Abstract

With ordinary grating spectrometers, strong bands that are due to broadband coherent light emission from samples containing various amounts of alkali atoms can be observed. The coherent light is proposed to be emitted by the alkali Rydberg states that are easily formed in these systems. The edges of the bands are observed at angles corresponding to low numbers of standing waves along the grating surface and perpendicular to it. This type of band is observed both with thermal sources and with broadband light sources created by pulsed laser light, and it is observed only with s-polarized (TE-mode) light. The band intensities are independent of the entrance slit width in the spectrometer, which shows that strong interference effects exist. The number of interference fringes observed on top of the most intense band is directly proportional to the width of the entrance slit. The time-resolved signal shows that large photon peaks from thermal sources are emitted in bursts within 2 μs, probably corresponding to the lifetime of the emitting Rydberg states and Rydberg clusters.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Wang, K. Engvall, L. Holmlid, “Cluster KN formation by Rydberg collision complex stabilization during scattering of a K beam off zirconia surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 1212–1220 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Engvall, A. Kotarba, L. Holmlid, “Long-range diffusion of K promoter on an iron catalyst surface—ionization of excited potassium species in the sample edge fields,” J. Catal. 181, 256–264 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Wang, L. Holmlid, “Planar clusters of Rydberg matter KN(N=7, 14, 19, 37, 61) detected by multiphoton fragmentation time-of-flight mass spectrometry,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 295, 500–508 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Svensson, L. Holmlid, “Electronic Raman processes in Rydberg matter of Cs: circular Rydberg states in Cs and Cs+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1739–1742 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Holmlid, “Complex kinetics of desorption and diffusion: Field reversal study of K excited-state desorption from graphite layer surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 10636–10646 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Holmlid, “Classical energy calculations with electron correlation of condensed excited states—Rydberg matter,” Chem. Phys. 237, 11–19 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. G. Loewen, E. Popov, Diffraction Gratings and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1997).
  8. E. G. Loewen, “Diffraction gratings, ruled and holographic,” Opt. Eng. 9, 33–71 (1983).
  9. R. Petit, ed., Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
  10. J. E. Stewart, W. S. Gallaway, “Diffraction anomalies in grating spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 1, 421–429 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Hessel, A. A. Oliner, “A new theory of Wood’s anomalies on optical gratings,” Appl. Opt. 4, 1275–1297 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. K. E. Hagopian, “Wood’s diffraction grating anomalies and other factors in explanation of the artifacts in previous spectral emission studies,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 12, 327–330 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W.-D. Mross, “Alkali doping in heterogeneous catalysts,” Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng. 25, 591–637 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Lundin, L. Holmlid, P. G. Menon, L. Nyborg, “Surface composition of iron oxide catalysts used for styrene production: an Auger electron spectroscopy/scanning electron microscopy study,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 32, 2500–2505 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. F. Gallagher, Rydberg Atoms (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1994).

1999

R. Svensson, L. Holmlid, “Electronic Raman processes in Rydberg matter of Cs: circular Rydberg states in Cs and Cs+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1739–1742 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, K. Engvall, L. Holmlid, “Cluster KN formation by Rydberg collision complex stabilization during scattering of a K beam off zirconia surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 1212–1220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Engvall, A. Kotarba, L. Holmlid, “Long-range diffusion of K promoter on an iron catalyst surface—ionization of excited potassium species in the sample edge fields,” J. Catal. 181, 256–264 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Wang, L. Holmlid, “Planar clusters of Rydberg matter KN(N=7, 14, 19, 37, 61) detected by multiphoton fragmentation time-of-flight mass spectrometry,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 295, 500–508 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Holmlid, “Complex kinetics of desorption and diffusion: Field reversal study of K excited-state desorption from graphite layer surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 10636–10646 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Holmlid, “Classical energy calculations with electron correlation of condensed excited states—Rydberg matter,” Chem. Phys. 237, 11–19 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. Lundin, L. Holmlid, P. G. Menon, L. Nyborg, “Surface composition of iron oxide catalysts used for styrene production: an Auger electron spectroscopy/scanning electron microscopy study,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 32, 2500–2505 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1983

E. G. Loewen, “Diffraction gratings, ruled and holographic,” Opt. Eng. 9, 33–71 (1983).

W.-D. Mross, “Alkali doping in heterogeneous catalysts,” Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng. 25, 591–637 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1971

A. K. E. Hagopian, “Wood’s diffraction grating anomalies and other factors in explanation of the artifacts in previous spectral emission studies,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 12, 327–330 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1965

1962

Engvall, K.

J. Wang, K. Engvall, L. Holmlid, “Cluster KN formation by Rydberg collision complex stabilization during scattering of a K beam off zirconia surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 1212–1220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Engvall, A. Kotarba, L. Holmlid, “Long-range diffusion of K promoter on an iron catalyst surface—ionization of excited potassium species in the sample edge fields,” J. Catal. 181, 256–264 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, T. F.

T. F. Gallagher, Rydberg Atoms (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1994).

Gallaway, W. S.

Hagopian, A. K. E.

A. K. E. Hagopian, “Wood’s diffraction grating anomalies and other factors in explanation of the artifacts in previous spectral emission studies,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 12, 327–330 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hessel, A.

Holmlid, L.

K. Engvall, A. Kotarba, L. Holmlid, “Long-range diffusion of K promoter on an iron catalyst surface—ionization of excited potassium species in the sample edge fields,” J. Catal. 181, 256–264 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Svensson, L. Holmlid, “Electronic Raman processes in Rydberg matter of Cs: circular Rydberg states in Cs and Cs+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1739–1742 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, K. Engvall, L. Holmlid, “Cluster KN formation by Rydberg collision complex stabilization during scattering of a K beam off zirconia surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 1212–1220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, L. Holmlid, “Planar clusters of Rydberg matter KN(N=7, 14, 19, 37, 61) detected by multiphoton fragmentation time-of-flight mass spectrometry,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 295, 500–508 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Holmlid, “Classical energy calculations with electron correlation of condensed excited states—Rydberg matter,” Chem. Phys. 237, 11–19 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Holmlid, “Complex kinetics of desorption and diffusion: Field reversal study of K excited-state desorption from graphite layer surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 10636–10646 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lundin, L. Holmlid, P. G. Menon, L. Nyborg, “Surface composition of iron oxide catalysts used for styrene production: an Auger electron spectroscopy/scanning electron microscopy study,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 32, 2500–2505 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kotarba, A.

K. Engvall, A. Kotarba, L. Holmlid, “Long-range diffusion of K promoter on an iron catalyst surface—ionization of excited potassium species in the sample edge fields,” J. Catal. 181, 256–264 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Loewen, E. G.

E. G. Loewen, “Diffraction gratings, ruled and holographic,” Opt. Eng. 9, 33–71 (1983).

E. G. Loewen, E. Popov, Diffraction Gratings and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1997).

Lundin, J.

J. Lundin, L. Holmlid, P. G. Menon, L. Nyborg, “Surface composition of iron oxide catalysts used for styrene production: an Auger electron spectroscopy/scanning electron microscopy study,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 32, 2500–2505 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Menon, P. G.

J. Lundin, L. Holmlid, P. G. Menon, L. Nyborg, “Surface composition of iron oxide catalysts used for styrene production: an Auger electron spectroscopy/scanning electron microscopy study,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 32, 2500–2505 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mross, W.-D.

W.-D. Mross, “Alkali doping in heterogeneous catalysts,” Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng. 25, 591–637 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nyborg, L.

J. Lundin, L. Holmlid, P. G. Menon, L. Nyborg, “Surface composition of iron oxide catalysts used for styrene production: an Auger electron spectroscopy/scanning electron microscopy study,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 32, 2500–2505 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Oliner, A. A.

Popov, E.

E. G. Loewen, E. Popov, Diffraction Gratings and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1997).

Stewart, J. E.

Svensson, R.

R. Svensson, L. Holmlid, “Electronic Raman processes in Rydberg matter of Cs: circular Rydberg states in Cs and Cs+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1739–1742 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, K. Engvall, L. Holmlid, “Cluster KN formation by Rydberg collision complex stabilization during scattering of a K beam off zirconia surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 1212–1220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, L. Holmlid, “Planar clusters of Rydberg matter KN(N=7, 14, 19, 37, 61) detected by multiphoton fragmentation time-of-flight mass spectrometry,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 295, 500–508 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng.

W.-D. Mross, “Alkali doping in heterogeneous catalysts,” Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng. 25, 591–637 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys.

L. Holmlid, “Classical energy calculations with electron correlation of condensed excited states—Rydberg matter,” Chem. Phys. 237, 11–19 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

J. Wang, L. Holmlid, “Planar clusters of Rydberg matter KN(N=7, 14, 19, 37, 61) detected by multiphoton fragmentation time-of-flight mass spectrometry,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 295, 500–508 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. K. E. Hagopian, “Wood’s diffraction grating anomalies and other factors in explanation of the artifacts in previous spectral emission studies,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 12, 327–330 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.

J. Lundin, L. Holmlid, P. G. Menon, L. Nyborg, “Surface composition of iron oxide catalysts used for styrene production: an Auger electron spectroscopy/scanning electron microscopy study,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 32, 2500–2505 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Catal.

K. Engvall, A. Kotarba, L. Holmlid, “Long-range diffusion of K promoter on an iron catalyst surface—ionization of excited potassium species in the sample edge fields,” J. Catal. 181, 256–264 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

J. Wang, K. Engvall, L. Holmlid, “Cluster KN formation by Rydberg collision complex stabilization during scattering of a K beam off zirconia surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 1212–1220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A

L. Holmlid, “Complex kinetics of desorption and diffusion: Field reversal study of K excited-state desorption from graphite layer surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 10636–10646 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

E. G. Loewen, “Diffraction gratings, ruled and holographic,” Opt. Eng. 9, 33–71 (1983).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. Svensson, L. Holmlid, “Electronic Raman processes in Rydberg matter of Cs: circular Rydberg states in Cs and Cs+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1739–1742 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Petit, ed., Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

E. G. Loewen, E. Popov, Diffraction Gratings and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1997).

T. F. Gallagher, Rydberg Atoms (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1994).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified geometry used for the derivation of the optical path length difference, given in Eq. (2).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the conditions for the formation of the 3/2 band. See also Eq. (3).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Bands visible from a Cs layer on stainless steel in a vacuum of 1×10-5 mbar, with incident pulsed laser light from a dye laser with 5-ns pulses at 565 nm. The bands with notation given in parentheses have not been studied in detail. The grating used has 1800 grooves/mm. Slit widths were 50 μm (entrance) and 0.1 mm (exit). The laser line intensity in this figure is too low because of saturation in the photomultiplier.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Bands labeled 3/2 and 4/3 (see text and Table 1 below) observed with a pulsed dye laser incident upon a Cs layer on stainless steel. The grating used has 1800 grooves/mm, and the vacuum in the chamber was 8×10-5 mbar. The slits in the spectrometer were 0.5 mm wide.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Bands indicated 1/4 and 1/3 (see text and Table 1 below) observed with a pulsed dye laser incident upon a piece of K metal. The grating used has 600 grooves/mm, and the vacuum in the chamber was 1×10-5 mbar. The photomultiplier has a sensitivity range of 185–900 nm, and the ZnS window in the chamber wall transmits in the range of 0.37–13.5 μm. The entrance slit was 20 μm; the exit slit, 0.1 mm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Band labeled 3/2 on top of a thermal distribution at 1500 K from a heated Mo foil in a vacuum of 1×10-5 mbar. The thermal distribution has its maximum in the IR region. The decrease of the signal toward longer wavelengths is due to decreased sensitivity of the photomultiplier. Two different entrance slit widths are used, as indicated. The exit slit was 0.2 mm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Band labeled 3/2 from Cs on stainless steel, with an incident pulsed dye laser. The pressure was <1×10-5 mbar. The entrance slit width is the parameter. The exit slit was 0.1 mm wide. The vertical scale is the same for all spectra.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Band labeled 3/2 from Cs on stainless steel, with an incident pulsed dye laser. The atmosphere was 1 bar of air. Both slits were 0.1 mm wide.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

3/2 band from a heated Mo foil in a vacuum of 1×10-5 mbar. With only p-polarized light entering the spectrometer (dichroic sheet polarizer), the band disappears. The p-polarized spectrum is shifted down from its true position, which coincides with the s-polarized curve, to increase visibility.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Large photomultiplier pulses at 750 nm from a heated Mo foil observed directly with a digital oscilloscope. 16 sweeps were averaged in envelope mode. The largest pulses come last, and all pulses arrive bunched within a 2-μs period. See text for further details.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Edges of the Four Main Bands Observed: the First Two for the Grating with 1800 mm-1, the Final Two for that with 600 mm-1

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

l2=d2+b2-2db cos(π/2-ϕ+θ+φ)
Δ=sbdcos(ϕ-θ).
tan D=nλmλ=nm,D=θ-ϕ,

Metrics