Abstract

We investigate the propagating and evanescent field contributions in the scattering of an electromagnetic field from a collection of interacting electric point dipoles. Having applications of scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) in mind, we study three different geometries of dipoles placed close to a bulk surface. One of them is chosen to allow a direct comparison with the results recently put forward in the literature [J. Mod. Opt.44, 327 (1997)] and to point out the discrepancies in the near zone between the field decompositions applied in that paper and in our work. The other two geometries have been selected to illustrate SNOM action in the illumination and collection modes. Within the point-dipole model we investigate the effects of the probe-dipole polarization on the propagating and evanescent fields in the sample–probe system during the scanning of the probe at different heights above the sample.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Courjon, C. Bainier, “Near-field microscopy and near-field optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 57, 989–1028 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Ohtsu, H. Hori, Near-Field Nano-Optics: From Basic Principles to Nano-Fabrication and Nano-Photonics (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, 1999).
  4. C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theories,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, “Image formation in near-field optics,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133–237 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. M. Vigoureux, C. Girard, D. Courjon, “General principles of scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1039–1041 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Girard, C. Joachim, S. Gauthier, “The physics of the near-field,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 63, 893–938 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Setälä, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, “Decomposition of the point-dipole field into homogeneous and evanescent parts,” Phys. Rev. E 59, 1200–1206 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Xiao, “A study of resolution in optical microscopy: near and far field,” Opt. Commun. 132, 403–409 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Xiao, “Evanescent field coupling of dipole to a surface: configurational resonance at long distances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 363–368 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Xiao, “On near-field scanning optical microscopy. Homogeneous and evanescent radiation,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 327–344 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Xiao, “Polarization effects in reflection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 136, 213–218 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Xiao, “Cutting off the diffraction: a numerical solution in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3125–3127 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Xiao, A. Zayats, J. Siqueiros, “Scattering of surface-plasmon polaritons by dipoles near a surface: optical near-field localization,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 1824–1837 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Xiao, “Evanescent fields do contribute to the far field,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 729–733 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Wolf, J. T. Foley, “Do evanescent waves contribute to the far field,” Opt. Lett. 23, 16–18 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. O. Keller, “Attached and radiated electromagnetic fields of an electric point dipole,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 835–847 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. V. Shchegrov, P. S. Carney, “Far-field contribution of evanescent modes to the electromagnetic Green tensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2583–2584 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. O. Keller, M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Configurational resonances in optical near-field microscopy: a rigorous point-dipole approach,” Surf. Sci. 280, 217–230 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Labani, C. Girard, D. Courjon, D. Van Labeke, “Optical interaction between a dielectric tip and a nanometric lattice: implications for near-field microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 936–943 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Optical spectroscopy of a surface at the nanometer scale: a theoretical study in real space,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 11344–11351 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. Novotny, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Interference of locally excited surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1798–1806 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. Novotny, “Allowed and forbidden light in near-field optics. II. Interacting dipolar particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 105–113 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. T. Draine, P. J. Flatau, “Discrete-dipole approximation for scattering calculations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1491–1499 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Dufour, “Evanescent light scattering: the validity of the dipole approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 2310–2315 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, V. Sandoghdar, “Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source,” Nature 405, 325–328 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. C.-T. Tai, Dyadic Green’s Functions in Electromagnetic Theory (Intext, Scranton, PA, 1971).
  28. P. de Vries, D. V. van Coevorden, A. Lagendijk, “Point scatterers for classical waves,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 447–466 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1980).
  30. N. W. Ashcroft, N. D. Mermin, Solid-State Physics (Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, Pa.1976).
  31. O. Keller, “Screened electromagnetic propagators in nonlocal metal optics,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 3883–3899 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  32. O. Keller, “Tensor–product structure of a new electromagnetic propagator for nonlocal surface optics of metals,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 10588–10607 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. E. Sipe, “New Green-function formalism for surface optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 481–489 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  34. P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  35. C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, M. Devel, “Generation of optical standing waves around mesoscopic surface structures: scattering and light confinement,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 2889–2898 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J.-C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J.-P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

C. Girard, C. Joachim, S. Gauthier, “The physics of the near-field,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 63, 893–938 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, V. Sandoghdar, “Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source,” Nature 405, 325–328 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

T. Setälä, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, “Decomposition of the point-dipole field into homogeneous and evanescent parts,” Phys. Rev. E 59, 1200–1206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Xiao, “Evanescent fields do contribute to the far field,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 729–733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Shchegrov, P. S. Carney, “Far-field contribution of evanescent modes to the electromagnetic Green tensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2583–2584 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Keller, “Attached and radiated electromagnetic fields of an electric point dipole,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 835–847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

E. Wolf, J. T. Foley, “Do evanescent waves contribute to the far field,” Opt. Lett. 23, 16–18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. de Vries, D. V. van Coevorden, A. Lagendijk, “Point scatterers for classical waves,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 447–466 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Dufour, “Evanescent light scattering: the validity of the dipole approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 2310–2315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Xiao, A. Zayats, J. Siqueiros, “Scattering of surface-plasmon polaritons by dipoles near a surface: optical near-field localization,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 1824–1837 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, “Image formation in near-field optics,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133–237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Xiao, “On near-field scanning optical microscopy. Homogeneous and evanescent radiation,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 327–344 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Xiao, “Polarization effects in reflection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 136, 213–218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, “Allowed and forbidden light in near-field optics. II. Interacting dipolar particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 105–113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Interference of locally excited surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1798–1806 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J.-C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J.-P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xiao, “Cutting off the diffraction: a numerical solution in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3125–3127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Xiao, “A study of resolution in optical microscopy: near and far field,” Opt. Commun. 132, 403–409 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Xiao, “Evanescent field coupling of dipole to a surface: configurational resonance at long distances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 363–368 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theories,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, M. Devel, “Generation of optical standing waves around mesoscopic surface structures: scattering and light confinement,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 2889–2898 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

B. T. Draine, P. J. Flatau, “Discrete-dipole approximation for scattering calculations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1491–1499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Optical spectroscopy of a surface at the nanometer scale: a theoretical study in real space,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 11344–11351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, C. Bainier, “Near-field microscopy and near-field optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 57, 989–1028 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

O. Keller, M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Configurational resonances in optical near-field microscopy: a rigorous point-dipole approach,” Surf. Sci. 280, 217–230 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

1989

1988

O. Keller, “Tensor–product structure of a new electromagnetic propagator for nonlocal surface optics of metals,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 10588–10607 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

1986

O. Keller, “Screened electromagnetic propagators in nonlocal metal optics,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 3883–3899 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ashcroft, N. W.

N. W. Ashcroft, N. D. Mermin, Solid-State Physics (Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, Pa.1976).

Bainier, C.

D. Courjon, C. Bainier, “Near-field microscopy and near-field optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 57, 989–1028 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1980).

Bourillot, E.

J.-C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J.-P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S.

O. Keller, M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Configurational resonances in optical near-field microscopy: a rigorous point-dipole approach,” Surf. Sci. 280, 217–230 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, “Image formation in near-field optics,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133–237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carney, P. S.

Chaumet, P. C.

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Dufour, “Evanescent light scattering: the validity of the dipole approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 2310–2315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

J.-C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J.-P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

de Fornel, F.

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Dufour, “Evanescent light scattering: the validity of the dipole approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 2310–2315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Vries, P.

P. de Vries, D. V. van Coevorden, A. Lagendijk, “Point scatterers for classical waves,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 447–466 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

J.-C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J.-P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theories,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, M. Devel, “Generation of optical standing waves around mesoscopic surface structures: scattering and light confinement,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 2889–2898 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Optical spectroscopy of a surface at the nanometer scale: a theoretical study in real space,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 11344–11351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Devel, M.

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, M. Devel, “Generation of optical standing waves around mesoscopic surface structures: scattering and light confinement,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 2889–2898 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Draine, B. T.

Dufour, J.-P.

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Dufour, “Evanescent light scattering: the validity of the dipole approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 2310–2315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flatau, P. J.

Foley, J. T.

Friberg, A. T.

T. Setälä, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, “Decomposition of the point-dipole field into homogeneous and evanescent parts,” Phys. Rev. E 59, 1200–1206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, S.

C. Girard, C. Joachim, S. Gauthier, “The physics of the near-field,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 63, 893–938 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

C. Girard, C. Joachim, S. Gauthier, “The physics of the near-field,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 63, 893–938 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theories,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J.-P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, M. Devel, “Generation of optical standing waves around mesoscopic surface structures: scattering and light confinement,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 2889–2898 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Optical spectroscopy of a surface at the nanometer scale: a theoretical study in real space,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 11344–11351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Labani, C. Girard, D. Courjon, D. Van Labeke, “Optical interaction between a dielectric tip and a nanometric lattice: implications for near-field microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 936–943 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Vigoureux, C. Girard, D. Courjon, “General principles of scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1039–1041 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goudonnet, J.-P.

J.-C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J.-P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greffet, J.-J.

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, “Image formation in near-field optics,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133–237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

L. Novotny, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Interference of locally excited surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1798–1806 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hettich, C.

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, V. Sandoghdar, “Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source,” Nature 405, 325–328 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hori, H.

M. Ohtsu, H. Hori, Near-Field Nano-Optics: From Basic Principles to Nano-Fabrication and Nano-Photonics (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, 1999).

Joachim, C.

C. Girard, C. Joachim, S. Gauthier, “The physics of the near-field,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 63, 893–938 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kaivola, M.

T. Setälä, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, “Decomposition of the point-dipole field into homogeneous and evanescent parts,” Phys. Rev. E 59, 1200–1206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keller, O.

O. Keller, “Attached and radiated electromagnetic fields of an electric point dipole,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 835–847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Keller, M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Configurational resonances in optical near-field microscopy: a rigorous point-dipole approach,” Surf. Sci. 280, 217–230 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O. Keller, “Tensor–product structure of a new electromagnetic propagator for nonlocal surface optics of metals,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 10588–10607 (1988).
[CrossRef]

O. Keller, “Screened electromagnetic propagators in nonlocal metal optics,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 3883–3899 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Labani, B.

Lagendijk, A.

P. de Vries, D. V. van Coevorden, A. Lagendijk, “Point scatterers for classical waves,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 447–466 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, M. Devel, “Generation of optical standing waves around mesoscopic surface structures: scattering and light confinement,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 2889–2898 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mermin, N. D.

N. W. Ashcroft, N. D. Mermin, Solid-State Physics (Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, Pa.1976).

Michaelis, J.

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, V. Sandoghdar, “Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source,” Nature 405, 325–328 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlynek, J.

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, V. Sandoghdar, “Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source,” Nature 405, 325–328 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny, “Allowed and forbidden light in near-field optics. II. Interacting dipolar particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 105–113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Interference of locally excited surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1798–1806 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

M. Ohtsu, H. Hori, Near-Field Nano-Optics: From Basic Principles to Nano-Fabrication and Nano-Photonics (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, 1999).

Pohl, D. W.

L. Novotny, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Interference of locally excited surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1798–1806 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rahmani, A.

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Dufour, “Evanescent light scattering: the validity of the dipole approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 2310–2315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, V. Sandoghdar, “Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source,” Nature 405, 325–328 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Setälä, T.

T. Setälä, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, “Decomposition of the point-dipole field into homogeneous and evanescent parts,” Phys. Rev. E 59, 1200–1206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shchegrov, A. V.

Sipe, J. E.

Siqueiros, J.

M. Xiao, A. Zayats, J. Siqueiros, “Scattering of surface-plasmon polaritons by dipoles near a surface: optical near-field localization,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 1824–1837 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tai, C.-T.

C.-T. Tai, Dyadic Green’s Functions in Electromagnetic Theory (Intext, Scranton, PA, 1971).

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Coevorden, D. V.

P. de Vries, D. V. van Coevorden, A. Lagendijk, “Point scatterers for classical waves,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 447–466 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Van Labeke, D.

Vigoureux, J. M.

Weeber, J.-C.

J.-C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J.-P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

E. Wolf, J. T. Foley, “Do evanescent waves contribute to the far field,” Opt. Lett. 23, 16–18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1980).

Xiao, M.

M. Xiao, “Evanescent fields do contribute to the far field,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 729–733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Xiao, “On near-field scanning optical microscopy. Homogeneous and evanescent radiation,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 327–344 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Xiao, A. Zayats, J. Siqueiros, “Scattering of surface-plasmon polaritons by dipoles near a surface: optical near-field localization,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 1824–1837 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Xiao, “Polarization effects in reflection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 136, 213–218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Xiao, “A study of resolution in optical microscopy: near and far field,” Opt. Commun. 132, 403–409 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Xiao, “Evanescent field coupling of dipole to a surface: configurational resonance at long distances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 363–368 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Xiao, “Cutting off the diffraction: a numerical solution in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3125–3127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Keller, M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Configurational resonances in optical near-field microscopy: a rigorous point-dipole approach,” Surf. Sci. 280, 217–230 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A.

M. Xiao, A. Zayats, J. Siqueiros, “Scattering of surface-plasmon polaritons by dipoles near a surface: optical near-field localization,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 1824–1837 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Xiao, “Cutting off the diffraction: a numerical solution in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3125–3127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

M. Xiao, “Evanescent field coupling of dipole to a surface: configurational resonance at long distances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 363–368 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

L. Novotny, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Interference of locally excited surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1798–1806 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

M. Xiao, “On near-field scanning optical microscopy. Homogeneous and evanescent radiation,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 327–344 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Xiao, “Evanescent fields do contribute to the far field,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 729–733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, V. Sandoghdar, “Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source,” Nature 405, 325–328 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

M. Xiao, “A study of resolution in optical microscopy: near and far field,” Opt. Commun. 132, 403–409 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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