Abstract

We have previously studied how polarization affects the double-pass estimates of the retinal image quality by using an imaging polarimeter [Opt. Lett. 24, 64 (1999)]. A series of 16 images for independent combinations of polarization states in the polarimeter were recorded to obtain the spatially resolved Mueller matrices of the eye. From these matrices, double-pass images of a point source for light with different combinations of incoming (first-pass) and outcoming (second-pass) polarization states were reconstructed and their corresponding modulation transfer functions were calculated. We found that the retinal image or, alternatively, the ocular aberrations, are nearly independent of the state of polarization of the incident light (in the first pass). This means that a significant improvement in the ocular optics by using a specific type of polarized light could not be achieved. However, quite different estimates of the retinal image quality are obtained for combinations of polarization states in both the first and the second passes in the double-pass apparatus.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. F. Flamant, “Étude de la répartition de lumière dans l’image rétinienne d’une fente,” Rev. Opt. 34, 433–459 (1955).
  2. F. W. Campbell, R. W. Gubisch, “Optical quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558–578 (1966).
  3. J. Santamarı́a, P. Artal, J. Bescós, “Determination of the point-spread function of the human eye using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1109–1114 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Artal, R. Navarro, “Monochromatic modulation transfer function of the human eye for different pupil diameters: an analytical expression,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 246–249 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. A. M. Jennings, W. N. Charman, “Off-axis image quality in the human eye,” Vision Res. 21, 445–455 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Artal, M. Ferro, I. Miranda, R. Navarro, “Effects of aging in retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1656–1662 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, I. Miranda, M. Ferro, “Through focus image quality of eyes implanted with monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses,” Opt. Eng. 34, 772–779 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. López-Gil, I. Iglesias, P. Artal, “Retinal image quality in the human eye as a function of the accommodation,” Vision Res. 38, 2897–2907 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. N. Charman, “Optics of the human eye,” in Visual Optics and Instrumentation, Vol. 1 of Vision and Visual Dysfunction, J. R. Cronly-Dillion, ed. (Macmillan, London, 1991), pp. 1–26.
  11. G. J. van Blokland, “Ellipsometry of the human retina in vivo: preservation of polarization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 72–75 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Stanworth, E. J. Naylor, “The polarization optics of the isolated cornea,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 34, 201–211 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. J. Bour, N. J. Lopes Cardozo, “On the birefringence of the living human eye,” Vision Res. 21, 1413–1421 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. J. van Blokland, S. C. Verhelst, “Corneal polarization in the living human eye explained with a biaxial model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 82–90 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. A. Bettelheim, “On the optical anisotropy of lens fiber cells,” Exp. Eye Res. 21, 231–234 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. B. klein Brink, “Birefringence of the human crystalline lens in vivo,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1788–1793 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. S. Brindley, E. N. Willmer, “The reflexion of light from the macular and peripheral fundus oculi in man,” J. Physiol. 116, 350–356 (1952).
    [PubMed]
  18. H. L. de Vries, A. Spoor, R. Jielof, “Properties of the eye with respect to polarized light,” Physica 19, 419–432 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. A. Weale, “Polarized light and the human fundus oculi,” J. Physiol. 186, 925–930 (1966).
  20. R. A. Bone, “The role of the macular pigment in the detection of polarized light,” Vision Res. 20, 213–219 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. F. Hochheimer, H. A. Kues, “Retinal polarization effects,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3811–3818 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. G. J. van Blokland, D. van Norren, “Intensity and polarization of light scattered at small angles from the human fovea,” Vision Res. 26, 485–494 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, R. N. Weinreb, “Spatially resolved birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer assessed with a retinal laser ellipsometer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3730–3735 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. R. Williams, D. H. Brainard, M. J. McMahon, R. Navarro, “Double-pass and interferometric measures of the optical quality of the eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3123–3134 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, J. F. Bille, “Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann–Shack wave-front sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1949–1957 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Liang, D. R. Williams, “Aberrations and retinal image quality of the normal human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2873–2883 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. M. Bueno, P. Artal, “Double-pass imaging polarimetry in the human eye,” Opt. Lett. 24, 64–66 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  28. American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers ANSI Z136.1 (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 1993).
  29. J. M. Bueno, “Measurement of parameters of polarization in the living human eye using imaging polarimetry,” Vision Res. 40, 3791–3799 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1558–1568 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. P. McGuire, R. A. Chipman, “Diffraction image formation in optical systems with polarization aberrations. I: Formulation and example,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1614–1626 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  32. P. Artal, I. Iglesias, N. López-Gil, D. G. Green, “Double-pass measurements of the retinal image quality with unequal entrance and exit pupil sizes and the reversibility of the eye’s optical system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2358–2366 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  33. W. N. Charman, “Reflection of plane-polarized light by the retina,” Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 34, 34–49 (1980).
    [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. M. Bueno, “Measurement of parameters of polarization in the living human eye using imaging polarimetry,” Vision Res. 40, 3791–3799 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

N. López-Gil, I. Iglesias, P. Artal, “Retinal image quality in the human eye as a function of the accommodation,” Vision Res. 38, 2897–2907 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, I. Miranda, M. Ferro, “Through focus image quality of eyes implanted with monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses,” Opt. Eng. 34, 772–779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1558–1568 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, I. Iglesias, N. López-Gil, D. G. Green, “Double-pass measurements of the retinal image quality with unequal entrance and exit pupil sizes and the reversibility of the eye’s optical system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2358–2366 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1987 (2)

1986 (1)

G. J. van Blokland, D. van Norren, “Intensity and polarization of light scattered at small angles from the human fovea,” Vision Res. 26, 485–494 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1982 (1)

1981 (2)

J. A. M. Jennings, W. N. Charman, “Off-axis image quality in the human eye,” Vision Res. 21, 445–455 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Bour, N. J. Lopes Cardozo, “On the birefringence of the living human eye,” Vision Res. 21, 1413–1421 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

R. A. Bone, “The role of the macular pigment in the detection of polarized light,” Vision Res. 20, 213–219 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. N. Charman, “Reflection of plane-polarized light by the retina,” Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 34, 34–49 (1980).
[PubMed]

1975 (1)

F. A. Bettelheim, “On the optical anisotropy of lens fiber cells,” Exp. Eye Res. 21, 231–234 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (2)

R. A. Weale, “Polarized light and the human fundus oculi,” J. Physiol. 186, 925–930 (1966).

F. W. Campbell, R. W. Gubisch, “Optical quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558–578 (1966).

1955 (1)

M. F. Flamant, “Étude de la répartition de lumière dans l’image rétinienne d’une fente,” Rev. Opt. 34, 433–459 (1955).

1953 (1)

H. L. de Vries, A. Spoor, R. Jielof, “Properties of the eye with respect to polarized light,” Physica 19, 419–432 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

G. S. Brindley, E. N. Willmer, “The reflexion of light from the macular and peripheral fundus oculi in man,” J. Physiol. 116, 350–356 (1952).
[PubMed]

1950 (1)

A. Stanworth, E. J. Naylor, “The polarization optics of the isolated cornea,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 34, 201–211 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

J. M. Bueno, P. Artal, “Double-pass imaging polarimetry in the human eye,” Opt. Lett. 24, 64–66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. López-Gil, I. Iglesias, P. Artal, “Retinal image quality in the human eye as a function of the accommodation,” Vision Res. 38, 2897–2907 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, I. Miranda, M. Ferro, “Through focus image quality of eyes implanted with monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses,” Opt. Eng. 34, 772–779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, I. Iglesias, N. López-Gil, D. G. Green, “Double-pass measurements of the retinal image quality with unequal entrance and exit pupil sizes and the reversibility of the eye’s optical system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2358–2366 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, R. Navarro, “Monochromatic modulation transfer function of the human eye for different pupil diameters: an analytical expression,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 246–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, M. Ferro, I. Miranda, R. Navarro, “Effects of aging in retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1656–1662 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Santamarı́a, P. Artal, J. Bescós, “Determination of the point-spread function of the human eye using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1109–1114 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bescós, J.

Bettelheim, F. A.

F. A. Bettelheim, “On the optical anisotropy of lens fiber cells,” Exp. Eye Res. 21, 231–234 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bille, J. F.

Bone, R. A.

R. A. Bone, “The role of the macular pigment in the detection of polarized light,” Vision Res. 20, 213–219 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bour, L. J.

L. J. Bour, N. J. Lopes Cardozo, “On the birefringence of the living human eye,” Vision Res. 21, 1413–1421 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brainard, D. H.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, D. H. Brainard, M. J. McMahon, R. Navarro, “Double-pass and interferometric measures of the optical quality of the eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3123–3134 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, E. N. Willmer, “The reflexion of light from the macular and peripheral fundus oculi in man,” J. Physiol. 116, 350–356 (1952).
[PubMed]

Bueno, J. M.

J. M. Bueno, “Measurement of parameters of polarization in the living human eye using imaging polarimetry,” Vision Res. 40, 3791–3799 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno, P. Artal, “Double-pass imaging polarimetry in the human eye,” Opt. Lett. 24, 64–66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell, R. W. Gubisch, “Optical quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558–578 (1966).

Charman, W. N.

J. A. M. Jennings, W. N. Charman, “Off-axis image quality in the human eye,” Vision Res. 21, 445–455 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. N. Charman, “Reflection of plane-polarized light by the retina,” Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 34, 34–49 (1980).
[PubMed]

W. N. Charman, “Optics of the human eye,” in Visual Optics and Instrumentation, Vol. 1 of Vision and Visual Dysfunction, J. R. Cronly-Dillion, ed. (Macmillan, London, 1991), pp. 1–26.

Chipman, R. A.

de Vries, H. L.

H. L. de Vries, A. Spoor, R. Jielof, “Properties of the eye with respect to polarized light,” Physica 19, 419–432 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Dreher, A. W.

Ferro, M.

P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, I. Miranda, M. Ferro, “Through focus image quality of eyes implanted with monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses,” Opt. Eng. 34, 772–779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, M. Ferro, I. Miranda, R. Navarro, “Effects of aging in retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1656–1662 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flamant, M. F.

M. F. Flamant, “Étude de la répartition de lumière dans l’image rétinienne d’une fente,” Rev. Opt. 34, 433–459 (1955).

Goelz, S.

Green, D. G.

Grimm, B.

Gubisch, R. W.

F. W. Campbell, R. W. Gubisch, “Optical quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558–578 (1966).

Hochheimer, B. F.

Iglesias, I.

Jennings, J. A. M.

J. A. M. Jennings, W. N. Charman, “Off-axis image quality in the human eye,” Vision Res. 21, 445–455 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jielof, R.

H. L. de Vries, A. Spoor, R. Jielof, “Properties of the eye with respect to polarized light,” Physica 19, 419–432 (1953).
[CrossRef]

klein Brink, H. B.

Kues, H. A.

Liang, J.

Lopes Cardozo, N. J.

L. J. Bour, N. J. Lopes Cardozo, “On the birefringence of the living human eye,” Vision Res. 21, 1413–1421 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

López-Gil, N.

Marcos, S.

P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, I. Miranda, M. Ferro, “Through focus image quality of eyes implanted with monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses,” Opt. Eng. 34, 772–779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McGuire, J. P.

McMahon, M. J.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, D. H. Brainard, M. J. McMahon, R. Navarro, “Double-pass and interferometric measures of the optical quality of the eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3123–3134 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miranda, I.

P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, I. Miranda, M. Ferro, “Through focus image quality of eyes implanted with monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses,” Opt. Eng. 34, 772–779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, M. Ferro, I. Miranda, R. Navarro, “Effects of aging in retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1656–1662 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Navarro, R.

Naylor, E. J.

A. Stanworth, E. J. Naylor, “The polarization optics of the isolated cornea,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 34, 201–211 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Pezzaniti, J. L.

J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1558–1568 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reiter, K.

Santamari´a, J.

Spoor, A.

H. L. de Vries, A. Spoor, R. Jielof, “Properties of the eye with respect to polarized light,” Physica 19, 419–432 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Stanworth, A.

A. Stanworth, E. J. Naylor, “The polarization optics of the isolated cornea,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 34, 201–211 (1950).
[CrossRef]

van Blokland, G. J.

van Norren, D.

G. J. van Blokland, D. van Norren, “Intensity and polarization of light scattered at small angles from the human fovea,” Vision Res. 26, 485–494 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhelst, S. C.

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, “Polarized light and the human fundus oculi,” J. Physiol. 186, 925–930 (1966).

Weinreb, R. N.

Williams, D. R.

Willmer, E. N.

G. S. Brindley, E. N. Willmer, “The reflexion of light from the macular and peripheral fundus oculi in man,” J. Physiol. 116, 350–356 (1952).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Br. J. Ophthamol. (1)

A. Stanworth, E. J. Naylor, “The polarization optics of the isolated cornea,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 34, 201–211 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Physiol. Opt. (1)

W. N. Charman, “Reflection of plane-polarized light by the retina,” Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 34, 34–49 (1980).
[PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

F. A. Bettelheim, “On the optical anisotropy of lens fiber cells,” Exp. Eye Res. 21, 231–234 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (11)

P. Artal, R. Navarro, “Monochromatic modulation transfer function of the human eye for different pupil diameters: an analytical expression,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 246–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, J. F. Bille, “Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann–Shack wave-front sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1949–1957 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Williams, D. H. Brainard, M. J. McMahon, R. Navarro, “Double-pass and interferometric measures of the optical quality of the eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3123–3134 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. J. van Blokland, “Ellipsometry of the human retina in vivo: preservation of polarization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 72–75 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, “Aberrations and retinal image quality of the normal human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2873–2883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. van Blokland, S. C. Verhelst, “Corneal polarization in the living human eye explained with a biaxial model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 82–90 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. McGuire, R. A. Chipman, “Diffraction image formation in optical systems with polarization aberrations. I: Formulation and example,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1614–1626 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. B. klein Brink, “Birefringence of the human crystalline lens in vivo,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1788–1793 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, M. Ferro, I. Miranda, R. Navarro, “Effects of aging in retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1656–1662 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Santamarı́a, P. Artal, J. Bescós, “Determination of the point-spread function of the human eye using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1109–1114 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, I. Iglesias, N. López-Gil, D. G. Green, “Double-pass measurements of the retinal image quality with unequal entrance and exit pupil sizes and the reversibility of the eye’s optical system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2358–2366 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Physiol. (2)

R. A. Weale, “Polarized light and the human fundus oculi,” J. Physiol. 186, 925–930 (1966).

G. S. Brindley, E. N. Willmer, “The reflexion of light from the macular and peripheral fundus oculi in man,” J. Physiol. 116, 350–356 (1952).
[PubMed]

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

F. W. Campbell, R. W. Gubisch, “Optical quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558–578 (1966).

Opt. Eng. (2)

P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, I. Miranda, M. Ferro, “Through focus image quality of eyes implanted with monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses,” Opt. Eng. 34, 772–779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1558–1568 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Physica (1)

H. L. de Vries, A. Spoor, R. Jielof, “Properties of the eye with respect to polarized light,” Physica 19, 419–432 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Opt. (1)

M. F. Flamant, “Étude de la répartition de lumière dans l’image rétinienne d’une fente,” Rev. Opt. 34, 433–459 (1955).

Vision Res. (7)

J. M. Bueno, “Measurement of parameters of polarization in the living human eye using imaging polarimetry,” Vision Res. 40, 3791–3799 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bone, “The role of the macular pigment in the detection of polarized light,” Vision Res. 20, 213–219 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. van Blokland, D. van Norren, “Intensity and polarization of light scattered at small angles from the human fovea,” Vision Res. 26, 485–494 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Bour, N. J. Lopes Cardozo, “On the birefringence of the living human eye,” Vision Res. 21, 1413–1421 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. López-Gil, I. Iglesias, P. Artal, “Retinal image quality in the human eye as a function of the accommodation,” Vision Res. 38, 2897–2907 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. M. Jennings, W. N. Charman, “Off-axis image quality in the human eye,” Vision Res. 21, 445–455 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

W. N. Charman, “Optics of the human eye,” in Visual Optics and Instrumentation, Vol. 1 of Vision and Visual Dysfunction, J. R. Cronly-Dillion, ed. (Macmillan, London, 1991), pp. 1–26.

American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers ANSI Z136.1 (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 1993).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified diagram of the MM double-pass imaging polarimeter. L1, L2, and L3, achromatic lenses; AP1 and AP2, apertures acting as stop for the first and the second pass, respectively; PSG, polarization-state generator; PSA, polarization-state analyzer; BS, beam splitter; PP, pupil plane; O, point source; O, retinal image; O, double-pass image.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Series of 16 double-pass retinal images recorded with the polarimeter, corresponding to independent PSG–PSA combinations for subject JB and 2-mm pupil diameter. Each image subtends 59 arc min.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatially resolved MM’s for observer JB. Double-pass images with 2-mm pupil diameter were used. Each image subtends 59 arc min and corresponds to an element of the MM. Gray level ranges from -1 (black) to 1 (white). The MM in Ref. 27 corresponded to subject PA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagrams of the reconstruction of double-pass images for (a) combinations of polarization states in both passes and (b) incident polarization states.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Double-pass images reconstructed for different combinations of polarization states PSG–PSA: H, horizontal; V, vertical; C, right circular. Each image subtends 29 arc min of visual field.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

MTF’s corresponding to the double-pass images of Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Averaged Strehl ratios for reconstructed images (a) for subject JB with six different PSG–PSA polarization states and (b) for three different subjects. Error bars represent standard deviation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Double-pass retinal images reconstructed (for 2-mm pupil diameter) with four different incoming polarization states for two different subjects. Each image subtends 29 arc min.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Best and worst MTF’s (a) for subject JB and (b) averaged for three subjects, with use of only incoming polarization states, for 2-mm (left) and 5-mm (right) pupil diameter.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Averaged Strehl ratios for best and worst MTF’s for three subjects and two different pupil sizes: 2 mm, left scale; 5 mm, right scale. Error bars represent standard deviation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Stokes vectors on the Poincaré sphere that produce images (2-mm pupil diameter) corresponding to both best and worst MTF’s for each subject: (a) AG, (b) JB, (c) PA. PH, P±45, CR, and CL are associated with linear horizontal, 45-deg linear and right- and left-circular polarization states, respectively.

Equations (6)

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S0(mn)Si(mn)S2(mn)S3(mn)=MPSA(n)M00M01M02M03M10M11M12M13M20M21M22M23M30M31M32M33×S(m)=MPSA(n)MMeyeS(m)
IparallelD-P=M00+M01+M10+M11
IcrossedD-P=M00+M01-M10-M11.
S0(m)S1(m)S2(m)S3(m)=MMeye S(m).
SIN=1cos 2χ cos 2ϕsin 2χ cos 2ϕsin 2ϕ,
I(χ, ϕ)(m)=S0(m)=M00+cos 2χ cos 2ϕM01+sin 2χ cos 2ϕM02+sin 2ϕM03.

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