Abstract

Spectral luminous efficiency function for a 2-deg field at a photopic level (100 Td) was measured for 91 observers by flicker photometry (FP) and for 97 observers by direct brightness matching (DBM), to find age-related change in the efficiency function as well as to obtain a reliable data set to be used in photometry. Observers ranged in age from 11 to 78 years. A gradual reduction of luminous efficiency with age was observed for both functions by FP and by DBM in the short-wave region, which was expected because of the age-related increase of optical density of eye lens. A similar age-related reduction of efficiency was observed in the long-wave region for the function obtained by DBM; this reduction was regarded as being due to reduced chromatic contribution to brightness with age. Principal components analysis on the spectral efficiency data and an analysis of the efficiency difference between the data obtained by DBM and FP confirmed this conclusion. Assuming a log-linear change in efficiency with age for any wavelength throughout the life span, spectral luminous efficiency function at any age was derived for photometric use.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. S. Said, R. A. Weale, “The variation with age of the spectral transmissivity of the living human crystalline lens,” Gerontologia 3, 213–231 (1959).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. H. Ruddock, “The effect of age upon colour vision—II. Changes with age in light transmission on the ocular media,” Vision Res. 5, 47–58 (1965).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Yaguchi, A. Kawada, S. Shioiri, Y. Miyake, “Individual differences of the contribution of chromatic channels to brightness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1373–1379 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1994 (2)

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

J. M. Kraft, J. S. Werner, “Spectral efficiency across the life span: flicker photometry and brightness matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1213–1221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

M. Ikeda, J. Ikeda, M. Ayama, “Specification of individual variation in luminous efficiency for brightness,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 31–44 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,” J. Physiol. (London) 395, 577–587 (1988).

1987 (2)

1982 (1)

1974 (1)

D. V. Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1243 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

J. Mellerio, “Light absorption and scatter in the human lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

K. H. Ruddock, “The effect of age upon colour vision—II. Changes with age in light transmission on the ocular media,” Vision Res. 5, 47–58 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1959 (1)

F. S. Said, R. A. Weale, “The variation with age of the spectral transmissivity of the living human crystalline lens,” Gerontologia 3, 213–231 (1959).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayama, M.

M. Ikeda, J. Ikeda, M. Ayama, “Specification of individual variation in luminous efficiency for brightness,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 31–44 (1992).
[CrossRef]

de Monasterio, F. M.

Elliott, D. B.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

Higgins, K. E.

Hynes, R.

Ikeda, J.

M. Ikeda, J. Ikeda, M. Ayama, “Specification of individual variation in luminous efficiency for brightness,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 31–44 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, M.

M. Ikeda, J. Ikeda, M. Ayama, “Specification of individual variation in luminous efficiency for brightness,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 31–44 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kawada, A.

Knoblausch, K.

Kraft, J. M.

Kusuda, M.

Lutze, M.

Mellerio, J.

J. Mellerio, “Light absorption and scatter in the human lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyake, Y.

Norren, D. V.

D. V. Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1243 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, N. J.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

Podgor, M.

Pokorny, J.

Ruddock, K. H.

K. H. Ruddock, “The effect of age upon colour vision—II. Changes with age in light transmission on the ocular media,” Vision Res. 5, 47–58 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Said, F. S.

F. S. Said, R. A. Weale, “The variation with age of the spectral transmissivity of the living human crystalline lens,” Gerontologia 3, 213–231 (1959).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, F.

Shioiri, S.

Smith, V. C.

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1982), pp. 394–396.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, (Wiley, New York, 1982), pp. 107–112.

Vos, J. J.

D. V. Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1243 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,” J. Physiol. (London) 395, 577–587 (1988).

F. S. Said, R. A. Weale, “The variation with age of the spectral transmissivity of the living human crystalline lens,” Gerontologia 3, 213–231 (1959).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

Whitaker, D.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

Winn, B.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1982), pp. 394–396.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, (Wiley, New York, 1982), pp. 107–112.

Yaguchi, H.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Color Res. Appl. (1)

M. Ikeda, J. Ikeda, M. Ayama, “Specification of individual variation in luminous efficiency for brightness,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 31–44 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gerontologia (1)

F. S. Said, R. A. Weale, “The variation with age of the spectral transmissivity of the living human crystalline lens,” Gerontologia 3, 213–231 (1959).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,” J. Physiol. (London) 395, 577–587 (1988).

Vision Res. (3)

K. H. Ruddock, “The effect of age upon colour vision—II. Changes with age in light transmission on the ocular media,” Vision Res. 5, 47–58 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mellerio, “Light absorption and scatter in the human lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1243 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, (Wiley, New York, 1982), pp. 107–112.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1982), pp. 394–396.

Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage (CIE) 1988 “2° spectral luminous efficiency function for photopic vision,” (CIE, Vienna, 1990).

Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage, “Spectral luminous efficiency functions based upon brightness matching for monochromatic point sources, 2° and 10° fields,” (CIE, Vienna, 1988).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Averaged spectral luminous efficiency functions obtained by the (a) FP and (b) DBM method for seven age groups. The lower panel in each figure shows the difference of each group from the function for the 20–29 age group.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reduction in luminous efficiency per year as a function of wavelength for (a) FP and (b) DBM. Circles indicate the efficiency change rate calculated from the difference data among seven age groups as shown in Figs. 1(a) and 1(b). Triangles are the slopes of a linear regression curve in a log efficiency versus age curve for each wavelength (see Figs. 3 and 4). Dashed curves are the Pokorny–Smith–Lutze11 age-related change function of the eye lens density with appropriate multiplying factors to fit the present data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Log luminous efficiency data of individual observers as a function of age for wavelengths of (a) 430 nm and (b) 680 nm. Data for 91 observers are plotted for FP (circles) and for 97 observers for DBM (pluses). Solid and dotted lines are log-linear regression lines for the FP and DBM data respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Slope value of a log-linear regression curve as a function of wavelength for the FP (circles) and for the DBM data (pluses). The slope shows log luminous efficiency change per year as indicated in the ordinate. Solid and dotted curves are regression curves of the second-order polynomial functions to fit the data for two separate regions, 410–570 nm and 570–700 nm, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral luminous efficiency functions estimated from the efficiency change rate with age and the averaged function of observers in the sixties group for (a) FP and (b) DBM. The functions are calculated and shown for seven ages from 15 (solid curve) to 75 (dotted curve) years in 10-year steps.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the estimated luminous efficiency function from 15 to 75 years in 10-year steps with the CIE functions. (a) FP function (thin dotted curves) compared with CIE V(λ) (solid curve) and Judd modification VM(λ) (thick dotted curve). (b) DBM function (thin dotted curves) compared with the CIE Vb,2(λ) function (solid curve).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relative spectral radiance distributions of an example used for assessment of light in terms of luminance contrast calculated by using spectral luminous efficiency functions of the younger and the older groups.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Results of PCA applied to the data obtained by FP. (a) Component loadings for the first (solid curve) and the second (dotted curve) principal component. The dotted-dashed curve shows the lens density function (Pokorny et al.)11 adjusted to fit the first principal component loading for comparison. (b) Component scores of individual observers for the first (open circles) and the second (solid circles) component as a function of age.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Same as Fig. 8 but for the data obtained by DBM.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Difference in log luminous efficiency between the DBM and FP data for each of seven age groups. The data are obtained by averaging over individual observers who participated in both FP and DBM measurements in each age group.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Correlation Coefficients among the Six Efficiency Difference Functions Computed for Each Decade As the Difference from the Averaged Function of the 20–29 Group As Shown in the Bottom Panels of Figs. 1(a) and 1(b)

Equations (7)

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log Sλ=0.1 log Sλ-20+0.2 log Sλ-10+0.4 log Sλ+0.2 log Sλ+10+0.1 log Sλ+20(forλ=440to680nm),
log Sλ=0.25 log Sλ-10+0.5 log Sλ+0.25 log Sλ+10(forλ=430and690nm),
log Sλ=log Sλ(forλ=420and700nm),
log Sλ,a=log Sλ,0+(a-64.9)αλ,
log Sb,λ,a=log Sb,λ,0+(a-65.1)βλ,
LC=kEC,λ×V(λ)a,LB=kEB,λ×V(λ)a,
r=(LC-LB)/(LC+LB),

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