Abstract

Whether a color stimulus appears in the surface-color or in the aperture-color mode depends on the luminance relationship between the center color stimulus and its surround. We investigated how chromaticity of a color stimulus affected the luminance level at which the appearance of the stimulus changed from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode. Mode estimation points were obtained for 10-cd/m2 color stimuli with different chromaticities presented in the center of a white surround of variable luminance. The color stimuli tended to appear in the aperture-color mode as purity increased, similarly to the increase of the brightness-to-luminance ratio for equal-luminance colors. It was also found that the mode-transition sensitivity function was similar in shape to the brightness sensitivity function for 440–660-m monochromatic light. Our results indicate that brightness is a determining factor for mode transition between the surface-color and the aperture-color modes. We discuss a possible assumption for relationships between brightness and lightness limits of a surface color.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  2. R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Holt, Rinehard & Winston, New York, 1979).
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  4. H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical color perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Koida, K. Uchikawa, “Comparison in chromatic characteristics of modes of appearance and brightness for colored lights,” Vision 8, 143–148 (1996).
  6. Y. Yamauchi, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Luminance limit for surface-color mode perception,” J. Inst. Image Inform. Tele. Eng. 52, 227–234 (1998).
  7. F. Bonato, A. L. Gilchrist, “The perception of luminosity on different backgrounds and in different illuminations,” Perception 23, 991–1006 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  9. J. M. Speigle, D. H. Brainard, “Luminosity threshold: effects of test chromaticity and ambient illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 436–451 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. M. Evans, B. K. Swenholt, “Chromatic strength of colors: dominant wavelength and purity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1319–1324 (1967).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. C. L. Sanders, G. Wyszecki, “L/Y ratios in terms of CIE-chromaticity coordinates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 389–392 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  17. G. Wyszecki, “Correlate for lightness in terms of CIE chromaticity coordinates and luminous reflectance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 254–257 (1967).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. P. K. Kaiser, J. P. Comerford, “Flicker photometry of equally bright lights,” Vision Res. 15, 1399–1402 (1975).
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  25. D. L. MacAdam, “Maximum visual efficiency of colored materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 361–367 (1935).
    [Crossref]
  26. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).
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1998 (1)

Y. Yamauchi, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Luminance limit for surface-color mode perception,” J. Inst. Image Inform. Tele. Eng. 52, 227–234 (1998).

1996 (2)

J. M. Speigle, D. H. Brainard, “Luminosity threshold: effects of test chromaticity and ambient illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 436–451 (1996).
[Crossref]

K. Koida, K. Uchikawa, “Comparison in chromatic characteristics of modes of appearance and brightness for colored lights,” Vision 8, 143–148 (1996).

1994 (1)

F. Bonato, A. L. Gilchrist, “The perception of luminosity on different backgrounds and in different illuminations,” Perception 23, 991–1006 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical color perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

K. Okajima, M. Ayama, K. Uchikawa, M. Ikeda, “Comparison of luminous-efficiency for brightness in a light-source color mode and a surface color mode,” Kogaku 17, 582–592 (1988).

1984 (1)

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors,” Color Res. Appl. 9, 5–14 (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1977 (1)

C. R. Ingling, B. H.-P. Tsou, “Orthogonal combination of the three visual channels,” Vision Res. 17, 1075–1082 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

S. Ullman, “On visual detection of light sources,” Biol. Cybern. 21, 205–212 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

P. K. Kaiser, J. P. Comerford, “Flicker photometry of equally bright lights,” Vision Res. 15, 1399–1402 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

1967 (2)

1959 (1)

1958 (1)

1957 (2)

1935 (2)

Ayama, M.

K. Okajima, M. Ayama, K. Uchikawa, M. Ikeda, “Comparison of luminous-efficiency for brightness in a light-source color mode and a surface color mode,” Kogaku 17, 582–592 (1988).

Bonato, F.

F. Bonato, A. L. Gilchrist, “The perception of luminosity on different backgrounds and in different illuminations,” Perception 23, 991–1006 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boynton, R. M.

H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical color perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
[Crossref]

R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Holt, Rinehard & Winston, New York, 1979).

Brainard, D. H.

Burns, S. A.

Comerford, J. P.

P. K. Kaiser, J. P. Comerford, “Flicker photometry of equally bright lights,” Vision Res. 15, 1399–1402 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Derefelt, G.

G. Derefelt, “Colour appearance systems,” in The Perception of Color, P. Gouras, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1991), pp. 218–261.

Elsner, A. E.

Evans, R. M.

Gilchrist, A. L.

F. Bonato, A. L. Gilchrist, “The perception of luminosity on different backgrounds and in different illuminations,” Perception 23, 991–1006 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guth, S. L.

Ikeda, M.

K. Okajima, M. Ayama, K. Uchikawa, M. Ikeda, “Comparison of luminous-efficiency for brightness in a light-source color mode and a surface color mode,” Kogaku 17, 582–592 (1988).

Ingling, C. R.

C. R. Ingling, B. H.-P. Tsou, “Orthogonal combination of the three visual channels,” Vision Res. 17, 1075–1082 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaiser, P. K.

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors,” Color Res. Appl. 9, 5–14 (1984).
[Crossref]

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Equating colors for saturation and brightness: the relationship to luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1219–1224 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. K. Kaiser, J. P. Comerford, “Flicker photometry of equally bright lights,” Vision Res. 15, 1399–1402 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kats, D.

D. Kats, The World of Colour (Kegan Paul, London, 1935).

Koida, K.

K. Koida, K. Uchikawa, “Comparison in chromatic characteristics of modes of appearance and brightness for colored lights,” Vision 8, 143–148 (1996).

Kuriki, I.

Y. Yamauchi, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Luminance limit for surface-color mode perception,” J. Inst. Image Inform. Tele. Eng. 52, 227–234 (1998).

Land, E. H.

MacAdam, D. L.

McCann, J. J.

Okajima, K.

K. Okajima, M. Ayama, K. Uchikawa, M. Ikeda, “Comparison of luminous-efficiency for brightness in a light-source color mode and a surface color mode,” Kogaku 17, 582–592 (1988).

Pokorny, J.

Sanders, C. L.

Smith, V. C.

Speigle, J. M.

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Swenholt, B. K.

Tsou, B. H.-P.

C. R. Ingling, B. H.-P. Tsou, “Orthogonal combination of the three visual channels,” Vision Res. 17, 1075–1082 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uchikawa, H.

H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical color perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors,” Color Res. Appl. 9, 5–14 (1984).
[Crossref]

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Equating colors for saturation and brightness: the relationship to luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1219–1224 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uchikawa, K.

Y. Yamauchi, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Luminance limit for surface-color mode perception,” J. Inst. Image Inform. Tele. Eng. 52, 227–234 (1998).

K. Koida, K. Uchikawa, “Comparison in chromatic characteristics of modes of appearance and brightness for colored lights,” Vision 8, 143–148 (1996).

H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical color perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. Okajima, M. Ayama, K. Uchikawa, M. Ikeda, “Comparison of luminous-efficiency for brightness in a light-source color mode and a surface color mode,” Kogaku 17, 582–592 (1988).

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors,” Color Res. Appl. 9, 5–14 (1984).
[Crossref]

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Equating colors for saturation and brightness: the relationship to luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1219–1224 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ullman, S.

S. Ullman, “On visual detection of light sources,” Biol. Cybern. 21, 205–212 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wyszecki, G.

Yamauchi, Y.

Y. Yamauchi, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Luminance limit for surface-color mode perception,” J. Inst. Image Inform. Tele. Eng. 52, 227–234 (1998).

Biol. Cybern. (1)

S. Ullman, “On visual detection of light sources,” Biol. Cybern. 21, 205–212 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Color Res. Appl. (1)

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors,” Color Res. Appl. 9, 5–14 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Inst. Image Inform. Tele. Eng. (1)

Y. Yamauchi, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Luminance limit for surface-color mode perception,” J. Inst. Image Inform. Tele. Eng. 52, 227–234 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (13)

D. L. MacAdam, “The theory of the maximum visual effi-ciency of colored materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 249–252 (1935).
[Crossref]

D. L. MacAdam, “Maximum visual efficiency of colored materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 361–367 (1935).
[Crossref]

C. L. Sanders, G. Wyszecki, “Correlate for lightness in terms of CIE-tristimulus values. Part I,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 398–404 (1957).
[Crossref]

R. M. Evans, “Fluorescence and gray content of surface colors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1049–1059 (1959).
[Crossref]

R. M. Evans, B. K. Swenholt, “Chromatic strength of colors, Part II. The Munsell system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 580–584 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Evans, B. K. Swenholt, “Chromatic strength of colors, III. Chromatic surrounds and discussion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 628–634 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. H. Land, J. J. McCann, “Lightness and retinex theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1–11 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, A. E. Elsner, “Brightness of equal-luminance lights,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 139–144 (1981).

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Equating colors for saturation and brightness: the relationship to luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1219–1224 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wyszecki, C. L. Sanders, “Correlate for lightness in terms of CIE-tristimulus values. Part II” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 840–842 (1957).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Evans, B. K. Swenholt, “Chromatic strength of colors: dominant wavelength and purity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1319–1324 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wyszecki, “Correlate for lightness in terms of CIE chromaticity coordinates and luminous reflectance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 254–257 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Sanders, G. Wyszecki, “L/Y ratios in terms of CIE-chromaticity coordinates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 389–392 (1958).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Kogaku (1)

K. Okajima, M. Ayama, K. Uchikawa, M. Ikeda, “Comparison of luminous-efficiency for brightness in a light-source color mode and a surface color mode,” Kogaku 17, 582–592 (1988).

Perception (1)

F. Bonato, A. L. Gilchrist, “The perception of luminosity on different backgrounds and in different illuminations,” Perception 23, 991–1006 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision (1)

K. Koida, K. Uchikawa, “Comparison in chromatic characteristics of modes of appearance and brightness for colored lights,” Vision 8, 143–148 (1996).

Vision Res. (3)

C. R. Ingling, B. H.-P. Tsou, “Orthogonal combination of the three visual channels,” Vision Res. 17, 1075–1082 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. K. Kaiser, J. P. Comerford, “Flicker photometry of equally bright lights,” Vision Res. 15, 1399–1402 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical color perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

D. Kats, The World of Colour (Kegan Paul, London, 1935).

R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Holt, Rinehard & Winston, New York, 1979).

R. M. Evans, The Perception of Color (Wiley, New York, 1974).

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

G. Derefelt, “Colour appearance systems,” in The Perception of Color, P. Gouras, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1991), pp. 218–261.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mode-estimation point as a function of colorimetric purity for observers MS and KK. The dominant wavelength is shown in each panel. The symbols indicate luminances of the surround stimulus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mode-estimation points on the CIE 1931 (x, y) chromaticity diagram for a surround luminance of 10cd/m2 for observers MS and KK. The point values were rounded off to whole numbers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Log (B/L) as a function of colorimetric purity for observer MS and KK. The surround luminance was 10cd/m2. The symbols indicate dominant wavelengths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Log (B/L) as a function of mode estimation point for observers MS and KK. The surround luminance was 10cd/m2. The symbols indicate dominant wavelengths.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral sensitivity functions obtained by use of three criteria: minimum flicker (luminance), brightness matching, and mode transition. Error bars represent the standard deviations of the points.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Log(B/L) and log(M/L) as functions of wavelength. We determined each function by subtracting the luminance function from the brightness and the mode functions shown in Fig. 5. The B/L and M/L functions were normalized to 0 at 560 nm. Dotted curves are the optimal color functions calculated form the maximum visual efficiency. See text for details. Observers TM, YY, TS, and YI.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Hypothetical relationship among lightness, brightness, and the mode-transition level, schematically drawn. The ordinate represents lightness, and the abscissa represents purity of colors. The thick solid line shows the mode-transition level determined by brightness of colors. Above this line, colors appear in the aperture-color mode, and below it they appear in the surface-color mode. The dashed lines show constant brightness loci.

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