Abstract

Laser beams used for bar-code scanning exhibit speckle noise generated by the roughness of the surface on which bar codes are printed. Statistical properties of a photodetector signal that integrates a time-varying speckle pattern falling on its aperture are analyzed in detail. We derive simple closed-form expressions for the autocorrelation function and the power spectral density of the detector current for scanning beams with arbitrary field distributions. Theoretical calculations are illustrated by numerical simulations as well.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. C. Dainty, ed., Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984).
  2. J. W. Goodman, “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 9–75.
  3. J. C. Dainty, “Recent developments,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 321–337.
  4. T. Okamoto, T. Asakura, “The statistics of dynamic speckles,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1995), Vol. 39, pp. 185–248.
  5. D. Yu, M. Stern, J. Katz, “Speckle noise in laser bar-code-scanner system,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3687–3694 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. F. Marshall, Optical Scanning (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1991).
  7. J. H. Churnside, H. T. Yura, “Velocity measurement using laser speckle statistics,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3539–3541 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. I. Goldfisher, “Autocorrelation function and power spectral density of laser-produced speckle patterns,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 247–253 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. V. Anisimov, S. M. Kozel, G. R. Lokshin, “Space–time statistical properties of coherent radiation scattered by a moving diffuse reflector,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 27, 258–262 (1969).
  10. T. Iwai, N. Takai, T. Asakura, “Dynamic statistical properties of laser speckle produced by a moving diffuse object under illumination of a Gaussian beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 460–467 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Yoshimura, “Statistical properties of dynamic speckles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1032–1054 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).
  13. G. Parry, “Speckle patterns in partially coherent light,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 77–122.
  14. L. Bergstein, E. Marom, “Speckle pattern in polychromatic light” (manuscript available from the authors).
  15. A. E. Ennos, “Speckle interferometry,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 203–253.
  16. H. T. Yura, B. Rose, S. G. Hanson, “Dynamic laser speckle in complex ABCD optical systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1160–1166 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. T. Yura, B. Rose, S. G. Hanson, “Speckle dynamics from in-plane rotating diffuse objects in complex ABCD optical systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1167–1173 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1996 (1)

1986 (1)

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1969 (1)

V. V. Anisimov, S. M. Kozel, G. R. Lokshin, “Space–time statistical properties of coherent radiation scattered by a moving diffuse reflector,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 27, 258–262 (1969).

1965 (1)

Anisimov, V. V.

V. V. Anisimov, S. M. Kozel, G. R. Lokshin, “Space–time statistical properties of coherent radiation scattered by a moving diffuse reflector,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 27, 258–262 (1969).

Asakura, T.

T. Iwai, N. Takai, T. Asakura, “Dynamic statistical properties of laser speckle produced by a moving diffuse object under illumination of a Gaussian beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 460–467 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. Okamoto, T. Asakura, “The statistics of dynamic speckles,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1995), Vol. 39, pp. 185–248.

Bergstein, L.

L. Bergstein, E. Marom, “Speckle pattern in polychromatic light” (manuscript available from the authors).

Churnside, J. H.

Dainty, J. C.

J. C. Dainty, “Recent developments,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 321–337.

Ennos, A. E.

A. E. Ennos, “Speckle interferometry,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 203–253.

Goldfisher, L. I.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).

J. W. Goodman, “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 9–75.

Hanson, S. G.

Iwai, T.

Katz, J.

Kozel, S. M.

V. V. Anisimov, S. M. Kozel, G. R. Lokshin, “Space–time statistical properties of coherent radiation scattered by a moving diffuse reflector,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 27, 258–262 (1969).

Lokshin, G. R.

V. V. Anisimov, S. M. Kozel, G. R. Lokshin, “Space–time statistical properties of coherent radiation scattered by a moving diffuse reflector,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 27, 258–262 (1969).

Marom, E.

L. Bergstein, E. Marom, “Speckle pattern in polychromatic light” (manuscript available from the authors).

Marshall, G. F.

G. F. Marshall, Optical Scanning (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1991).

Okamoto, T.

T. Okamoto, T. Asakura, “The statistics of dynamic speckles,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1995), Vol. 39, pp. 185–248.

Parry, G.

G. Parry, “Speckle patterns in partially coherent light,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 77–122.

Rose, B.

Stern, M.

Takai, N.

Yoshimura, T.

Yu, D.

Yura, H. T.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (1)

V. V. Anisimov, S. M. Kozel, G. R. Lokshin, “Space–time statistical properties of coherent radiation scattered by a moving diffuse reflector,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 27, 258–262 (1969).

Other (9)

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).

G. Parry, “Speckle patterns in partially coherent light,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 77–122.

L. Bergstein, E. Marom, “Speckle pattern in polychromatic light” (manuscript available from the authors).

A. E. Ennos, “Speckle interferometry,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 203–253.

J. C. Dainty, ed., Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984).

J. W. Goodman, “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 9–75.

J. C. Dainty, “Recent developments,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 321–337.

T. Okamoto, T. Asakura, “The statistics of dynamic speckles,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1995), Vol. 39, pp. 185–248.

G. F. Marshall, Optical Scanning (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1991).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics