Abstract

We establish the most general differential equations that are satisfied by the Fourier components of the electromagnetic field diffracted by an arbitrary periodic anisotropic medium. The equations are derived by use of the recently published fast-Fourier-factorization (FFF) method, which ensures fast convergence of the Fourier series of the field. The diffraction by classic isotropic gratings arises as a particular case of the derived equations; the case of anisotropic classic gratings was published elsewhere. The equations can be resolved either through classic differential theory or through the modal method for particular groove profiles. The new equations improve both methods in the same way. Crossed gratings, among which are grids and two-dimensional arbitrarily shaped periodic surfaces, appear as particular cases of the theory, as do three-dimensional photonic crystals. The method can be extended to nonperiodic media through the use of a Fourier transform.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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