Abstract

The intensity distribution of an initially plane light wave incident on planar and conical surface cracks is calculated numerically by using a wave propagation computer code. The results show that light intensity enhancements caused by interference of internal reflections at the crack and the surface are very sensitive to the light polarization, the beam angle of incidence, and the crack geometry (e.g., crack width and orientation with the surface). The light intensity enhancement factor (LIEF) can locally reach 2 orders of magnitude for conical cracks of ideal shape. The electric field direction relative to the crack surfaces determines the light intensity profile around the crack. For normal-incidence illumination on the output surface, total internal reflection at the crack and the surface can occur and leads to higher LIEFs. For identical geometry and illumination conditions, a crack located on the entrance surface of an optic generates electric field enhancements that are weaker than those on the exit surface. As cracks on polished surfaces are randomly oriented, the probability for large intensity enhancements to occur is high. The model is able to predict quantitatively the magnitude of surface laser-induced damage threshold drop and damage propagation enhancement in dielectric materials that are due to cracks.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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1999 (1)

T. Kamimura, K. Nakai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, Y. Okada, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kojima, K. Yoshida, “High damage resistivity of optical surface for UV lasers by ion beam etching,” Rev. Laser Eng. 27, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

R. Guerrieri, K. H. Tadros, J. Gamelin, A. Neureuther, “Massively parallel algorithms for scattering in optical lithography,” IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. 10, 1091–1100 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

N. C. Kerr, D. C. Emmony, “The effect of laser annealing on laser-induced damage threshold,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 787–802 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

F. Rainer, E. A. Hildum, “Review of UV laser damage measurements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” NIST (Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.) Spec. Publ. 756, 74–84 (1988).

L. D. Merkle, D. Kitriotis, “Temperature dependence of laser-induced bulk damage in SiO2 and borosilicate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1473–1482 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54, 601–606 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

P. A. Temple, S. C. Seitel, D. L. Cate, “CO2 laser polishing of fused silica:recent progress,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 669, 130–137 (1984).

H. Vora, W. H. Lowdermilk, J. E. Swain, “Effect of surface finishing on the damage threshold of fused silica at 1.06 µm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 669, 146–150 (1984).

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

P. A. Temple, D. Milam, W. H. Lowdermilk, “CO2-laser polishing of fused silica surfaces for increased laser damage resistance at 1.06 µm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 620, 229–236 (1981).

1978 (1)

W. L. Smith, “Laser-induced breakdown in optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 489–503 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, “Correlation of laser-induced damage with surface structure and preparation techniques of several optical glasses at 1.06 µm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 462, 305–320 (1976).

1975 (2)

B. Lawn, R. Wilshaw, “Review, indentation fracture: principles and applications,” J. Mater. Sci. 10, 1049–1081 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Wood, R. T. Taylor, R. L. Rouse, “Laser damage in optical materials at 1.06 µm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 7, 105–111 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (3)

D. Milam, R. A. Bradbury, R. H. Picard, M. Baes, “Laser-damage-mechanism identification by the measurement of survival times,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 414, 169–178 (1974).

N. Bloembergen, “Laser-induced electric breakdown in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 375–386 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Ringlien, N. L. Boling, G. Dubé, “An acid treatment for raising the surface damage threshold of laser glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 598–600 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (3)

1972 (2)

N. L. Boling, G. Dubé, “Morphological asymmetry in laser damage of transparent dielectric surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 487–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Giuliano, “Ion beam polishing as a means of increasing surface damage thresholds in sapphire,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 372, 55–57 (1972).

1969 (2)

E. S. Bliss, “Laser-damage mechanisms in transparent dielectrics,” Am. Soc. Test. Mater. Spec. Tech. Publ. 469, 9–20 (1969).

N. I. Alekseev, N. V. Volkova, T. V. Stepanova, L. M. Shestopalov, “Surface damage of lithium fluoride single crystals by laser radiation,” Fiz. Tverd. Tela 11, 2720–2723 (1969).

1921 (1)

A. A. Griffith, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 221, 163 (1921).
[CrossRef]

Alekseev, N. I.

N. I. Alekseev, N. V. Volkova, T. V. Stepanova, L. M. Shestopalov, “Surface damage of lithium fluoride single crystals by laser radiation,” Fiz. Tverd. Tela 11, 2720–2723 (1969).

Baes, M.

D. Milam, R. A. Bradbury, R. H. Picard, M. Baes, “Laser-damage-mechanism identification by the measurement of survival times,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 414, 169–178 (1974).

Battersby, C. L.

C. L. Battersby, L. M. Sheehan, M. R. Kozlowski, “Effects of wet etch processing on laser-induced damage of fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 446–455 (1999).

Bettis, J. R.

R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, “Efficacy of ion polishing optical surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1486–1488 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, “Correlation of laser-induced damage with surface structure and preparation techniques of several optical glasses at 1.06 µm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 462, 305–320 (1976).

Bliss, E. S.

E. S. Bliss, “Laser-damage mechanisms in transparent dielectrics,” Am. Soc. Test. Mater. Spec. Tech. Publ. 469, 9–20 (1969).

Bloembergen, N.

Boling, N. L.

J. A. Ringlien, N. L. Boling, G. Dubé, “An acid treatment for raising the surface damage threshold of laser glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 598–600 (1974).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Boling, G. Dubé, M. D. Crisp, “Laser surface damage studies on several glasses,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 387, 69–79 (1973).

N. L. Boling, G. Dubé, “Morphological asymmetry in laser damage of transparent dielectric surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 487–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, J. D.

T. J. Magee, C. S. Leung, F. D. J. Orazio, J. D. Boyer, B. R. Mauro, V. E. Sanders, “The effect of subsurface defects on ‘incipient’ (below threshold) laser damage nucleation in fused silica optical flats,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1438, 230–238 (1989).

Bradbury, R. A.

D. Milam, R. A. Bradbury, R. H. Picard, M. Baes, “Laser-damage-mechanism identification by the measurement of survival times,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 414, 169–178 (1974).

Brown, N. J.

A. A. Tesar, N. J. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on laser damage of coated surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 154–172 (1991).

Brusasco, R. M.

F. Rainer, R. M. Brusasco, J. H. Campbell, F. P. De Marco, R. P. Gonzales, M. R. Kozlowski, F. P. Milanovich, A. J. Morgan, M. S. Scrivener, M. C. Staggs, I. M. Thomas, S. P. Velsko, C. R. Wolfe, “Damage measurements on optical materials for use in high-peak-power lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1438, 74–83 (1990).

Camp, D. W.

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. A. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. G. Raether, I. M. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 356–364 (1998).

J. Yoshiyama, F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, I. M. Thomas, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, I. D. Hutcheon, D. W. Camp, “Effects of polishing, etching, cleaving, and water leaching on the UV laser damage of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, H. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 331–340 (1998).

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).

Campbell, J. H.

F. Rainer, R. M. Brusasco, J. H. Campbell, F. P. De Marco, R. P. Gonzales, M. R. Kozlowski, F. P. Milanovich, A. J. Morgan, M. S. Scrivener, M. C. Staggs, I. M. Thomas, S. P. Velsko, C. R. Wolfe, “Damage measurements on optical materials for use in high-peak-power lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1438, 74–83 (1990).

Carr, J.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).

Cate, D. L.

P. A. Temple, S. C. Seitel, D. L. Cate, “CO2 laser polishing of fused silica:recent progress,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 669, 130–137 (1984).

Chase, L. L.

L. L. Chase, “Laser ablation and optical surface damage,” in Laser Ablation, J. C. Miller, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), Vol. 28, pp. 53–82.

Crisp, M. D.

N. L. Boling, G. Dubé, M. D. Crisp, “Laser surface damage studies on several glasses,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 387, 69–79 (1973).

Cumbo, M. J.

De Marco, F. P.

F. Rainer, R. M. Brusasco, J. H. Campbell, F. P. De Marco, R. P. Gonzales, M. R. Kozlowski, F. P. Milanovich, A. J. Morgan, M. S. Scrivener, M. C. Staggs, I. M. Thomas, S. P. Velsko, C. R. Wolfe, “Damage measurements on optical materials for use in high-peak-power lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1438, 74–83 (1990).

Dijon, J.

F. Y. Génin, L. M. Sheehan, J. Yoshiyama, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, “Statistical study of UV-laser-induced failure of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 155–163 (1998).

J. Hue, J. Dijon, P. Lyan, “The CMO YAG laser damage test facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1995, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 102–113 (1996).

Dovik, M.

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. A. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. G. Raether, I. M. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 356–364 (1998).

Dubé, G.

J. A. Ringlien, N. L. Boling, G. Dubé, “An acid treatment for raising the surface damage threshold of laser glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 598–600 (1974).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Boling, G. Dubé, M. D. Crisp, “Laser surface damage studies on several glasses,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 387, 69–79 (1973).

N. L. Boling, G. Dubé, “Morphological asymmetry in laser damage of transparent dielectric surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 487–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Emmony, D. C.

N. C. Kerr, D. C. Emmony, “The effect of laser annealing on laser-induced damage threshold,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 787–802 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fairhurst, D.

Gamelin, J.

R. Guerrieri, K. H. Tadros, J. Gamelin, A. Neureuther, “Massively parallel algorithms for scattering in optical lithography,” IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. 10, 1091–1100 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Gamelin, “Simulation of topography scattering for optical lithography with the connection machine,” M. S. thesis (University of California, Berkeley, California, 1989).

Garrec, P.

F. Y. Génin, L. M. Sheehan, J. Yoshiyama, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, “Statistical study of UV-laser-induced failure of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 155–163 (1998).

Génin, F.

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T. J. Magee, C. S. Leung, F. D. J. Orazio, J. D. Boyer, B. R. Mauro, V. E. Sanders, “The effect of subsurface defects on ‘incipient’ (below threshold) laser damage nucleation in fused silica optical flats,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1438, 230–238 (1989).

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F. Rainer, R. M. Brusasco, J. H. Campbell, F. P. De Marco, R. P. Gonzales, M. R. Kozlowski, F. P. Milanovich, A. J. Morgan, M. S. Scrivener, M. C. Staggs, I. M. Thomas, S. P. Velsko, C. R. Wolfe, “Damage measurements on optical materials for use in high-peak-power lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1438, 74–83 (1990).

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Sheehan, L.

L. Sheehan, M. Kozlowski, C. Stolz, F. Génin, M. Runkel, S. Schwartz, J. Hue, “Large area damage testing of optics,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1995, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 357–369 (1996).

Sheehan, L. M.

F. Y. Génin, L. M. Sheehan, J. Yoshiyama, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, “Statistical study of UV-laser-induced failure of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 155–163 (1998).

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. A. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. G. Raether, I. M. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 356–364 (1998).

C. L. Battersby, L. M. Sheehan, M. R. Kozlowski, “Effects of wet etch processing on laser-induced damage of fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 446–455 (1999).

J. Yoshiyama, F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, I. M. Thomas, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, I. D. Hutcheon, D. W. Camp, “Effects of polishing, etching, cleaving, and water leaching on the UV laser damage of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, H. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 331–340 (1998).

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).

Shestopalov, L. M.

N. I. Alekseev, N. V. Volkova, T. V. Stepanova, L. M. Shestopalov, “Surface damage of lithium fluoride single crystals by laser radiation,” Fiz. Tverd. Tela 11, 2720–2723 (1969).

Smith, D. J.

A. L. Rigatti, D. J. Smith, A. W. Schmid, S. Papernov, J. H. Kelly, “Damage in fused-silica spatial-filter lenses on the OMEGA laser system,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 472–479 (1999).

A. L. Rigatti, D. J. Smith, “Status of optics on the OMEGA laser after 18 months of operation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 441–450 (1997).

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, “Laser-induced breakdown in optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 489–503 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Staggs, M. C.

F. Rainer, R. M. Brusasco, J. H. Campbell, F. P. De Marco, R. P. Gonzales, M. R. Kozlowski, F. P. Milanovich, A. J. Morgan, M. S. Scrivener, M. C. Staggs, I. M. Thomas, S. P. Velsko, C. R. Wolfe, “Damage measurements on optical materials for use in high-peak-power lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1438, 74–83 (1990).

Stepanova, T. V.

N. I. Alekseev, N. V. Volkova, T. V. Stepanova, L. M. Shestopalov, “Surface damage of lithium fluoride single crystals by laser radiation,” Fiz. Tverd. Tela 11, 2720–2723 (1969).

Stevens, H. J.

J. C. Lambropoulos, B. E. Gillman, Z. Yiyang, S. D. Jacobs, H. J. Stevens, “Glass-ceramics: deterministic microgrinding, lapping, and polishing,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 178–189 (1997).

Stolz, C.

L. Sheehan, M. Kozlowski, C. Stolz, F. Génin, M. Runkel, S. Schwartz, J. Hue, “Large area damage testing of optics,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1995, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 357–369 (1996).

Stolz, C. J.

A. A. Tesar, N. J. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on laser damage of coated surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 154–172 (1991).

A. Salleo, F. Y. Génin, J. Yoshiyama, C. J. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, “Laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm initiated at scratches,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 341–347 (1998).

Swain, J. E.

H. Vora, W. H. Lowdermilk, J. E. Swain, “Effect of surface finishing on the damage threshold of fused silica at 1.06 µm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 669, 146–150 (1984).

Tadros, K. H.

R. Guerrieri, K. H. Tadros, J. Gamelin, A. Neureuther, “Massively parallel algorithms for scattering in optical lithography,” IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. 10, 1091–1100 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

T. Kamimura, K. Nakai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, Y. Okada, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kojima, K. Yoshida, “High damage resistivity of optical surface for UV lasers by ion beam etching,” Rev. Laser Eng. 27, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

A. A. Tesar, N. J. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on laser damage of coated surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 154–172 (1991).

Taylor, R. T.

R. M. Wood, R. T. Taylor, R. L. Rouse, “Laser damage in optical materials at 1.06 µm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 7, 105–111 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Temple, P. A.

P. A. Temple, S. C. Seitel, D. L. Cate, “CO2 laser polishing of fused silica:recent progress,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 669, 130–137 (1984).

P. A. Temple, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, “Carbon dioxide laser polishing of fused silica surfaces for increased laser-damage resistance at 1064 nm,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3249–3255 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Temple, D. Milam, W. H. Lowdermilk, “CO2-laser polishing of fused silica surfaces for increased laser damage resistance at 1.06 µm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 620, 229–236 (1981).

Tesar, A. A.

A. A. Tesar, N. J. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on laser damage of coated surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 154–172 (1991).

Thomas, I. M.

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. A. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. G. Raether, I. M. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 356–364 (1998).

F. Rainer, R. M. Brusasco, J. H. Campbell, F. P. De Marco, R. P. Gonzales, M. R. Kozlowski, F. P. Milanovich, A. J. Morgan, M. S. Scrivener, M. C. Staggs, I. M. Thomas, S. P. Velsko, C. R. Wolfe, “Damage measurements on optical materials for use in high-peak-power lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1438, 74–83 (1990).

J. Yoshiyama, F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, I. M. Thomas, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, I. D. Hutcheon, D. W. Camp, “Effects of polishing, etching, cleaving, and water leaching on the UV laser damage of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, H. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 331–340 (1998).

Torres, R.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).

Velsko, S. P.

F. Rainer, R. M. Brusasco, J. H. Campbell, F. P. De Marco, R. P. Gonzales, M. R. Kozlowski, F. P. Milanovich, A. J. Morgan, M. S. Scrivener, M. C. Staggs, I. M. Thomas, S. P. Velsko, C. R. Wolfe, “Damage measurements on optical materials for use in high-peak-power lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1438, 74–83 (1990).

Volkova, N. V.

N. I. Alekseev, N. V. Volkova, T. V. Stepanova, L. M. Shestopalov, “Surface damage of lithium fluoride single crystals by laser radiation,” Fiz. Tverd. Tela 11, 2720–2723 (1969).

Vora, H.

H. Vora, W. H. Lowdermilk, J. E. Swain, “Effect of surface finishing on the damage threshold of fused silica at 1.06 µm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 669, 146–150 (1984).

Wilshaw, R.

B. Lawn, R. Wilshaw, “Review, indentation fracture: principles and applications,” J. Mater. Sci. 10, 1049–1081 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, C. R.

F. Rainer, R. M. Brusasco, J. H. Campbell, F. P. De Marco, R. P. Gonzales, M. R. Kozlowski, F. P. Milanovich, A. J. Morgan, M. S. Scrivener, M. C. Staggs, I. M. Thomas, S. P. Velsko, C. R. Wolfe, “Damage measurements on optical materials for use in high-peak-power lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1438, 74–83 (1990).

Wood, R. M.

R. M. Wood, R. T. Taylor, R. L. Rouse, “Laser damage in optical materials at 1.06 µm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 7, 105–111 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).

Yiyang, Z.

J. C. Lambropoulos, B. E. Gillman, Z. Yiyang, S. D. Jacobs, H. J. Stevens, “Glass-ceramics: deterministic microgrinding, lapping, and polishing,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 178–189 (1997).

Yoshida, H.

T. Kamimura, K. Nakai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, Y. Okada, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kojima, K. Yoshida, “High damage resistivity of optical surface for UV lasers by ion beam etching,” Rev. Laser Eng. 27, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, K.

T. Kamimura, K. Nakai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, Y. Okada, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kojima, K. Yoshida, “High damage resistivity of optical surface for UV lasers by ion beam etching,” Rev. Laser Eng. 27, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, M.

T. Kamimura, K. Nakai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, Y. Okada, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kojima, K. Yoshida, “High damage resistivity of optical surface for UV lasers by ion beam etching,” Rev. Laser Eng. 27, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshiyama, J.

J. Yoshiyama, F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, I. M. Thomas, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, I. D. Hutcheon, D. W. Camp, “Effects of polishing, etching, cleaving, and water leaching on the UV laser damage of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, H. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 331–340 (1998).

F. Y. Génin, L. M. Sheehan, J. Yoshiyama, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, “Statistical study of UV-laser-induced failure of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 155–163 (1998).

A. Salleo, F. Y. Génin, J. Yoshiyama, C. J. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, “Laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm initiated at scratches,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 341–347 (1998).

Yu, A. W.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54, 601–606 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54, 601–606 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54, 601–606 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Am. Soc. Test. Mater. Spec. Tech. Publ. (1)

E. S. Bliss, “Laser-damage mechanisms in transparent dielectrics,” Am. Soc. Test. Mater. Spec. Tech. Publ. 469, 9–20 (1969).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

N. L. Boling, G. Dubé, “Morphological asymmetry in laser damage of transparent dielectric surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 487–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Ringlien, N. L. Boling, G. Dubé, “An acid treatment for raising the surface damage threshold of laser glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 598–600 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Fiz. Tverd. Tela (1)

N. I. Alekseev, N. V. Volkova, T. V. Stepanova, L. M. Shestopalov, “Surface damage of lithium fluoride single crystals by laser radiation,” Fiz. Tverd. Tela 11, 2720–2723 (1969).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Bloembergen, “Laser-induced electric breakdown in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 375–386 (1974).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. (1)

R. Guerrieri, K. H. Tadros, J. Gamelin, A. Neureuther, “Massively parallel algorithms for scattering in optical lithography,” IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. 10, 1091–1100 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

B. Lawn, R. Wilshaw, “Review, indentation fracture: principles and applications,” J. Mater. Sci. 10, 1049–1081 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

N. C. Kerr, D. C. Emmony, “The effect of laser annealing on laser-induced damage threshold,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 787–802 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. (7)

P. A. Temple, D. Milam, W. H. Lowdermilk, “CO2-laser polishing of fused silica surfaces for increased laser damage resistance at 1.06 µm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 620, 229–236 (1981).

H. Vora, W. H. Lowdermilk, J. E. Swain, “Effect of surface finishing on the damage threshold of fused silica at 1.06 µm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 669, 146–150 (1984).

C. R. Giuliano, “Ion beam polishing as a means of increasing surface damage thresholds in sapphire,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 372, 55–57 (1972).

N. L. Boling, G. Dubé, M. D. Crisp, “Laser surface damage studies on several glasses,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 387, 69–79 (1973).

P. A. Temple, S. C. Seitel, D. L. Cate, “CO2 laser polishing of fused silica:recent progress,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 669, 130–137 (1984).

R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, “Correlation of laser-induced damage with surface structure and preparation techniques of several optical glasses at 1.06 µm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 462, 305–320 (1976).

D. Milam, R. A. Bradbury, R. H. Picard, M. Baes, “Laser-damage-mechanism identification by the measurement of survival times,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 414, 169–178 (1974).

NIST (Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.) Spec. Publ. (1)

F. Rainer, E. A. Hildum, “Review of UV laser damage measurements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” NIST (Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.) Spec. Publ. 756, 74–84 (1988).

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. L. Smith, “Laser-induced breakdown in optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 489–503 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

R. M. Wood, R. T. Taylor, R. L. Rouse, “Laser damage in optical materials at 1.06 µm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 7, 105–111 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

A. A. Griffith, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 221, 163 (1921).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

L. D. Merkle, D. Kitriotis, “Temperature dependence of laser-induced bulk damage in SiO2 and borosilicate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1473–1482 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Laser Eng. (1)

T. Kamimura, K. Nakai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, Y. Okada, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kojima, K. Yoshida, “High damage resistivity of optical surface for UV lasers by ion beam etching,” Rev. Laser Eng. 27, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (18)

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).

C. L. Battersby, L. M. Sheehan, M. R. Kozlowski, “Effects of wet etch processing on laser-induced damage of fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 446–455 (1999).

A. Salleo, F. Y. Génin, J. Yoshiyama, C. J. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, “Laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm initiated at scratches,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 341–347 (1998).

F. Rainer, R. M. Brusasco, J. H. Campbell, F. P. De Marco, R. P. Gonzales, M. R. Kozlowski, F. P. Milanovich, A. J. Morgan, M. S. Scrivener, M. C. Staggs, I. M. Thomas, S. P. Velsko, C. R. Wolfe, “Damage measurements on optical materials for use in high-peak-power lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1438, 74–83 (1990).

A. L. Rigatti, D. J. Smith, “Status of optics on the OMEGA laser after 18 months of operation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 441–450 (1997).

A. L. Rigatti, D. J. Smith, A. W. Schmid, S. Papernov, J. H. Kelly, “Damage in fused-silica spatial-filter lenses on the OMEGA laser system,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 472–479 (1999).

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. A. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. G. Raether, I. M. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 356–364 (1998).

J. Yoshiyama, F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, I. M. Thomas, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, I. D. Hutcheon, D. W. Camp, “Effects of polishing, etching, cleaving, and water leaching on the UV laser damage of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, H. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 331–340 (1998).

J. Hue, J. Dijon, P. Lyan, “The CMO YAG laser damage test facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1995, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 102–113 (1996).

L. Sheehan, M. Kozlowski, C. Stolz, F. Génin, M. Runkel, S. Schwartz, J. Hue, “Large area damage testing of optics,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1995, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 357–369 (1996).

F. Y. Génin, L. M. Sheehan, J. Yoshiyama, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, “Statistical study of UV-laser-induced failure of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 155–163 (1998).

L. L. Chase, “Laser ablation and optical surface damage,” in Laser Ablation, J. C. Miller, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), Vol. 28, pp. 53–82.

J. C. Lambropoulos, B. E. Gillman, Z. Yiyang, S. D. Jacobs, H. J. Stevens, “Glass-ceramics: deterministic microgrinding, lapping, and polishing,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 178–189 (1997).

B. R. Lawn, “Indentation fractography,” in Fractography of Glass, R. C. Bradt, R. E. Tressler, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1994).

T. J. Magee, C. S. Leung, F. D. J. Orazio, J. D. Boyer, B. R. Mauro, V. E. Sanders, “The effect of subsurface defects on ‘incipient’ (below threshold) laser damage nucleation in fused silica optical flats,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1438, 230–238 (1989).

A. A. Tesar, N. J. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on laser damage of coated surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 154–172 (1991).

T. V. Pistor, “Generalizing the TEMPEST FDTD electromagnetic simulation program,” M.S. thesis (University of California, Berkeley, California, 1997).

J. Gamelin, “Simulation of topography scattering for optical lithography with the connection machine,” M. S. thesis (University of California, Berkeley, California, 1989).

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