Abstract

Photoreceptor maintenance is dependent on effective delivery of nutrients from the choroidal circulation by way of the acellular Bruch’s membrane and the retinal pigment epithelium. Aging of Bruch’s membrane is associated with thickening, increased cross linking of fibers, and deposition of debris culminating in reduced porosity. The present study has investigated the effects of aging on the diffusional transport of eight amino acids across Bruch’s membrane in 19 human donors. Diffusion studies were carried out in Ussing chambers, and the amount of time-dependent transfer of amino acids across the preparation was quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Diffusion rates for all amino acids showed a significant linear decline with aging of donor. The importance of this reduction in delivery of amino acids is discussed with reference to both normal physiology and age-related macular degeneration.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  8. S. Miller, R. H. Steinberg, “Transport of taurine, L-methionine and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose across frog retinal pigment epithelium,” Exp. Eye Res. 23, 177–189 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. L. Pautler, C. Tengerdy, “Transport of acidic amino acids by the bovine pigment epithelium,” Exp. Eye Res. 43, 207–214 (1986).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. K. C. Hayes, R. E. Carey, S. Y. Schmidt, “Retinal degeneration associated with taurine deficiency in the cat,” Science 188, 949–951 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. S. Y. Schmidt, E. L. Berson, G. Watson, C. Huang, “Retinal degeneration in cats fed casein. III. Taurine deficiency and ERG amplitudes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 16, 673–678 (1977).
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  36. C. C. Michel, “Filtration coefficients and osmotic reflection coefficients of the walls of single frog mesenteric capillaries,” J. Physiol. (London) 309, 341–355 (1980).
  37. F. E. Curry, C. C. Michel, “A fibre matrix model of capillary permeability,” Microvasc. Res. 20, 96–99 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. C. Starita, A. A. Hussain, A. Patmore, J. Marshall, “Localisation of the site of major resistance to fluid transport in Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 762–767 (1997).
  39. G. Sheraidah, R. Steinmetz, J. Maguire, D. Pauleikhoff, J. Marshall, A. C. Bird, “Correlation between lipids extracted from Bruch’s membrane and age,” Ophthalmology 100, 47–51 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. A. C. Bird, J. Marshall, “Retinal pigment epithelial detachments in the elderly,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 105, 674–682 (1986).
    [PubMed]
  41. E. M. Renkin, “Filtration, diffusion and molecular sieving through porous cellulose membranes,” J. Gen. Physiol. 38, 225–248 (1954).
  42. R. E. Beck, J. S. Schultz, “Hindrance of solute diffusion within membranes as measured with microsporous membranes of known pore geometry,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 255, 273–303 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. R. P. Wendt, E. Klein, E. H. Bresler, F. F. Holland, R. M. Serind, H. Villa, “Sieving properties of hemodialysis membranes,” J. Membr. Sci. 5, 23–49 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  44. A. Okubo, R. H. Rosa, C. V. Bunce, R. A. Alexander, J. T. Fan, A. C. Bird, P. J. Luthert, “The relationships of age changes in retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 443–449 (1999).
  45. S. Sivakami, V. Ganapathy, F. H. Leibach, Y. Miyamoto, “The gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter and its interaction with taurine in the apical membrane of the bovine retinal pigment epithelium,” Biochem. J. 283 (Pt. 2), 391–397 (1992).
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    [CrossRef]

1999 (4)

J. T. Handa, N. Verzijl, H. Matsunaga, A. Aotaki-Keen, G. A. Lutty, J. M. Koppele, T. Miyata, L. M. Hjelmeland, “Increase in the advanced glycation end product pentosidine in Bruch’s membrane with age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 775–779 (1999).

H. S. Waagepetersen, U. Sonnewald, O. M. Laesson, A. Schousboe, “Synthesis of vesicular GABA from glutamine involves TCA cycle metabolism in neocortical neurons,” J. Neurosci. Res. 57, 342–349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Hussain, C. Starita, J. Marshall, “Molecular weight size exclusion limit and diffusional status of ageing human Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, S973. ARV Abstract No. 5125 (1999).

A. Okubo, R. H. Rosa, C. V. Bunce, R. A. Alexander, J. T. Fan, A. C. Bird, P. J. Luthert, “The relationships of age changes in retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 443–449 (1999).

1998 (1)

C. H. To, S. A. Hodson, “The glucose transport in retinal pigment epithelium is via passive facilitated diffusion,” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 121, 441–444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. Starita, A. A. Hussain, A. Patmore, J. Marshall, “Localisation of the site of major resistance to fluid transport in Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 762–767 (1997).

1996 (2)

C. Starita, A. A. Hussain, S. Pagliarini, J. Marshall, “Hydrodynamics of ageing Bruch’s membrane: implications for macular disease,” Exp. Eye Res. 62, 565–572 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kundaiker, A. A. Hussain, J. Marshall, “Component characteristics of the vectorial transport system for taurine in isolated bovine retinal pigment epithelium,” J. Physiol. 492.2, 505–516 (1996).

1995 (3)

D. J. Moore, A. A. Hussain, J. Marshall, “Age-related variation in the hydraulic conductivity of Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 1290–1297 (1995).

N. Westergaard, U. Sonnewald, A. Schousboe, “Metabolic trafficking between neurons and astrocytes: the glutamate/glutamine cycle revisited,” Dev. Neurosci. 17, 303–311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. S. S. Karwatowski, T. E. Jefferies, V. C. Duance, J. Albon, A. J. Bailey, D. L. Easty, “Preparation of Bruch’s membrane and analysis of age-related changes in the structural collagens,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 944–952 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

F. G. Holz, G. S. Sheraidah, D. Pauleikhoff, A. C. Bird, “Analysis of lipid deposits extracted from human macular and peripheral Bruch’s membrane,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 402–406 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. van der Schaft, C. M. Mooy, W. C. de Bruijn, F. T. Bosman, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Immunohistochemical light and electron microscopy of basal laminar deposit,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232, 40–46 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Ramrattan, T. L. van der Schaft, C. M. Mooy, W. C. Bruijn, P. G. H. Mulder, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Morphometric analysis of Bruch’s membrane, the choriocapillaris and the choroid in ageing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 2857–2864 (1994).

Y. Miyamoto, M. A. Del Monte, “Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporter in human retinal pigment epithelial cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3589–3598 (1994).

1993 (2)

J. Ahmed, R. D. Braun, R. Dunn, R. A. Linsenmeir, “Oxygen distribution in the macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 516–521 (1993).

G. Sheraidah, R. Steinmetz, J. Maguire, D. Pauleikhoff, J. Marshall, A. C. Bird, “Correlation between lipids extracted from Bruch’s membrane and age,” Ophthalmology 100, 47–51 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

S. Sivakami, V. Ganapathy, F. H. Leibach, Y. Miyamoto, “The gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter and its interaction with taurine in the apical membrane of the bovine retinal pigment epithelium,” Biochem. J. 283 (Pt. 2), 391–397 (1992).

1990 (1)

W. S. Foulds, “The choroidal circulation and retinal metabolism—an overview,” Eye 4, 243–248 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

D. Pauleikhoff, A. Harper, J. Marshall, A. C. Bird, “Ageing changes in Bruch’s membrane: a histochemical and morphological study,” Ophthalmology 97, 171–177 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Neal, M. A. Shah, “Baclofen and phaclofen modulate GABA release from slices of rat cerebral cortex and spinal cord but not from retina,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 98, 105–112 (1989).

1988 (1)

S. Tsuboi, J. E. Pederson, “Volume flow across the isolated RPE of cynomolgus monkey eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 1652–1653 (1988).

1987 (2)

D. A. Newsome, W. Huh, W. R. Green, “Bruch’s membrane age-related changes vary by region,” Curr. Eye Res. 6, 1211–1221 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Young, “Pathophysiology of age-related macular degeneration,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 31, 291–305 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

A. C. Bird, J. Marshall, “Retinal pigment epithelial detachments in the elderly,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 105, 674–682 (1986).
[PubMed]

E. L. Pautler, C. Tengerdy, “Transport of acidic amino acids by the bovine pigment epithelium,” Exp. Eye Res. 43, 207–214 (1986).
[PubMed]

1983 (1)

V. A. Alder, S. J. Cringle, I. J. Constable, “The retinal oxygen profile in cats,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 24, 30–36 (1983).

1980 (2)

C. C. Michel, “Filtration coefficients and osmotic reflection coefficients of the walls of single frog mesenteric capillaries,” J. Physiol. (London) 309, 341–355 (1980).

F. E. Curry, C. C. Michel, “A fibre matrix model of capillary permeability,” Microvasc. Res. 20, 96–99 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

R. P. Wendt, E. Klein, E. H. Bresler, F. F. Holland, R. M. Serind, H. Villa, “Sieving properties of hemodialysis membranes,” J. Membr. Sci. 5, 23–49 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

C. C. Michel, “The measurement of permeability in single capillaries,” Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochim. 86, 657–667 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. J. Grindle, J. Marshall, “Ageing changes in Bruch’s membrane and their functional implications,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 98, 172–175 (1978).
[PubMed]

1977 (2)

R. H. Steinberg, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, “Disc morphogenesis in vertebrate photoreceptors,” J. Comp. Neurol. 190, 501–518 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Schmidt, E. L. Berson, G. Watson, C. Huang, “Retinal degeneration in cats fed casein. III. Taurine deficiency and ERG amplitudes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 16, 673–678 (1977).

1976 (2)

S. Miller, R. H. Steinberg, “Transport of taurine, L-methionine and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose across frog retinal pigment epithelium,” Exp. Eye Res. 23, 177–189 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Sarks, “Ageing and degeneration in the macular region: a clinico-pathological study,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 60, 324–341 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

K. C. Hayes, R. E. Carey, S. Y. Schmidt, “Retinal degeneration associated with taurine deficiency in the cat,” Science 188, 949–951 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

R. E. Beck, J. S. Schultz, “Hindrance of solute diffusion within membranes as measured with microsporous membranes of known pore geometry,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 255, 273–303 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

J. G. Cunha-Vaz, M. Shakib, N. Ashton, “Studies on the permeability of the blood ocular barrier,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 50, 441–453 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

L. H. Cohen, W. K. Noell, “Glucose metabolism of rabbit retina before and after development of visual function,” J. Neurochem. 5, 253 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1957 (1)

R. H. McMenamy, C. C. Lund, J. L. Oncley, “Unbound amino acid concentrations in human blood plasma,” J. Clin. Invest. 36, 1672–1679 (1957).

1954 (1)

E. M. Renkin, “Filtration, diffusion and molecular sieving through porous cellulose membranes,” J. Gen. Physiol. 38, 225–248 (1954).

1953 (1)

J. R. Pappenheimer, “Passage of molecules through capillary walls,” Physiol. Rev. 33, 387–423 (1953).
[PubMed]

Ahmed, J.

J. Ahmed, R. D. Braun, R. Dunn, R. A. Linsenmeir, “Oxygen distribution in the macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 516–521 (1993).

Albon, J.

W. S. S. Karwatowski, T. E. Jefferies, V. C. Duance, J. Albon, A. J. Bailey, D. L. Easty, “Preparation of Bruch’s membrane and analysis of age-related changes in the structural collagens,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 944–952 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Alder, V. A.

V. A. Alder, S. J. Cringle, I. J. Constable, “The retinal oxygen profile in cats,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 24, 30–36 (1983).

Alexander, R. A.

A. Okubo, R. H. Rosa, C. V. Bunce, R. A. Alexander, J. T. Fan, A. C. Bird, P. J. Luthert, “The relationships of age changes in retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 443–449 (1999).

Anderson, D. H.

R. H. Steinberg, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, “Disc morphogenesis in vertebrate photoreceptors,” J. Comp. Neurol. 190, 501–518 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aotaki-Keen, A.

J. T. Handa, N. Verzijl, H. Matsunaga, A. Aotaki-Keen, G. A. Lutty, J. M. Koppele, T. Miyata, L. M. Hjelmeland, “Increase in the advanced glycation end product pentosidine in Bruch’s membrane with age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 775–779 (1999).

Ashton, N.

J. G. Cunha-Vaz, M. Shakib, N. Ashton, “Studies on the permeability of the blood ocular barrier,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 50, 441–453 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, A. J.

W. S. S. Karwatowski, T. E. Jefferies, V. C. Duance, J. Albon, A. J. Bailey, D. L. Easty, “Preparation of Bruch’s membrane and analysis of age-related changes in the structural collagens,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 944–952 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bean, C. P.

C. P. Bean, “The physics of porous membranes—neutral pores,” in Membranes, G. Eisenman ed. (Dekker, New York, 1972), Vol. 1, pp. 1–54.

Beck, R. E.

R. E. Beck, J. S. Schultz, “Hindrance of solute diffusion within membranes as measured with microsporous membranes of known pore geometry,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 255, 273–303 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellhorn, R. W.

M. S. Burns, R. W. Bellhorn, G. E. Korte, W. J. Heriot, “Plasticity of the retinal vasculature,” in Progress in Retinal Research, N. Osborne, G. Chader, eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1986), Vol. 5, pp. 253–308.

Berson, E. L.

S. Y. Schmidt, E. L. Berson, G. Watson, C. Huang, “Retinal degeneration in cats fed casein. III. Taurine deficiency and ERG amplitudes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 16, 673–678 (1977).

Bird, A. C.

A. Okubo, R. H. Rosa, C. V. Bunce, R. A. Alexander, J. T. Fan, A. C. Bird, P. J. Luthert, “The relationships of age changes in retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 443–449 (1999).

F. G. Holz, G. S. Sheraidah, D. Pauleikhoff, A. C. Bird, “Analysis of lipid deposits extracted from human macular and peripheral Bruch’s membrane,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 402–406 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sheraidah, R. Steinmetz, J. Maguire, D. Pauleikhoff, J. Marshall, A. C. Bird, “Correlation between lipids extracted from Bruch’s membrane and age,” Ophthalmology 100, 47–51 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pauleikhoff, A. Harper, J. Marshall, A. C. Bird, “Ageing changes in Bruch’s membrane: a histochemical and morphological study,” Ophthalmology 97, 171–177 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Bird, J. Marshall, “Retinal pigment epithelial detachments in the elderly,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 105, 674–682 (1986).
[PubMed]

Bosman, F. T.

T. L. van der Schaft, C. M. Mooy, W. C. de Bruijn, F. T. Bosman, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Immunohistochemical light and electron microscopy of basal laminar deposit,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232, 40–46 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Braun, R. D.

J. Ahmed, R. D. Braun, R. Dunn, R. A. Linsenmeir, “Oxygen distribution in the macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 516–521 (1993).

Bresler, E. H.

R. P. Wendt, E. Klein, E. H. Bresler, F. F. Holland, R. M. Serind, H. Villa, “Sieving properties of hemodialysis membranes,” J. Membr. Sci. 5, 23–49 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bruijn, W. C.

R. S. Ramrattan, T. L. van der Schaft, C. M. Mooy, W. C. Bruijn, P. G. H. Mulder, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Morphometric analysis of Bruch’s membrane, the choriocapillaris and the choroid in ageing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 2857–2864 (1994).

Bunce, C. V.

A. Okubo, R. H. Rosa, C. V. Bunce, R. A. Alexander, J. T. Fan, A. C. Bird, P. J. Luthert, “The relationships of age changes in retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 443–449 (1999).

Burns, M. S.

M. S. Burns, R. W. Bellhorn, G. E. Korte, W. J. Heriot, “Plasticity of the retinal vasculature,” in Progress in Retinal Research, N. Osborne, G. Chader, eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1986), Vol. 5, pp. 253–308.

Carey, R. E.

K. C. Hayes, R. E. Carey, S. Y. Schmidt, “Retinal degeneration associated with taurine deficiency in the cat,” Science 188, 949–951 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, L. H.

L. H. Cohen, W. K. Noell, “Glucose metabolism of rabbit retina before and after development of visual function,” J. Neurochem. 5, 253 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constable, I. J.

V. A. Alder, S. J. Cringle, I. J. Constable, “The retinal oxygen profile in cats,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 24, 30–36 (1983).

Cringle, S. J.

V. A. Alder, S. J. Cringle, I. J. Constable, “The retinal oxygen profile in cats,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 24, 30–36 (1983).

Cunha-Vaz, J. G.

J. G. Cunha-Vaz, M. Shakib, N. Ashton, “Studies on the permeability of the blood ocular barrier,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 50, 441–453 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Curry, F. E.

F. E. Curry, C. C. Michel, “A fibre matrix model of capillary permeability,” Microvasc. Res. 20, 96–99 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Bruijn, W. C.

T. L. van der Schaft, C. M. Mooy, W. C. de Bruijn, F. T. Bosman, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Immunohistochemical light and electron microscopy of basal laminar deposit,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232, 40–46 (1994).
[CrossRef]

de Jong, P. T. V. M.

T. L. van der Schaft, C. M. Mooy, W. C. de Bruijn, F. T. Bosman, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Immunohistochemical light and electron microscopy of basal laminar deposit,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232, 40–46 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Ramrattan, T. L. van der Schaft, C. M. Mooy, W. C. Bruijn, P. G. H. Mulder, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Morphometric analysis of Bruch’s membrane, the choriocapillaris and the choroid in ageing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 2857–2864 (1994).

Del Monte, M. A.

Y. Miyamoto, M. A. Del Monte, “Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporter in human retinal pigment epithelial cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3589–3598 (1994).

Duance, V. C.

W. S. S. Karwatowski, T. E. Jefferies, V. C. Duance, J. Albon, A. J. Bailey, D. L. Easty, “Preparation of Bruch’s membrane and analysis of age-related changes in the structural collagens,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 944–952 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, R.

J. Ahmed, R. D. Braun, R. Dunn, R. A. Linsenmeir, “Oxygen distribution in the macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 516–521 (1993).

Easty, D. L.

W. S. S. Karwatowski, T. E. Jefferies, V. C. Duance, J. Albon, A. J. Bailey, D. L. Easty, “Preparation of Bruch’s membrane and analysis of age-related changes in the structural collagens,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 944–952 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J. T.

A. Okubo, R. H. Rosa, C. V. Bunce, R. A. Alexander, J. T. Fan, A. C. Bird, P. J. Luthert, “The relationships of age changes in retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 443–449 (1999).

Fisher, S. K.

R. H. Steinberg, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, “Disc morphogenesis in vertebrate photoreceptors,” J. Comp. Neurol. 190, 501–518 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Foulds, W. S.

W. S. Foulds, “The choroidal circulation and retinal metabolism—an overview,” Eye 4, 243–248 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ganapathy, V.

S. Sivakami, V. Ganapathy, F. H. Leibach, Y. Miyamoto, “The gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter and its interaction with taurine in the apical membrane of the bovine retinal pigment epithelium,” Biochem. J. 283 (Pt. 2), 391–397 (1992).

Green, W. R.

D. A. Newsome, W. Huh, W. R. Green, “Bruch’s membrane age-related changes vary by region,” Curr. Eye Res. 6, 1211–1221 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grindle, C. F. J.

C. F. J. Grindle, J. Marshall, “Ageing changes in Bruch’s membrane and their functional implications,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 98, 172–175 (1978).
[PubMed]

Handa, J. T.

J. T. Handa, N. Verzijl, H. Matsunaga, A. Aotaki-Keen, G. A. Lutty, J. M. Koppele, T. Miyata, L. M. Hjelmeland, “Increase in the advanced glycation end product pentosidine in Bruch’s membrane with age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 775–779 (1999).

Harper, A.

D. Pauleikhoff, A. Harper, J. Marshall, A. C. Bird, “Ageing changes in Bruch’s membrane: a histochemical and morphological study,” Ophthalmology 97, 171–177 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, K. C.

K. C. Hayes, R. E. Carey, S. Y. Schmidt, “Retinal degeneration associated with taurine deficiency in the cat,” Science 188, 949–951 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heriot, W. J.

M. S. Burns, R. W. Bellhorn, G. E. Korte, W. J. Heriot, “Plasticity of the retinal vasculature,” in Progress in Retinal Research, N. Osborne, G. Chader, eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1986), Vol. 5, pp. 253–308.

Hjelmeland, L. M.

J. T. Handa, N. Verzijl, H. Matsunaga, A. Aotaki-Keen, G. A. Lutty, J. M. Koppele, T. Miyata, L. M. Hjelmeland, “Increase in the advanced glycation end product pentosidine in Bruch’s membrane with age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 775–779 (1999).

Hodson, S. A.

C. H. To, S. A. Hodson, “The glucose transport in retinal pigment epithelium is via passive facilitated diffusion,” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 121, 441–444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holland, F. F.

R. P. Wendt, E. Klein, E. H. Bresler, F. F. Holland, R. M. Serind, H. Villa, “Sieving properties of hemodialysis membranes,” J. Membr. Sci. 5, 23–49 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Holz, F. G.

F. G. Holz, G. S. Sheraidah, D. Pauleikhoff, A. C. Bird, “Analysis of lipid deposits extracted from human macular and peripheral Bruch’s membrane,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 402–406 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C.

S. Y. Schmidt, E. L. Berson, G. Watson, C. Huang, “Retinal degeneration in cats fed casein. III. Taurine deficiency and ERG amplitudes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 16, 673–678 (1977).

Huh, W.

D. A. Newsome, W. Huh, W. R. Green, “Bruch’s membrane age-related changes vary by region,” Curr. Eye Res. 6, 1211–1221 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hussain, A. A.

A. A. Hussain, C. Starita, J. Marshall, “Molecular weight size exclusion limit and diffusional status of ageing human Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, S973. ARV Abstract No. 5125 (1999).

C. Starita, A. A. Hussain, A. Patmore, J. Marshall, “Localisation of the site of major resistance to fluid transport in Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 762–767 (1997).

C. Starita, A. A. Hussain, S. Pagliarini, J. Marshall, “Hydrodynamics of ageing Bruch’s membrane: implications for macular disease,” Exp. Eye Res. 62, 565–572 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kundaiker, A. A. Hussain, J. Marshall, “Component characteristics of the vectorial transport system for taurine in isolated bovine retinal pigment epithelium,” J. Physiol. 492.2, 505–516 (1996).

D. J. Moore, A. A. Hussain, J. Marshall, “Age-related variation in the hydraulic conductivity of Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 1290–1297 (1995).

J. Marshall, A. A. Hussain, C. Starita, D. J. Moore, A. Patmore, “Ageing and Bruch’s membrane,” in Retinal Pigment Epithelium: Function and Disease, eds., M. F. Marmor, T. J. Wolfensberger (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1998), p. 669–692.

A. A. Hussain, “Taurine photoreceptors and retinitis pigmentosa,” Ph.D. thesis (University of London, London, 1990), pp. 75–90.

Jefferies, T. E.

W. S. S. Karwatowski, T. E. Jefferies, V. C. Duance, J. Albon, A. J. Bailey, D. L. Easty, “Preparation of Bruch’s membrane and analysis of age-related changes in the structural collagens,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 944–952 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Karwatowski, W. S. S.

W. S. S. Karwatowski, T. E. Jefferies, V. C. Duance, J. Albon, A. J. Bailey, D. L. Easty, “Preparation of Bruch’s membrane and analysis of age-related changes in the structural collagens,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 944–952 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Klein, E.

R. P. Wendt, E. Klein, E. H. Bresler, F. F. Holland, R. M. Serind, H. Villa, “Sieving properties of hemodialysis membranes,” J. Membr. Sci. 5, 23–49 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Koppele, J. M.

J. T. Handa, N. Verzijl, H. Matsunaga, A. Aotaki-Keen, G. A. Lutty, J. M. Koppele, T. Miyata, L. M. Hjelmeland, “Increase in the advanced glycation end product pentosidine in Bruch’s membrane with age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 775–779 (1999).

Korte, G. E.

M. S. Burns, R. W. Bellhorn, G. E. Korte, W. J. Heriot, “Plasticity of the retinal vasculature,” in Progress in Retinal Research, N. Osborne, G. Chader, eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1986), Vol. 5, pp. 253–308.

Kundaiker, S.

S. Kundaiker, A. A. Hussain, J. Marshall, “Component characteristics of the vectorial transport system for taurine in isolated bovine retinal pigment epithelium,” J. Physiol. 492.2, 505–516 (1996).

Laesson, O. M.

H. S. Waagepetersen, U. Sonnewald, O. M. Laesson, A. Schousboe, “Synthesis of vesicular GABA from glutamine involves TCA cycle metabolism in neocortical neurons,” J. Neurosci. Res. 57, 342–349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landis, E. M.

E. M. Landis, J. R. Pappenheimer, “Exchange of substances through the capillary walls,” in Handbook of Physiology. Circulation, W. F. Hamilton, ed. (American Physiology Society, Washington, D.C., 1963), Vol. II, Sec. 2, Chap. 29, pp. 961–1034.

Leibach, F. H.

S. Sivakami, V. Ganapathy, F. H. Leibach, Y. Miyamoto, “The gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter and its interaction with taurine in the apical membrane of the bovine retinal pigment epithelium,” Biochem. J. 283 (Pt. 2), 391–397 (1992).

Linsenmeir, R. A.

J. Ahmed, R. D. Braun, R. Dunn, R. A. Linsenmeir, “Oxygen distribution in the macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 516–521 (1993).

Lund, C. C.

R. H. McMenamy, C. C. Lund, J. L. Oncley, “Unbound amino acid concentrations in human blood plasma,” J. Clin. Invest. 36, 1672–1679 (1957).

Luthert, P. J.

A. Okubo, R. H. Rosa, C. V. Bunce, R. A. Alexander, J. T. Fan, A. C. Bird, P. J. Luthert, “The relationships of age changes in retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 443–449 (1999).

Lutty, G. A.

J. T. Handa, N. Verzijl, H. Matsunaga, A. Aotaki-Keen, G. A. Lutty, J. M. Koppele, T. Miyata, L. M. Hjelmeland, “Increase in the advanced glycation end product pentosidine in Bruch’s membrane with age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 775–779 (1999).

Maguire, J.

G. Sheraidah, R. Steinmetz, J. Maguire, D. Pauleikhoff, J. Marshall, A. C. Bird, “Correlation between lipids extracted from Bruch’s membrane and age,” Ophthalmology 100, 47–51 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, J.

A. A. Hussain, C. Starita, J. Marshall, “Molecular weight size exclusion limit and diffusional status of ageing human Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, S973. ARV Abstract No. 5125 (1999).

C. Starita, A. A. Hussain, A. Patmore, J. Marshall, “Localisation of the site of major resistance to fluid transport in Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 762–767 (1997).

C. Starita, A. A. Hussain, S. Pagliarini, J. Marshall, “Hydrodynamics of ageing Bruch’s membrane: implications for macular disease,” Exp. Eye Res. 62, 565–572 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kundaiker, A. A. Hussain, J. Marshall, “Component characteristics of the vectorial transport system for taurine in isolated bovine retinal pigment epithelium,” J. Physiol. 492.2, 505–516 (1996).

D. J. Moore, A. A. Hussain, J. Marshall, “Age-related variation in the hydraulic conductivity of Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 1290–1297 (1995).

G. Sheraidah, R. Steinmetz, J. Maguire, D. Pauleikhoff, J. Marshall, A. C. Bird, “Correlation between lipids extracted from Bruch’s membrane and age,” Ophthalmology 100, 47–51 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pauleikhoff, A. Harper, J. Marshall, A. C. Bird, “Ageing changes in Bruch’s membrane: a histochemical and morphological study,” Ophthalmology 97, 171–177 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Bird, J. Marshall, “Retinal pigment epithelial detachments in the elderly,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 105, 674–682 (1986).
[PubMed]

C. F. J. Grindle, J. Marshall, “Ageing changes in Bruch’s membrane and their functional implications,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 98, 172–175 (1978).
[PubMed]

J. Marshall, A. A. Hussain, C. Starita, D. J. Moore, A. Patmore, “Ageing and Bruch’s membrane,” in Retinal Pigment Epithelium: Function and Disease, eds., M. F. Marmor, T. J. Wolfensberger (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1998), p. 669–692.

Matsunaga, H.

J. T. Handa, N. Verzijl, H. Matsunaga, A. Aotaki-Keen, G. A. Lutty, J. M. Koppele, T. Miyata, L. M. Hjelmeland, “Increase in the advanced glycation end product pentosidine in Bruch’s membrane with age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 775–779 (1999).

McMenamy, R. H.

R. H. McMenamy, C. C. Lund, J. L. Oncley, “Unbound amino acid concentrations in human blood plasma,” J. Clin. Invest. 36, 1672–1679 (1957).

Michel, C. C.

F. E. Curry, C. C. Michel, “A fibre matrix model of capillary permeability,” Microvasc. Res. 20, 96–99 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Michel, “Filtration coefficients and osmotic reflection coefficients of the walls of single frog mesenteric capillaries,” J. Physiol. (London) 309, 341–355 (1980).

C. C. Michel, “The measurement of permeability in single capillaries,” Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochim. 86, 657–667 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, S.

S. Miller, R. H. Steinberg, “Transport of taurine, L-methionine and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose across frog retinal pigment epithelium,” Exp. Eye Res. 23, 177–189 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyamoto, Y.

Y. Miyamoto, M. A. Del Monte, “Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporter in human retinal pigment epithelial cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3589–3598 (1994).

S. Sivakami, V. Ganapathy, F. H. Leibach, Y. Miyamoto, “The gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter and its interaction with taurine in the apical membrane of the bovine retinal pigment epithelium,” Biochem. J. 283 (Pt. 2), 391–397 (1992).

Miyata, T.

J. T. Handa, N. Verzijl, H. Matsunaga, A. Aotaki-Keen, G. A. Lutty, J. M. Koppele, T. Miyata, L. M. Hjelmeland, “Increase in the advanced glycation end product pentosidine in Bruch’s membrane with age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 775–779 (1999).

Moore, D. J.

D. J. Moore, A. A. Hussain, J. Marshall, “Age-related variation in the hydraulic conductivity of Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 1290–1297 (1995).

J. Marshall, A. A. Hussain, C. Starita, D. J. Moore, A. Patmore, “Ageing and Bruch’s membrane,” in Retinal Pigment Epithelium: Function and Disease, eds., M. F. Marmor, T. J. Wolfensberger (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1998), p. 669–692.

Mooy, C. M.

R. S. Ramrattan, T. L. van der Schaft, C. M. Mooy, W. C. Bruijn, P. G. H. Mulder, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Morphometric analysis of Bruch’s membrane, the choriocapillaris and the choroid in ageing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 2857–2864 (1994).

T. L. van der Schaft, C. M. Mooy, W. C. de Bruijn, F. T. Bosman, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Immunohistochemical light and electron microscopy of basal laminar deposit,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232, 40–46 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mulder, P. G. H.

R. S. Ramrattan, T. L. van der Schaft, C. M. Mooy, W. C. Bruijn, P. G. H. Mulder, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Morphometric analysis of Bruch’s membrane, the choriocapillaris and the choroid in ageing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 2857–2864 (1994).

Neal, M. J.

M. J. Neal, M. A. Shah, “Baclofen and phaclofen modulate GABA release from slices of rat cerebral cortex and spinal cord but not from retina,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 98, 105–112 (1989).

Newsome, D. A.

D. A. Newsome, W. Huh, W. R. Green, “Bruch’s membrane age-related changes vary by region,” Curr. Eye Res. 6, 1211–1221 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. H. Cohen, W. K. Noell, “Glucose metabolism of rabbit retina before and after development of visual function,” J. Neurochem. 5, 253 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okubo, A.

A. Okubo, R. H. Rosa, C. V. Bunce, R. A. Alexander, J. T. Fan, A. C. Bird, P. J. Luthert, “The relationships of age changes in retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 443–449 (1999).

Oncley, J. L.

R. H. McMenamy, C. C. Lund, J. L. Oncley, “Unbound amino acid concentrations in human blood plasma,” J. Clin. Invest. 36, 1672–1679 (1957).

Pagliarini, S.

C. Starita, A. A. Hussain, S. Pagliarini, J. Marshall, “Hydrodynamics of ageing Bruch’s membrane: implications for macular disease,” Exp. Eye Res. 62, 565–572 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pappenheimer, J. R.

J. R. Pappenheimer, “Passage of molecules through capillary walls,” Physiol. Rev. 33, 387–423 (1953).
[PubMed]

E. M. Landis, J. R. Pappenheimer, “Exchange of substances through the capillary walls,” in Handbook of Physiology. Circulation, W. F. Hamilton, ed. (American Physiology Society, Washington, D.C., 1963), Vol. II, Sec. 2, Chap. 29, pp. 961–1034.

Patmore, A.

C. Starita, A. A. Hussain, A. Patmore, J. Marshall, “Localisation of the site of major resistance to fluid transport in Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 762–767 (1997).

J. Marshall, A. A. Hussain, C. Starita, D. J. Moore, A. Patmore, “Ageing and Bruch’s membrane,” in Retinal Pigment Epithelium: Function and Disease, eds., M. F. Marmor, T. J. Wolfensberger (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1998), p. 669–692.

Pauleikhoff, D.

F. G. Holz, G. S. Sheraidah, D. Pauleikhoff, A. C. Bird, “Analysis of lipid deposits extracted from human macular and peripheral Bruch’s membrane,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 402–406 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sheraidah, R. Steinmetz, J. Maguire, D. Pauleikhoff, J. Marshall, A. C. Bird, “Correlation between lipids extracted from Bruch’s membrane and age,” Ophthalmology 100, 47–51 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pauleikhoff, A. Harper, J. Marshall, A. C. Bird, “Ageing changes in Bruch’s membrane: a histochemical and morphological study,” Ophthalmology 97, 171–177 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pautler, E. L.

E. L. Pautler, C. Tengerdy, “Transport of acidic amino acids by the bovine pigment epithelium,” Exp. Eye Res. 43, 207–214 (1986).
[PubMed]

Pederson, J. E.

S. Tsuboi, J. E. Pederson, “Volume flow across the isolated RPE of cynomolgus monkey eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 1652–1653 (1988).

Ramrattan, R. S.

R. S. Ramrattan, T. L. van der Schaft, C. M. Mooy, W. C. Bruijn, P. G. H. Mulder, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Morphometric analysis of Bruch’s membrane, the choriocapillaris and the choroid in ageing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 2857–2864 (1994).

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E. M. Renkin, “Filtration, diffusion and molecular sieving through porous cellulose membranes,” J. Gen. Physiol. 38, 225–248 (1954).

Rosa, R. H.

A. Okubo, R. H. Rosa, C. V. Bunce, R. A. Alexander, J. T. Fan, A. C. Bird, P. J. Luthert, “The relationships of age changes in retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 443–449 (1999).

Sarks, S. H.

S. H. Sarks, “Ageing and degeneration in the macular region: a clinico-pathological study,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 60, 324–341 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, S. Y.

S. Y. Schmidt, E. L. Berson, G. Watson, C. Huang, “Retinal degeneration in cats fed casein. III. Taurine deficiency and ERG amplitudes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 16, 673–678 (1977).

K. C. Hayes, R. E. Carey, S. Y. Schmidt, “Retinal degeneration associated with taurine deficiency in the cat,” Science 188, 949–951 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schousboe, A.

H. S. Waagepetersen, U. Sonnewald, O. M. Laesson, A. Schousboe, “Synthesis of vesicular GABA from glutamine involves TCA cycle metabolism in neocortical neurons,” J. Neurosci. Res. 57, 342–349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Westergaard, U. Sonnewald, A. Schousboe, “Metabolic trafficking between neurons and astrocytes: the glutamate/glutamine cycle revisited,” Dev. Neurosci. 17, 303–311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, J. S.

R. E. Beck, J. S. Schultz, “Hindrance of solute diffusion within membranes as measured with microsporous membranes of known pore geometry,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 255, 273–303 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serind, R. M.

R. P. Wendt, E. Klein, E. H. Bresler, F. F. Holland, R. M. Serind, H. Villa, “Sieving properties of hemodialysis membranes,” J. Membr. Sci. 5, 23–49 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Shah, M. A.

M. J. Neal, M. A. Shah, “Baclofen and phaclofen modulate GABA release from slices of rat cerebral cortex and spinal cord but not from retina,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 98, 105–112 (1989).

Shakib, M.

J. G. Cunha-Vaz, M. Shakib, N. Ashton, “Studies on the permeability of the blood ocular barrier,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 50, 441–453 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Sheraidah, G.

G. Sheraidah, R. Steinmetz, J. Maguire, D. Pauleikhoff, J. Marshall, A. C. Bird, “Correlation between lipids extracted from Bruch’s membrane and age,” Ophthalmology 100, 47–51 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheraidah, G. S.

F. G. Holz, G. S. Sheraidah, D. Pauleikhoff, A. C. Bird, “Analysis of lipid deposits extracted from human macular and peripheral Bruch’s membrane,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 402–406 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivakami, S.

S. Sivakami, V. Ganapathy, F. H. Leibach, Y. Miyamoto, “The gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter and its interaction with taurine in the apical membrane of the bovine retinal pigment epithelium,” Biochem. J. 283 (Pt. 2), 391–397 (1992).

Sonnewald, U.

H. S. Waagepetersen, U. Sonnewald, O. M. Laesson, A. Schousboe, “Synthesis of vesicular GABA from glutamine involves TCA cycle metabolism in neocortical neurons,” J. Neurosci. Res. 57, 342–349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Westergaard, U. Sonnewald, A. Schousboe, “Metabolic trafficking between neurons and astrocytes: the glutamate/glutamine cycle revisited,” Dev. Neurosci. 17, 303–311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Starita, C.

A. A. Hussain, C. Starita, J. Marshall, “Molecular weight size exclusion limit and diffusional status of ageing human Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, S973. ARV Abstract No. 5125 (1999).

C. Starita, A. A. Hussain, A. Patmore, J. Marshall, “Localisation of the site of major resistance to fluid transport in Bruch’s membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 762–767 (1997).

C. Starita, A. A. Hussain, S. Pagliarini, J. Marshall, “Hydrodynamics of ageing Bruch’s membrane: implications for macular disease,” Exp. Eye Res. 62, 565–572 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Marshall, A. A. Hussain, C. Starita, D. J. Moore, A. Patmore, “Ageing and Bruch’s membrane,” in Retinal Pigment Epithelium: Function and Disease, eds., M. F. Marmor, T. J. Wolfensberger (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1998), p. 669–692.

Steinberg, R. H.

R. H. Steinberg, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, “Disc morphogenesis in vertebrate photoreceptors,” J. Comp. Neurol. 190, 501–518 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. Miller, R. H. Steinberg, “Transport of taurine, L-methionine and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose across frog retinal pigment epithelium,” Exp. Eye Res. 23, 177–189 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmetz, R.

G. Sheraidah, R. Steinmetz, J. Maguire, D. Pauleikhoff, J. Marshall, A. C. Bird, “Correlation between lipids extracted from Bruch’s membrane and age,” Ophthalmology 100, 47–51 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tengerdy, C.

E. L. Pautler, C. Tengerdy, “Transport of acidic amino acids by the bovine pigment epithelium,” Exp. Eye Res. 43, 207–214 (1986).
[PubMed]

To, C. H.

C. H. To, S. A. Hodson, “The glucose transport in retinal pigment epithelium is via passive facilitated diffusion,” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 121, 441–444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsuboi, S.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Progress curves for the diffusion of amino acids through the macular Bruch’s-choroid preparation from a 13-yr-old donor. Diffusional studies were carried out in an Ussing chamber with the Bruch’s facing compartment containing a mixture of eight amino acids each at a concentration of 10 mM (in PBS) and the choroidal compartment containing PBS alone. Aliquots (50 μl) were removed from each compartment at timed intervals and processed for amino acid analysis by HPLC. The amount of amino acid transported was corrected for previously withdrawn aliquots for sampling. For each amino acid, the gradient of the regression line describing the rate of transport into the choroidal compartment was designated as the initial rate of diffusion. LYS, lysine; GLT, glutamate; GLY, glycine; AST, aspartate; TAU, taurine; LEU, leucine; GLN, glutamine; PHE, phenylalanine.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Age-dependent alteration in the rate of diffusion of various amino acids across human Bruch’s choroid. The initial rate of diffusion of each amino acid has been plotted as a function of age of donor. The small hydrophilic amino acid glycine showed the highest rate of diffusion, and the larger, aromatic hydrophobic phenylalanine was associated with the lowest. Aging was associated with a linear decline in the rate of diffusion of all amino acids examined: (c) leucine, (d) phenylalanine, (g) glutamine p<0.001; (a) glycine, (f) glutamate, (h) lysine p<0.01; (b) taurine, (e) aspartate p<0.05.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationship between the molecular weight of an amino acid and its rate of diffusion through human Bruch’s choroid. The linear regression lines of Fig. 2 were extrapolated to obtain the rate of diffusion at birth. These rates were plotted against the molecular weights of the appropriate amino acids without contribution from the dissociable counter ions. Diffusion rates were observed to decline linearly with increasing molecular weight of amino acid, p<0.05.

Equations (1)

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F=D*(dC/dx),

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