Abstract

We present a study of the image blurring and depolarization resulting from the transmission of a narrow beam of light through a continuous random medium. We investigate the dependence of image quality degradation and of depolarization on optical thickness, correlation length of the inhomogeneities, and incident polarization state. This is done numerically with a Monte Carlo method based on a transport equation that takes into account polarization of light. We compare our results with those for transport in media with discrete spherical scatterers. We show that depolarization effects are different in these two models of biological tissue.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bal, G. Papanicolaou, L. Ryzhik, “Probabilistic theory of transport processes with polarization,” SIAM (Soc. Ind. Appl. Math.) J. Math. Anal. 60, 1639–1666 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (3)

J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, D. Shen, T. M. Johnson, “Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3586–3593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Przeslawski, K. Michielsen, H. DeRaedt, N. Garcia, “Computer simulation of time-resolved optical imaging of objects hidden in turbid media,” Phys. Rep. 304, 90–144 (1998).

O. Dorn, “A transport–backtransport method for optical tomography,” Inverse Probl. 14, 1107–1130 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, “Optical imaging in medicine. II. Modelling and reconstruction,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 841–853 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (4)

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, “Contribution to the mitochondrial compartment to the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: Influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (5)

J. M. Schmitt, A. H. Gandjbakche, R. F. Bonner, “Use of polarized light to discriminate short-path photons in a multiply scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6535–6546 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Yoo, B. B. Das, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging of translucent object hidden in highly scattering medium from the early portion of the diffuse component of a transmitted ultrafast laser pulse,” Opt. Lett. 17, 958–960 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Bissonnette, “Imaging through fog and rain,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1045–1052 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Werner, J. Streicher, H. Herrmann, H. G. Dahn, “Multiple-scattering lidar experiments,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1731–1745 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Tusting, D. L. Davis, “Laser systems and structured illumination for quantitative undersea imaging,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 26, 5–12 (1992).

1991 (2)

1989 (2)

F. C. Mackintosh, S. John, “Diffusing-wave spectros-copy and multiple-scattering of light in correlated random media,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 2383–2406 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Mackintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1983 (1)

B. C. Wilson, G. Adam, “A Monte Carlo model for the absorption and flux distributions of light in tissue,” Med. Phys. 10, 824 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

H. Iida, Y. Seki, “Simple method of eliminating infinite variance in point detector problem of Monte Carlo calculation,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 17, 315–317 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

1977 (1)

1971 (1)

H. A. Steinberg, M. H. Kalos, “Bounded estimators for flux at a point in Monte Carlo,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 44, 406–412 (1971).

1968 (2)

1963 (1)

M. H. Kalos, “On the estimation of flux at a point by Monte Carlo,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 16, 111–117 (1963).

Adam, G.

B. C. Wilson, G. Adam, “A Monte Carlo model for the absorption and flux distributions of light in tissue,” Med. Phys. 10, 824 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

Arridge, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, “Optical imaging in medicine. II. Modelling and reconstruction,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 841–853 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aruga, T.

Asselin, D.

Avrillier, S.

Bal, G.

G. Bal, G. Papanicolaou, L. Ryzhik, “Probabilistic theory of transport processes with polarization,” SIAM (Soc. Ind. Appl. Math.) J. Math. Anal. 60, 1639–1666 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Bal, M. Moscoso, “Theoretical and numerical analysis of polarization for time dependent radiative transfer equations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (to be published).

G. Bal, M. Moscoso, “Polarization effects of seismic waves on the basis of radiative transport theory,” Geophys. J. Int. (to be published).

Beaudry, P.

Beauvoit, B.

B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, “Contribution to the mitochondrial compartment to the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bicout, D.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: Influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bissonnette, L. R.

L. R. Bissonnette, “Imaging through fog and rain,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1045–1052 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, R. F.

Brosseau, C.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: Influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bruscaglioni, P.

Carswell, A. I.

Chance, B.

B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, “Contribution to the mitochondrial compartment to the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1960).

Chatigny, S.

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, “Summary of optical properties,” in Optical–Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch, M. J. C. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995), pp. 275–303.

Cope, M.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahn, H. G.

C. Werner, J. Streicher, H. Herrmann, H. G. Dahn, “Multiple-scattering lidar experiments,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1731–1745 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Das, B. B.

Davis, D. L.

R. F. Tusting, D. L. Davis, “Laser systems and structured illumination for quantitative undersea imaging,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 26, 5–12 (1992).

Delpy, D. T.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demos, S. G.

DeRaedt, H.

J. Przeslawski, K. Michielsen, H. DeRaedt, N. Garcia, “Computer simulation of time-resolved optical imaging of objects hidden in turbid media,” Phys. Rep. 304, 90–144 (1998).

Dorn, O.

O. Dorn, “A transport–backtransport method for optical tomography,” Inverse Probl. 14, 1107–1130 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Egan, W. G.

Eick, A. A.

Engheta, N.

Freyer, J. P.

Gandjbakche, A. H.

Garcia, N.

J. Przeslawski, K. Michielsen, H. DeRaedt, N. Garcia, “Computer simulation of time-resolved optical imaging of objects hidden in turbid media,” Phys. Rep. 304, 90–144 (1998).

Hebden, J. C.

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, “Optical imaging in medicine. II. Modelling and reconstruction,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 841–853 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, H.

C. Werner, J. Streicher, H. Herrmann, H. G. Dahn, “Multiple-scattering lidar experiments,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1731–1745 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hielscher, A. H.

Igarashi, T.

Iida, H.

H. Iida, Y. Seki, “Simple method of eliminating infinite variance in point detector problem of Monte Carlo calculation,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 17, 315–317 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ishimaru, A.

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, S.

F. C. Mackintosh, S. John, “Diffusing-wave spectros-copy and multiple-scattering of light in correlated random media,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 2383–2406 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T. M.

Johnson, W. R.

Kalos, M. H.

H. A. Steinberg, M. H. Kalos, “Bounded estimators for flux at a point in Monte Carlo,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 44, 406–412 (1971).

M. H. Kalos, “On the estimation of flux at a point by Monte Carlo,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 16, 111–117 (1963).

M. H. Kalos, P. A. Whitlock, Monte Carlo Methods (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Kattawar, G. W.

Keller, J. B.

L. Ryzhik, G. Papanicolaou, J. B. Keller, “Transport equations for elastic and other waves in random media,” Wave Motion 24, 327–370 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kitai, T.

B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, “Contribution to the mitochondrial compartment to the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuga, Y.

Kumar, G.

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, E. E.

E. E. Lewis, W. F. Miller, Computational Methods of Neutron Transport (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Mackintosh, F. C.

F. C. Mackintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Mackintosh, S. John, “Diffusing-wave spectros-copy and multiple-scattering of light in correlated random media,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 2383–2406 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Maitland, D. J.

Martinez, A. S.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: Influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McCartney, E. J.

E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1976).

Meier, R. R.

Mertens, L. E.

Michielsen, K.

J. Przeslawski, K. Michielsen, H. DeRaedt, N. Garcia, “Computer simulation of time-resolved optical imaging of objects hidden in turbid media,” Phys. Rep. 304, 90–144 (1998).

Miller, W. F.

E. E. Lewis, W. F. Miller, Computational Methods of Neutron Transport (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Morin, M.

Moscoso, M.

G. Bal, M. Moscoso, “Polarization effects of seismic waves on the basis of radiative transport theory,” Geophys. J. Int. (to be published).

G. Bal, M. Moscoso, “Theoretical and numerical analysis of polarization for time dependent radiative transfer equations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (to be published).

Mourant, J. R.

Painchaud, Y.

Papanicolaou, G.

G. Bal, G. Papanicolaou, L. Ryzhik, “Probabilistic theory of transport processes with polarization,” SIAM (Soc. Ind. Appl. Math.) J. Math. Anal. 60, 1639–1666 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Ryzhik, G. Papanicolaou, J. B. Keller, “Transport equations for elastic and other waves in random media,” Wave Motion 24, 327–370 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pine, D. J.

F. C. Mackintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Plass, G. N.

Przeslawski, J.

J. Przeslawski, K. Michielsen, H. DeRaedt, N. Garcia, “Computer simulation of time-resolved optical imaging of objects hidden in turbid media,” Phys. Rep. 304, 90–144 (1998).

Pungh, E. N.

Replogle, F. S.

Roman, J. R.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rowe, M. P.

Ryan, J. S.

Ryzhik, L.

G. Bal, G. Papanicolaou, L. Ryzhik, “Probabilistic theory of transport processes with polarization,” SIAM (Soc. Ind. Appl. Math.) J. Math. Anal. 60, 1639–1666 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Ryzhik, G. Papanicolaou, J. B. Keller, “Transport equations for elastic and other waves in random media,” Wave Motion 24, 327–370 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sankaran, V.

Schmitt, J. M.

Schönenberger, K.

Seki, Y.

H. Iida, Y. Seki, “Simple method of eliminating infinite variance in point detector problem of Monte Carlo calculation,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 17, 315–317 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D.

Steinberg, H. A.

H. A. Steinberg, M. H. Kalos, “Bounded estimators for flux at a point in Monte Carlo,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 44, 406–412 (1971).

Streicher, J.

C. Werner, J. Streicher, H. Herrmann, H. G. Dahn, “Multiple-scattering lidar experiments,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1731–1745 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tinet, E.

Tualle, M.

Tusting, R. F.

R. F. Tusting, D. L. Davis, “Laser systems and structured illumination for quantitative undersea imaging,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 26, 5–12 (1992).

Tyo, J. S.

Van der Zee, P.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. T.

Wei, Q.

Weitz, D. A.

F. C. Mackintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Werner, C.

C. Werner, J. Streicher, H. Herrmann, H. G. Dahn, “Multiple-scattering lidar experiments,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1731–1745 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Whitehead, V. S.

Whitlock, P. A.

M. H. Kalos, P. A. Whitlock, Monte Carlo Methods (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Wilson, B. C.

B. C. Wilson, G. Adam, “A Monte Carlo model for the absorption and flux distributions of light in tissue,” Med. Phys. 10, 824 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wray, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, K. M.

Zaccanti, G.

Zhu, J. X.

F. C. Mackintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (11)

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo calculations of light scattering from clouds,” Appl. Opt. 7, 415–419 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, “Radiance and polarization of multiple scattered light from haze and clouds,” Appl. Opt. 7, 1519–1527 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zaccanti, “Monte Carlo study of light propagation in optically thick media: point source case,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2031–2041 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. G. Egan, W. R. Johnson, V. S. Whitehead, “Terrestrial polarization imagery obtained from the Space Shuttle: characterization and interpretation,” Appl. Opt. 30, 435–442 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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