topography after trabeculectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 122, 690–695 (1996).
[PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, S. Shakiba, L. Zangwill, “Scanning laser polarimetry to measure the nerve fiber layer of normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 627–636 (1995).
[PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, M. Lusky, D. U. Bartsch, D. Morsman, “Effect of repetitive imaging on topographic measurements of the optic nerve head,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 636–638 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wijsman, K.

F. S. Mikelberg, K. Wijsman, M. Schulzer, “Reproducibility of topographic parameters obtained with the Heidelberg retina tomograph,” J. Glaucoma 2, 101–103 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkins, J. R.

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103, 1889–1889 (1996).

Williams, J.

L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, C. C. Berry, J. Williams, E. Z. Blumenthal, C. Sanchez-Galeana, C. Vasile, R. N. Weinreb, “Discriminating between normal and glaucomatous eyes using the Heidelberg retina tomograph, GDx nerve fiber analyzer, and optical coherence tomograph,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 985–993 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Zangwill, J. Williams, C. C. Berry, S. Knauer, R. N. Weinreb, “A comparison of optical coherence tomography and retinal nerve fiber layer photography for detection of nerve fiber layer damage in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 107, 1309–1315 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, J. M.

C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, J. M. Williams, L. M. Zangwill, “The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in ocular hypertensive, normal, and glaucomatous eyes with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 118, 22–26 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Blumenthal, J. M. Williams, R. N. Weinreb, C. A. Girkin, C. C. Berry, L. M. Zangwill, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements by use of optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 107, 2278–2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wollstein, G.

D. F. Garway-Heath, G. Wollstein, R. A. Hitchings, “Aging changes of the optic nerve head in relation to open angle glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 81, 840–845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C.

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, L. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J. X.

D. Poinoosawmy, L. Fontana, J. X. Wu, F. W. Fitzke, R. A. Hitchings, “Variation of nerve fibre layer thickness measurements with age and ethnicity by scanning laser polarimetry,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 81, 350–354 (1997).

Yaoeda, K.

S. Funaki, M. Shirakashi, H. Funaki, K. Yaoeda, H. Abe, “Relationship between age and the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal subjects,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 180–185 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zangwill, L.

L. Zangwill, C. A. Berry, V. S. Garden, R. N. Weinreb, “Reproducibility of retardation measurements with the nerve fiber analyzer II,” J. Glaucoma 6, 384–389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Irak, L. Zangwill, V. Garden, S. Shakiba, R. N. Weinreb, “Change in optic disk topography after trabeculectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 122, 690–695 (1996).
[PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, S. Shakiba, L. Zangwill, “Scanning laser polarimetry to measure the nerve fiber layer of normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 627–636 (1995).
[PubMed]

Zangwill, L. M.

L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, C. C. Berry, J. Williams, E. Z. Blumenthal, C. Sanchez-Galeana, C. Vasile, R. N. Weinreb, “Discriminating between normal and glaucomatous eyes using the Heidelberg retina tomograph, GDx nerve fiber analyzer, and optical coherence tomograph,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 985–993 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Blumenthal, J. M. Williams, R. N. Weinreb, C. A. Girkin, C. C. Berry, L. M. Zangwill, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements by use of optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 107, 2278–2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluating the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer in glaucoma II: optical image analysis,” Semin. Ophthalmol. 15, 206–220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, B. Lee, A. Emdadi, L. M. Zangwill, “Optic disk topography after medical treatment to reduce intraocular pressure,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 130, 280–286 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, J. M. Williams, L. M. Zangwill, “The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in ocular hypertensive, normal, and glaucomatous eyes with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 118, 22–26 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Zangwill, J. Williams, C. C. Berry, S. Knauer, R. N. Weinreb, “A comparison of optical coherence tomography and retinal nerve fiber layer photography for detection of nerve fiber layer damage in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 107, 1309–1315 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, L. M. Zangwill, C. C. Berry, R. Bathija, P. A. Sample, “Detection of glaucoma with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 1583–1590 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

B. Bengtsson, “The alteration and asymmetry of cup and disc diameters,” Acta Ophthalmol. 58, 726–732 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. (1)

K. G. Gundersen, A. Heijl, B. Bengtsson, “Age, gender, IOP, refraction and optic disc topography in normal eyes. A cross-sectional study using raster and scanning laser tomography,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 76, 170–175 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (8)

M. J. Tjon-Fo-Sang, H. G. Lemij, “The sensitivity and specificity of nerve fiber layer measurements in glaucomaas determined with scanning laser polarimetry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 123, 62–68 (1997).
[PubMed]

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber popula-tion of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

M. J. Tjon-Fo-Sang, J. de Vries, H. G. Lemij, “Measurement by nerve fiber analyzer of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in normal subjects and patients with ocular hypertension,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 122, 220–227 (1996).
[PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, S. Shakiba, L. Zangwill, “Scanning laser polarimetry to measure the nerve fiber layer of normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 627–636 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. S. Greenfield, R. W. Knighton, X. R. Huang, “Effect of corneal polarization axis on assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness by scanning laser polarimetry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 129, 715–722 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, B. Lee, A. Emdadi, L. M. Zangwill, “Optic disk topography after medical treatment to reduce intraocular pressure,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 130, 280–286 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Irak, L. Zangwill, V. Garden, S. Shakiba, R. N. Weinreb, “Change in optic disk topography after trabeculectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 122, 690–695 (1996).
[PubMed]

R. J. Britton, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, D. K. Mawson, “The area of the neuroretinal rim of the optic nerve in normal eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 497–504 (1987).
[PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (9)

H. A. Quigley, N. R. Miller, T. George, “Clinical evaluation of nerve fiber layer atrophy as an indicator of glauco-matous optic nerve damage,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 1564–1571 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sommer, N. R. Miller, I. Pollack, A. E. Maumenee, T. George, “The nerve fiber layer in the diagnosis of glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 2149–2156 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, L. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, L. M. Zangwill, C. C. Berry, R. Bathija, P. A. Sample, “Detection of glaucoma with scanning laser polarimetry,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 1583–1590 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, C. C. Berry, J. Williams, E. Z. Blumenthal, C. Sanchez-Galeana, C. Vasile, R. N. Weinreb, “Discriminating between normal and glaucomatous eyes using the Heidelberg retina tomograph, GDx nerve fiber analyzer, and optical coherence tomograph,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 985–993 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Dolman, A. Q. McCormick, S. M. Drance, “Aging of the optic nerve,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 2053–2058 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, J. M. Williams, L. M. Zangwill, “The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in ocular hypertensive, normal, and glaucomatous eyes with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 118, 22–26 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, M. Lusky, D. U. Bartsch, D. Morsman, “Effect of repetitive imaging on topographic measurements of the optic nerve head,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 636–638 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Caprioli, J. M. Miller, “Optic disc rim area is related to disc size in normal subjects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1683–1685 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

D. Poinoosawmy, L. Fontana, J. X. Wu, F. W. Fitzke, R. A. Hitchings, “Variation of nerve fibre layer thickness measurements with age and ethnicity by scanning laser polarimetry,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 81, 350–354 (1997).

Br. J. Ophthamol. (3)

S. C. Özdek, M. Onol, G. Gurelik, B. Hasanreisoglu, “Scanning laser polarimetry in normal subjects and patients with myopia,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 84, 264–267 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Janknecht, J. Funk, “Optic nerve head analyser and Heidelberg retina tomograph: accuracy and reproducibility of topographic measurements in a model eye and in volunteers,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 78, 760–768 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Garway-Heath, G. Wollstein, R. A. Hitchings, “Aging changes of the optic nerve head in relation to open angle glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 81, 840–845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (3)

J. B. Jonas, G. C. Gusek, G. O. Naumann, “Optic disc, cup and neuroretinal rim size, configuration and correla-tions in normal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 1151–1158 (1988).

J. B. Jonas, J. A. Muller-Bergh, U. M. Schlotzer-Schrehardt, G. O. Naumann, “Histomorphometry of the human optic nerve,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 31, 736–744 (1990).

J. B. Jonas, A. M. Schmidt, J. A. Muller-Bergh, U. M. Schlotzer-Schrehardt, G. O. Naumann, “Human optic nerve fiber count and optic disc size,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 2012–2018 (1992).

J. Glaucoma (4)

F. S. Mikelberg, C. M. Parfitt, N. V. Swindale, S. L. Graham, S.-M. Drance, R. Gosine, “Ability of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph to detect early glaucomatous visual field loss,” J. Glaucoma 4, 242–247 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chi, G. Tomita, K. Inazumi, T. Hayakawa, I. Tadayoshi, Y. Kitazawa, “Evaluation of the effect of aging on the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness using scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Glaucoma 4, 406–413 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. S. Mikelberg, K. Wijsman, M. Schulzer, “Reproducibility of topographic parameters obtained with the Heidelberg retina tomograph,” J. Glaucoma 2, 101–103 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zangwill, C. A. Berry, V. S. Garden, R. N. Weinreb, “Reproducibility of retardation measurements with the nerve fiber analyzer II,” J. Glaucoma 6, 384–389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jpn J Ophthalmol. (1)

H. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Suzuki, Y. Inoue, “Scanning laser tomography to evaluate optic discs of normal eyes,” Jpn J Ophthalmol. 43, 410–414 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Funaki, M. Shirakashi, H. Funaki, K. Yaoeda, H. Abe, “Relationship between age and the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal subjects,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 180–185 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers (1)

M. Baumann, R. C. Gentile, J. M. Liebmann, R. Ritch, “Reproducibility of retinal thickness measurements in normal eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 29, 280–285 (1998).
[PubMed]

Ophthalmology (4)

E. Z. Blumenthal, J. M. Williams, R. N. Weinreb, C. A. Girkin, C. C. Berry, L. M. Zangwill, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements by use of optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 107, 2278–2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, T. Pedut-Kloizman, E. Hertzmark, M. R. Hee, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Reproducibility of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103, 1889–1889 (1996).

M. X. Repka, H. A. Quigley, “The effect of age on normal human optic nerve fiber number and diameter,” Ophthalmology 96, 26–32 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Zangwill, J. Williams, C. C. Berry, S. Knauer, R. N. Weinreb, “A comparison of optical coherence tomography and retinal nerve fiber layer photography for detection of nerve fiber layer damage in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 107, 1309–1315 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semin. Ophthalmol. (1)

L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluating the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer in glaucoma II: optical image analysis,” Semin. Ophthalmol. 15, 206–220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic depiction of HRT optic disc parameters. The reference plane is defined as a surface 50 μm posterior to the mean retinal height between 350 and 356 deg (temporal) along the operator drawn contour line delineating the optic disc margin. This region corresponds to the location of the papillo-macular nerve fiber bundle, the thickness of which is assumed to change only late in the course of progressive glaucoma.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Linear regression between (A) age (yrs) and (B) optic disc area (mm2) and HRT-measured cup/disc area ratio.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Linear regression between (A) age (yrs) and (B) optic disc area (mm2) and GDx-measured ellipse modulation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Linear regression between (A) age (yrs) and (B) optic disc area (mm2) and OCT-measured mean RNFL thickness (μm).

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table 1 GDx Software Generated Parameters a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Association between Age (yr) and Optic Disc Area (mm2 ), and HRT Optic Disc Parameter Measures a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Mean HRT Parameter Measures (95% C.I.) for Three Different Age Groups and All Age Groups Combined

Tables Icon

Table 4 Association between Age (yr) and Optic Disc Area (mm2 ) and GDx Parameter Measures a

Tables Icon

Table 5 Mean GDx Parameter Measures (95% C.I.) for Three Different Age Groups and All Age Groups Combined

Tables Icon

Table 6 Association between Age (yr) and Optic Disc Area, and OCT Parameter Measures a

Tables Icon

Table 7 Mean OCT Parameter Measures (95% C.I.) (μm) for Three Different Age Groups and All Age Groups Combined

Metrics