Abstract

The purpose of this work is to investigate the light-scattering properties of excised eye lenses with intact lens capsules—more specifically, to compare light scattering with light transmission at different wavelengths in aging and cataractous lenses. A lens is positioned at its focal-length distance from an optical fiber end and collimates the light from one of five laser lines (458–633 nm). By use of an integrating sphere with an extra circular port, the collimated directly transmitted light can be separated from the scattered light. For lenses with low light-scattering levels, integrated scattering showed a dependence on wavelength, but when light scattering increased the wavelength difference tended to level out. Despite the higher percentage of lens light scattering at lower wavelengths, when calculated as an “effective light scattering” (compensated for light transmission), more scattered light actually falls toward the retina at longer wavelengths.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. F. A. Bettelheim, M. Paunovic, “Light scattering of normal human lens 1. Application of random density and orientation fluctuation theory,” Biophys. J. 26, 85–99 (1979).
  2. D. Miller, G. Benedek, “Intraocular light scattering—theory and clinical application,” (C. C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1973).
  3. R. Boynton, F. Clarke, “Sources of entopic scatter in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 110–119 (1964).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Wooten, G. Geri, “Psychophysical determination of intraocular light scatter as a function of wavelength,” Vision Res. 27, 1291–1298 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Whitaker, R. Steen, D. B. Elliott, “Light scatter in the normal young, elderly, and cataractous eye demonstrates little wavelength dependency,” Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 963–968 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Westheimer, J. Liang, “Influence of ocular light scatter on the eye’s optical performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1417–1424 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. L. Hennelly, J. L. Barbur, D. F. Edgar, E. G. Woodward, “The effect of age on the light scattering characteristics of the eye,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 18, 197–203 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Boynton, J. Enoch, W. Bush, “Physical measures of stray light in excised eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 879–886 (1954).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Demott, R. Boynton, “Sources of entopic straylight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 120–125 (1958).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Boettner, J. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 1, 776–783 (1962).
  11. J. Mellerio, “Light absorption and scatter in the human lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. A. Bettelheim, L. T. Chylack, “Light scattering of whole excised human cataractous lenses. Relationships between different light scattering parameters,” Exp. Eye Res. 41, 19–30 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. L. Siew, D. Opalecky, F. A. Bettelheim, “Light scattering of normal human lens. II. Age dependence of the light scattering parameters,” Exp. Eye Res. 33, 603–614 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. J. van den Berg, J. K. Ijspeert, “Light scattering in donor lenses,” Vision Res. 35, 169–177 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. J. van den Berg, “Depth-dependent forward light scattering by donor lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 157–166 (1996).
  16. T. J. van den Berg, “Light scattering by donor lenses as a function of depth and wavelength,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1321–1332 (1997).
  17. R. P. Hemenger, “Small-angle intraocular light scatter: a hypothesis concerning its source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 577–582 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. P. Hemenger, “Dependence on angle and wavelength of light scattered by the ocular lens,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 16, 237–238 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. Eagle, “Nutrition needs of mammalian cells in tissue culture,” Science 122, 501–504 (1955).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Thaung, M. Abrahamsson, J. Sjöstrand, “In vitromethod for integrated angular light scattering measurements in eye lenses,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 264–267.
  21. M. J. Vinciguerra, F. A. Bettelheim, “Packing and orientation of fiber cells,” Exp. Eye Res. 11, 214–219 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. T. J. Van den Berg, J. K. Ijspeert, P. W. T. de Waard, “Dependence of intraocular straylight on pigmentation and light transmission through the ocular wall,” Vision Res. 31, 1361–1367 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. L. E. Leguire, S. Suh, “Effect of light filters on contrast sensitivity function in normal and retinal degenerated subjects,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 124–128 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. Steen, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, J. M. Wild, “Effect of filters on disability glare,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 371–376 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

M. L. Hennelly, J. L. Barbur, D. F. Edgar, E. G. Woodward, “The effect of age on the light scattering characteristics of the eye,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 18, 197–203 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

T. J. van den Berg, “Light scattering by donor lenses as a function of depth and wavelength,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1321–1332 (1997).

1996 (2)

T. J. van den Berg, “Depth-dependent forward light scattering by donor lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 157–166 (1996).

R. P. Hemenger, “Dependence on angle and wavelength of light scattered by the ocular lens,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 16, 237–238 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

1993 (3)

D. Whitaker, R. Steen, D. B. Elliott, “Light scatter in the normal young, elderly, and cataractous eye demonstrates little wavelength dependency,” Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 963–968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Leguire, S. Suh, “Effect of light filters on contrast sensitivity function in normal and retinal degenerated subjects,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 124–128 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Steen, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, J. M. Wild, “Effect of filters on disability glare,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 371–376 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

T. J. Van den Berg, J. K. Ijspeert, P. W. T. de Waard, “Dependence of intraocular straylight on pigmentation and light transmission through the ocular wall,” Vision Res. 31, 1361–1367 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

B. Wooten, G. Geri, “Psychophysical determination of intraocular light scatter as a function of wavelength,” Vision Res. 27, 1291–1298 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

F. A. Bettelheim, L. T. Chylack, “Light scattering of whole excised human cataractous lenses. Relationships between different light scattering parameters,” Exp. Eye Res. 41, 19–30 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

E. L. Siew, D. Opalecky, F. A. Bettelheim, “Light scattering of normal human lens. II. Age dependence of the light scattering parameters,” Exp. Eye Res. 33, 603–614 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

F. A. Bettelheim, M. Paunovic, “Light scattering of normal human lens 1. Application of random density and orientation fluctuation theory,” Biophys. J. 26, 85–99 (1979).

1971 (2)

J. Mellerio, “Light absorption and scatter in the human lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Vinciguerra, F. A. Bettelheim, “Packing and orientation of fiber cells,” Exp. Eye Res. 11, 214–219 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964 (1)

1962 (1)

E. Boettner, J. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 1, 776–783 (1962).

1958 (1)

1955 (1)

H. Eagle, “Nutrition needs of mammalian cells in tissue culture,” Science 122, 501–504 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1954 (1)

Abrahamsson, M.

J. Thaung, M. Abrahamsson, J. Sjöstrand, “In vitromethod for integrated angular light scattering measurements in eye lenses,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 264–267.

Barbur, J. L.

M. L. Hennelly, J. L. Barbur, D. F. Edgar, E. G. Woodward, “The effect of age on the light scattering characteristics of the eye,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 18, 197–203 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedek, G.

D. Miller, G. Benedek, “Intraocular light scattering—theory and clinical application,” (C. C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1973).

Bettelheim, F. A.

F. A. Bettelheim, L. T. Chylack, “Light scattering of whole excised human cataractous lenses. Relationships between different light scattering parameters,” Exp. Eye Res. 41, 19–30 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Siew, D. Opalecky, F. A. Bettelheim, “Light scattering of normal human lens. II. Age dependence of the light scattering parameters,” Exp. Eye Res. 33, 603–614 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Bettelheim, M. Paunovic, “Light scattering of normal human lens 1. Application of random density and orientation fluctuation theory,” Biophys. J. 26, 85–99 (1979).

M. J. Vinciguerra, F. A. Bettelheim, “Packing and orientation of fiber cells,” Exp. Eye Res. 11, 214–219 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boettner, E.

E. Boettner, J. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 1, 776–783 (1962).

Boynton, R.

Bush, W.

Chylack, L. T.

F. A. Bettelheim, L. T. Chylack, “Light scattering of whole excised human cataractous lenses. Relationships between different light scattering parameters,” Exp. Eye Res. 41, 19–30 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarke, F.

de Waard, P. W. T.

T. J. Van den Berg, J. K. Ijspeert, P. W. T. de Waard, “Dependence of intraocular straylight on pigmentation and light transmission through the ocular wall,” Vision Res. 31, 1361–1367 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demott, D.

Eagle, H.

H. Eagle, “Nutrition needs of mammalian cells in tissue culture,” Science 122, 501–504 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edgar, D. F.

M. L. Hennelly, J. L. Barbur, D. F. Edgar, E. G. Woodward, “The effect of age on the light scattering characteristics of the eye,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 18, 197–203 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elliott, D. B.

D. Whitaker, R. Steen, D. B. Elliott, “Light scatter in the normal young, elderly, and cataractous eye demonstrates little wavelength dependency,” Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 963–968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Steen, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, J. M. Wild, “Effect of filters on disability glare,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 371–376 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enoch, J.

Geri, G.

B. Wooten, G. Geri, “Psychophysical determination of intraocular light scatter as a function of wavelength,” Vision Res. 27, 1291–1298 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemenger, R. P.

R. P. Hemenger, “Dependence on angle and wavelength of light scattered by the ocular lens,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 16, 237–238 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Hemenger, “Small-angle intraocular light scatter: a hypothesis concerning its source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 577–582 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hennelly, M. L.

M. L. Hennelly, J. L. Barbur, D. F. Edgar, E. G. Woodward, “The effect of age on the light scattering characteristics of the eye,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 18, 197–203 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ijspeert, J. K.

T. J. van den Berg, J. K. Ijspeert, “Light scattering in donor lenses,” Vision Res. 35, 169–177 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Van den Berg, J. K. Ijspeert, P. W. T. de Waard, “Dependence of intraocular straylight on pigmentation and light transmission through the ocular wall,” Vision Res. 31, 1361–1367 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leguire, L. E.

L. E. Leguire, S. Suh, “Effect of light filters on contrast sensitivity function in normal and retinal degenerated subjects,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 124–128 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, J.

Mellerio, J.

J. Mellerio, “Light absorption and scatter in the human lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D.

D. Miller, G. Benedek, “Intraocular light scattering—theory and clinical application,” (C. C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1973).

Opalecky, D.

E. L. Siew, D. Opalecky, F. A. Bettelheim, “Light scattering of normal human lens. II. Age dependence of the light scattering parameters,” Exp. Eye Res. 33, 603–614 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paunovic, M.

F. A. Bettelheim, M. Paunovic, “Light scattering of normal human lens 1. Application of random density and orientation fluctuation theory,” Biophys. J. 26, 85–99 (1979).

Siew, E. L.

E. L. Siew, D. Opalecky, F. A. Bettelheim, “Light scattering of normal human lens. II. Age dependence of the light scattering parameters,” Exp. Eye Res. 33, 603–614 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sjöstrand, J.

J. Thaung, M. Abrahamsson, J. Sjöstrand, “In vitromethod for integrated angular light scattering measurements in eye lenses,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 264–267.

Steen, R.

D. Whitaker, R. Steen, D. B. Elliott, “Light scatter in the normal young, elderly, and cataractous eye demonstrates little wavelength dependency,” Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 963–968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Steen, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, J. M. Wild, “Effect of filters on disability glare,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 371–376 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, S.

L. E. Leguire, S. Suh, “Effect of light filters on contrast sensitivity function in normal and retinal degenerated subjects,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 124–128 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thaung, J.

J. Thaung, M. Abrahamsson, J. Sjöstrand, “In vitromethod for integrated angular light scattering measurements in eye lenses,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 264–267.

van den Berg, T. J.

T. J. van den Berg, “Light scattering by donor lenses as a function of depth and wavelength,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1321–1332 (1997).

T. J. van den Berg, “Depth-dependent forward light scattering by donor lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 157–166 (1996).

T. J. van den Berg, J. K. Ijspeert, “Light scattering in donor lenses,” Vision Res. 35, 169–177 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Van den Berg, J. K. Ijspeert, P. W. T. de Waard, “Dependence of intraocular straylight on pigmentation and light transmission through the ocular wall,” Vision Res. 31, 1361–1367 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vinciguerra, M. J.

M. J. Vinciguerra, F. A. Bettelheim, “Packing and orientation of fiber cells,” Exp. Eye Res. 11, 214–219 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westheimer, G.

Whitaker, D.

D. Whitaker, R. Steen, D. B. Elliott, “Light scatter in the normal young, elderly, and cataractous eye demonstrates little wavelength dependency,” Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 963–968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Steen, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, J. M. Wild, “Effect of filters on disability glare,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 371–376 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wild, J. M.

R. Steen, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, J. M. Wild, “Effect of filters on disability glare,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 371–376 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolter, J.

E. Boettner, J. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 1, 776–783 (1962).

Woodward, E. G.

M. L. Hennelly, J. L. Barbur, D. F. Edgar, E. G. Woodward, “The effect of age on the light scattering characteristics of the eye,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 18, 197–203 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wooten, B.

B. Wooten, G. Geri, “Psychophysical determination of intraocular light scatter as a function of wavelength,” Vision Res. 27, 1291–1298 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (1)

F. A. Bettelheim, M. Paunovic, “Light scattering of normal human lens 1. Application of random density and orientation fluctuation theory,” Biophys. J. 26, 85–99 (1979).

Exp. Eye Res. (3)

F. A. Bettelheim, L. T. Chylack, “Light scattering of whole excised human cataractous lenses. Relationships between different light scattering parameters,” Exp. Eye Res. 41, 19–30 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Siew, D. Opalecky, F. A. Bettelheim, “Light scattering of normal human lens. II. Age dependence of the light scattering parameters,” Exp. Eye Res. 33, 603–614 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Vinciguerra, F. A. Bettelheim, “Packing and orientation of fiber cells,” Exp. Eye Res. 11, 214–219 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (3)

E. Boettner, J. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 1, 776–783 (1962).

T. J. van den Berg, “Depth-dependent forward light scattering by donor lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 157–166 (1996).

T. J. van den Berg, “Light scattering by donor lenses as a function of depth and wavelength,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1321–1332 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (4)

R. P. Hemenger, “Dependence on angle and wavelength of light scattered by the ocular lens,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 16, 237–238 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Hennelly, J. L. Barbur, D. F. Edgar, E. G. Woodward, “The effect of age on the light scattering characteristics of the eye,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 18, 197–203 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Leguire, S. Suh, “Effect of light filters on contrast sensitivity function in normal and retinal degenerated subjects,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 124–128 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Steen, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, J. M. Wild, “Effect of filters on disability glare,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 371–376 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Optom. Vision Sci. (1)

D. Whitaker, R. Steen, D. B. Elliott, “Light scatter in the normal young, elderly, and cataractous eye demonstrates little wavelength dependency,” Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 963–968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

H. Eagle, “Nutrition needs of mammalian cells in tissue culture,” Science 122, 501–504 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (4)

J. Mellerio, “Light absorption and scatter in the human lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. van den Berg, J. K. Ijspeert, “Light scattering in donor lenses,” Vision Res. 35, 169–177 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wooten, G. Geri, “Psychophysical determination of intraocular light scatter as a function of wavelength,” Vision Res. 27, 1291–1298 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Van den Berg, J. K. Ijspeert, P. W. T. de Waard, “Dependence of intraocular straylight on pigmentation and light transmission through the ocular wall,” Vision Res. 31, 1361–1367 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

D. Miller, G. Benedek, “Intraocular light scattering—theory and clinical application,” (C. C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1973).

J. Thaung, M. Abrahamsson, J. Sjöstrand, “In vitromethod for integrated angular light scattering measurements in eye lenses,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 264–267.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. The lens is positioned in a lens holding unit (LH). Light from one of five laser lines is fed into an optical fiber whose other end is connected to the bottom of the LH unit. The lens, positioned at focal length distance from the fiber end, collimates the laser light. The light is collected by an integrating sphere, and by use of an extra circular port, the collimated directly transmitted light can be separated from the scattered light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Integrated lens light-scattering data (S, %) for ten donor lenses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Integrated-lens light-transmission data (T, %) for eight donor lenses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Power of the wavelength calculated by a curve-fitting method (power function) used on the data in Fig. 1. Error bars show the accuracy of the exponent obtained with the curve-fitting method. The data indicate that low light-scattering lenses have a larger wavelength dependence (mean value -1.5) than lenses with a large amount of light scatter (mean value -0.3).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effective light scattering, Seff. Calculated as the percentage of the integrated light-scattering data (plotted in Fig. 1) multiplied by the proportion of the light-transmission data plotted in Fig. 2 (in percent). The effective light scattering data corresponds to the amount of the light (entering the eye) that actually falls as scattered light on the retina.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Integrated Light Scattering (S , %) in Ten Donor Lenses As a Function of Wavelength (458–633 nm)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Integrated Light Transmission (T , %) in Ten Donor Lenses As a Function of Wavelength (458–633 nm)

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S=Ps/Pt.
T=Pt/Pr.

Metrics