Abstract

A new multispectral image wavelet representation is introduced, based on multiscale fundamental forms. This representation describes gradient information of multispectral images in a multiresolution framework. The representation is, in particular, extremely suited for fusion and merging of multispectral images. For fusion as well as for merging, a strategy is described. Experiments are performed on multispectral images, where Landsat Thematic Mapper images are fused and merged with SPOT Panchromatic images. The proposed techniques are compared with wavelet-based techniques described in the literature.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Di Zenzo, “A note on the gradient of a multi-image,” Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 33, 116–125 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Cumani, “Edge detection in multispectral images,” CVGIP Graph. Models Image Process. 53, 40–51 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Sapiro, D. L. Ringach, “Anisotropic diffusion of multivalued images with applications to color filtering,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 5, 1582–1586 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Mallat, S. Zhong, “Characterization of signals from multiscale edges,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 710–732 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Pohl, J. Van Genderen, “Multisensor image fusion in remote sensing: concepts, methods and applications,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 823–854 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Li, B. S. Manjunath, S. K. Mitra, “Multisensor image fusion using the wavelet transform,” CVGIP Graph. Models Image Process. 57, 235–245 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Wilson, S. Rogers, L. Meyers, “Perceptual-based hyperspectral image fusion using multiresolution analysis,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3154–3164 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Wilson, S. Rogers, L. Meyers, “Perceptual-based im-age fusion for hyperspectral data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1007–1017 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Pu, G. Ni, “Contrast-based image fusion using the discrete wavelet transform,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2075–2082 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Nunez, X. Otazu, O. Fors, A. Prades, V. Pala, R. Arbiol, “Multiresolution-based image fusion with additive wavelet decomposition,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1204–1211 (1999).
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  20. I. L. Thomas, V. M. Benning, N. P. Ching, Classification of Remotely Sensed Images (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1987).
  21. C. Lee, D. A. Landgrebe, “Analyzing high-dimensional multispectral data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 388–400 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Taxt, A. Lundervold, “Multispectral analysis of the brain using magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 13, 470–481 (1994).
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  23. Y. Carts-Powell, “Fusion CCD and IR images creates color night vision,” Laser Focus World 32(5), 32–36 (1996).
  24. N. Nandhakumar, J. K. Aggarwal, “Integrated analysis of thermal and visual images for scene interpretation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 469–481 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. K. Krebs, J. S. McCarley, T. Kozek, G. M. Miller, M. J. Sinai, F. S. Werblin, “An evaluation of a sensor fusion system to improve drivers’ nighttime detection of road hazards,” in Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, Calif., 1999), pp. 1333–1337.
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    [CrossRef]
  28. E. A. Essock, M. J. Sinai, J. S. McCarley, W. K. Krebs, J. K. Deford, “Perceptual ability with real-world nighttime scenes: image-intensified, infrared and fused-color imagery,” Hum. Factors 41, 438–452 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Aguilar, D. A. Fay, D. B. Ireland, J. P. Racamoto, W. D. Ross, A. M. Waxman, “Field evaluations of dual-band fusion for color night vision,” in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 1999, J. G. Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE3691, 168–175 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Sinai, J. S. McCarley, W. K. Krebs, “Scene recognition with infra-red, low-light and sensor fused imagery,” in Proceedings of the Infrared Information Symposia (IRIS) Specialty Groups on Passive Sensors (Infrared Information Analysis (IRIA), Ann Arbor, MI, 1999), pp. 1–9.
  31. W. J. Carper, T. M. Lillesand, R. W. Kiefer, “The use of intensity–hue–saturation transformations for merging spot panchromatic and multispectral image data,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 56, 459–467 (1990).
  32. M. E. Ulug, L. Claire, “A quantitative metric for comparison of night vision fusion algorithms,” in Sensor Fusion: Architectures, Algorithms and Applications IV, B. V. Dasarathy, ed., Proc. SPIE4051, 80–88 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  33. C. S. Xydeas, V. S. Petrovic, “Objective pixel-level image fusion performance measure,” in Sensor Fusion: Architectures, Algorithms and Applications IV, B. V. Dasarathy, ed., Proc. SPIE4051, 89–98 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2000

T. Pu, G. Ni, “Contrast-based image fusion using the discrete wavelet transform,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2075–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Ranchin, L. Wald, “Fusion of high spatial and spectral resolution images: the ARSIS concept and its implementation,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 66, 49–61 (2000).

1999

J. Nunez, X. Otazu, O. Fors, A. Prades, V. Pala, R. Arbiol, “Image fusion with additive multiresolution wavelet decomposition; applications to spot+Landsat images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 467–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nunez, X. Otazu, O. Fors, A. Prades, V. Pala, R. Arbiol, “Multiresolution-based image fusion with additive wavelet decomposition,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1204–1211 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Essock, M. J. Sinai, J. S. McCarley, W. K. Krebs, J. K. Deford, “Perceptual ability with real-world nighttime scenes: image-intensified, infrared and fused-color imagery,” Hum. Factors 41, 438–452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Zhou, D. Civco, J. Silander, “A wavelet transform method to merge Landsat TM and spot panchromatic data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 743–757 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Pohl, J. Van Genderen, “Multisensor image fusion in remote sensing: concepts, methods and applications,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 823–854 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. Wilson, S. Rogers, L. Meyers, “Perceptual-based im-age fusion for hyperspectral data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1007–1017 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. GarguetDuport, “Wavemerg: a multiresolution software for merging spot panchromatic and spot multispectral data,” Environ. Modell. Software 12, 85–92 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. A. Yocky, “Multiresolution wavelet decomposition image merger of Landsat Thematic Mapper and spot panchromatic data,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 62, 1067–1074 (1996).

B. GarguetDuport, “The use of multiresolution analysis and wavelets transform for merging spot panchromatic and multispectral image data,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 62, 1057–1066 (1996).

G. Sapiro, D. L. Ringach, “Anisotropic diffusion of multivalued images with applications to color filtering,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 5, 1582–1586 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Carts-Powell, “Fusion CCD and IR images creates color night vision,” Laser Focus World 32(5), 32–36 (1996).

1995

H. Li, B. S. Manjunath, S. K. Mitra, “Multisensor image fusion using the wavelet transform,” CVGIP Graph. Models Image Process. 57, 235–245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson, S. Rogers, L. Meyers, “Perceptual-based hyperspectral image fusion using multiresolution analysis,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3154–3164 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Yocky, “Image merging and data fusion by means of the discrete two-dimensional wavelet transform,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1834–1841 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

T. Taxt, A. Lundervold, “Multispectral analysis of the brain using magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 13, 470–481 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

C. Lee, D. A. Landgrebe, “Analyzing high-dimensional multispectral data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 388–400 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. Mallat, S. Zhong, “Characterization of signals from multiscale edges,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 710–732 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

A. Cumani, “Edge detection in multispectral images,” CVGIP Graph. Models Image Process. 53, 40–51 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

W. J. Carper, T. M. Lillesand, R. W. Kiefer, “The use of intensity–hue–saturation transformations for merging spot panchromatic and multispectral image data,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 56, 459–467 (1990).

1988

N. Nandhakumar, J. K. Aggarwal, “Integrated analysis of thermal and visual images for scene interpretation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 469–481 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

S. Di Zenzo, “A note on the gradient of a multi-image,” Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 33, 116–125 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, J. K.

N. Nandhakumar, J. K. Aggarwal, “Integrated analysis of thermal and visual images for scene interpretation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 469–481 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Aguilar, M.

M. Aguilar, D. A. Fay, D. B. Ireland, J. P. Racamoto, W. D. Ross, A. M. Waxman, “Field evaluations of dual-band fusion for color night vision,” in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 1999, J. G. Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE3691, 168–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aiazzi, B.

B. Aiazzi, L. Alparone, S. Baronti, R. Carla, “Assessment of pyramid-based multisensor image data fusion,” in Image and Signal Processing for Remote Sensing IV, S. B. Serpico, ed., Proc. Spie3500, 237–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alparone, L.

B. Aiazzi, L. Alparone, S. Baronti, R. Carla, “Assessment of pyramid-based multisensor image data fusion,” in Image and Signal Processing for Remote Sensing IV, S. B. Serpico, ed., Proc. Spie3500, 237–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arbiol, R.

J. Nunez, X. Otazu, O. Fors, A. Prades, V. Pala, R. Arbiol, “Multiresolution-based image fusion with additive wavelet decomposition,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1204–1211 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nunez, X. Otazu, O. Fors, A. Prades, V. Pala, R. Arbiol, “Image fusion with additive multiresolution wavelet decomposition; applications to spot+Landsat images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 467–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baronti, S.

B. Aiazzi, L. Alparone, S. Baronti, R. Carla, “Assessment of pyramid-based multisensor image data fusion,” in Image and Signal Processing for Remote Sensing IV, S. B. Serpico, ed., Proc. Spie3500, 237–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benning, V. M.

I. L. Thomas, V. M. Benning, N. P. Ching, Classification of Remotely Sensed Images (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1987).

Carla, R.

B. Aiazzi, L. Alparone, S. Baronti, R. Carla, “Assessment of pyramid-based multisensor image data fusion,” in Image and Signal Processing for Remote Sensing IV, S. B. Serpico, ed., Proc. Spie3500, 237–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carper, W. J.

W. J. Carper, T. M. Lillesand, R. W. Kiefer, “The use of intensity–hue–saturation transformations for merging spot panchromatic and multispectral image data,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 56, 459–467 (1990).

Carts-Powell, Y.

Y. Carts-Powell, “Fusion CCD and IR images creates color night vision,” Laser Focus World 32(5), 32–36 (1996).

Ching, N. P.

I. L. Thomas, V. M. Benning, N. P. Ching, Classification of Remotely Sensed Images (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1987).

Civco, D.

J. Zhou, D. Civco, J. Silander, “A wavelet transform method to merge Landsat TM and spot panchromatic data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 743–757 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Claire, L.

M. E. Ulug, L. Claire, “A quantitative metric for comparison of night vision fusion algorithms,” in Sensor Fusion: Architectures, Algorithms and Applications IV, B. V. Dasarathy, ed., Proc. SPIE4051, 80–88 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cumani, A.

A. Cumani, “Edge detection in multispectral images,” CVGIP Graph. Models Image Process. 53, 40–51 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Deford, J. K.

E. A. Essock, M. J. Sinai, J. S. McCarley, W. K. Krebs, J. K. Deford, “Perceptual ability with real-world nighttime scenes: image-intensified, infrared and fused-color imagery,” Hum. Factors 41, 438–452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Di Zenzo, S.

S. Di Zenzo, “A note on the gradient of a multi-image,” Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 33, 116–125 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Essock, E. A.

E. A. Essock, M. J. Sinai, J. S. McCarley, W. K. Krebs, J. K. Deford, “Perceptual ability with real-world nighttime scenes: image-intensified, infrared and fused-color imagery,” Hum. Factors 41, 438–452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fay, D. A.

M. Aguilar, D. A. Fay, D. B. Ireland, J. P. Racamoto, W. D. Ross, A. M. Waxman, “Field evaluations of dual-band fusion for color night vision,” in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 1999, J. G. Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE3691, 168–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fish, D. A.

F. Jahard, D. A. Fish, A. A. Rio, C. P. Thompson, “Far/near infrared adapted pyramid-based fusion for automotive night vision,” in Sixth International Conference on Image Processing and Its Applications (Institute of Electrical Engineers, New York, 1997), pp. 886–890.

Fors, O.

J. Nunez, X. Otazu, O. Fors, A. Prades, V. Pala, R. Arbiol, “Multiresolution-based image fusion with additive wavelet decomposition,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1204–1211 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nunez, X. Otazu, O. Fors, A. Prades, V. Pala, R. Arbiol, “Image fusion with additive multiresolution wavelet decomposition; applications to spot+Landsat images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 467–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

GarguetDuport, B.

B. GarguetDuport, “Wavemerg: a multiresolution software for merging spot panchromatic and spot multispectral data,” Environ. Modell. Software 12, 85–92 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. GarguetDuport, “The use of multiresolution analysis and wavelets transform for merging spot panchromatic and multispectral image data,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 62, 1057–1066 (1996).

Ireland, D. B.

M. Aguilar, D. A. Fay, D. B. Ireland, J. P. Racamoto, W. D. Ross, A. M. Waxman, “Field evaluations of dual-band fusion for color night vision,” in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 1999, J. G. Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE3691, 168–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jahard, F.

F. Jahard, D. A. Fish, A. A. Rio, C. P. Thompson, “Far/near infrared adapted pyramid-based fusion for automotive night vision,” in Sixth International Conference on Image Processing and Its Applications (Institute of Electrical Engineers, New York, 1997), pp. 886–890.

Kiefer, R. W.

W. J. Carper, T. M. Lillesand, R. W. Kiefer, “The use of intensity–hue–saturation transformations for merging spot panchromatic and multispectral image data,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 56, 459–467 (1990).

Kozek, T.

W. K. Krebs, J. S. McCarley, T. Kozek, G. M. Miller, M. J. Sinai, F. S. Werblin, “An evaluation of a sensor fusion system to improve drivers’ nighttime detection of road hazards,” in Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, Calif., 1999), pp. 1333–1337.

Krebs, W. K.

E. A. Essock, M. J. Sinai, J. S. McCarley, W. K. Krebs, J. K. Deford, “Perceptual ability with real-world nighttime scenes: image-intensified, infrared and fused-color imagery,” Hum. Factors 41, 438–452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Sinai, J. S. McCarley, W. K. Krebs, “Scene recognition with infra-red, low-light and sensor fused imagery,” in Proceedings of the Infrared Information Symposia (IRIS) Specialty Groups on Passive Sensors (Infrared Information Analysis (IRIA), Ann Arbor, MI, 1999), pp. 1–9.

W. K. Krebs, J. S. McCarley, T. Kozek, G. M. Miller, M. J. Sinai, F. S. Werblin, “An evaluation of a sensor fusion system to improve drivers’ nighttime detection of road hazards,” in Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, Calif., 1999), pp. 1333–1337.

Landgrebe, D. A.

C. Lee, D. A. Landgrebe, “Analyzing high-dimensional multispectral data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 388–400 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

C. Lee, D. A. Landgrebe, “Analyzing high-dimensional multispectral data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 388–400 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

H. Li, B. S. Manjunath, S. K. Mitra, “Multisensor image fusion using the wavelet transform,” CVGIP Graph. Models Image Process. 57, 235–245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lillesand, T. M.

W. J. Carper, T. M. Lillesand, R. W. Kiefer, “The use of intensity–hue–saturation transformations for merging spot panchromatic and multispectral image data,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 56, 459–467 (1990).

Lundervold, A.

T. Taxt, A. Lundervold, “Multispectral analysis of the brain using magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 13, 470–481 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mallat, S.

S. Mallat, S. Zhong, “Characterization of signals from multiscale edges,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 710–732 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Manjunath, B. S.

H. Li, B. S. Manjunath, S. K. Mitra, “Multisensor image fusion using the wavelet transform,” CVGIP Graph. Models Image Process. 57, 235–245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McCarley, J. S.

E. A. Essock, M. J. Sinai, J. S. McCarley, W. K. Krebs, J. K. Deford, “Perceptual ability with real-world nighttime scenes: image-intensified, infrared and fused-color imagery,” Hum. Factors 41, 438–452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Krebs, J. S. McCarley, T. Kozek, G. M. Miller, M. J. Sinai, F. S. Werblin, “An evaluation of a sensor fusion system to improve drivers’ nighttime detection of road hazards,” in Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, Calif., 1999), pp. 1333–1337.

J. Sinai, J. S. McCarley, W. K. Krebs, “Scene recognition with infra-red, low-light and sensor fused imagery,” in Proceedings of the Infrared Information Symposia (IRIS) Specialty Groups on Passive Sensors (Infrared Information Analysis (IRIA), Ann Arbor, MI, 1999), pp. 1–9.

Meyers, L.

T. Wilson, S. Rogers, L. Meyers, “Perceptual-based im-age fusion for hyperspectral data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1007–1017 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson, S. Rogers, L. Meyers, “Perceptual-based hyperspectral image fusion using multiresolution analysis,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3154–3164 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miller, G. M.

W. K. Krebs, J. S. McCarley, T. Kozek, G. M. Miller, M. J. Sinai, F. S. Werblin, “An evaluation of a sensor fusion system to improve drivers’ nighttime detection of road hazards,” in Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, Calif., 1999), pp. 1333–1337.

Mitra, S. K.

H. Li, B. S. Manjunath, S. K. Mitra, “Multisensor image fusion using the wavelet transform,” CVGIP Graph. Models Image Process. 57, 235–245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nandhakumar, N.

N. Nandhakumar, J. K. Aggarwal, “Integrated analysis of thermal and visual images for scene interpretation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 469–481 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ni, G.

T. Pu, G. Ni, “Contrast-based image fusion using the discrete wavelet transform,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2075–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nunez, J.

J. Nunez, X. Otazu, O. Fors, A. Prades, V. Pala, R. Arbiol, “Multiresolution-based image fusion with additive wavelet decomposition,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1204–1211 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nunez, X. Otazu, O. Fors, A. Prades, V. Pala, R. Arbiol, “Image fusion with additive multiresolution wavelet decomposition; applications to spot+Landsat images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 467–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Otazu, X.

J. Nunez, X. Otazu, O. Fors, A. Prades, V. Pala, R. Arbiol, “Image fusion with additive multiresolution wavelet decomposition; applications to spot+Landsat images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 467–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nunez, X. Otazu, O. Fors, A. Prades, V. Pala, R. Arbiol, “Multiresolution-based image fusion with additive wavelet decomposition,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1204–1211 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pala, V.

J. Nunez, X. Otazu, O. Fors, A. Prades, V. Pala, R. Arbiol, “Image fusion with additive multiresolution wavelet decomposition; applications to spot+Landsat images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 467–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nunez, X. Otazu, O. Fors, A. Prades, V. Pala, R. Arbiol, “Multiresolution-based image fusion with additive wavelet decomposition,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1204–1211 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perconti, P.

P. M. Steele, P. Perconti, “Part task investigation of multispectral image fusion using gray scale and synthetic color night vision sensor imagery for helicopter pilotage,” in Targets and Backgrounds, Characterization and Representation III, W. Watkins, D. Clement, eds., Proc. SPIE3062, 88–100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petrovic, V. S.

C. S. Xydeas, V. S. Petrovic, “Objective pixel-level image fusion performance measure,” in Sensor Fusion: Architectures, Algorithms and Applications IV, B. V. Dasarathy, ed., Proc. SPIE4051, 89–98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, C.

C. Pohl, J. Van Genderen, “Multisensor image fusion in remote sensing: concepts, methods and applications,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 823–854 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prades, A.

J. Nunez, X. Otazu, O. Fors, A. Prades, V. Pala, R. Arbiol, “Image fusion with additive multiresolution wavelet decomposition; applications to spot+Landsat images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 467–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nunez, X. Otazu, O. Fors, A. Prades, V. Pala, R. Arbiol, “Multiresolution-based image fusion with additive wavelet decomposition,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1204–1211 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pu, T.

T. Pu, G. Ni, “Contrast-based image fusion using the discrete wavelet transform,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2075–2082 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Racamoto, J. P.

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D. Ryan, R. Tinkler, “Night pilotage assessment of image fusion,” in Helmet- and Head-Mounted Displays and Symbology Design Requirements II, R. J. Lewadowsky, W. Stephens, L. A. Haworth, eds., Proc. SPIE2465, 50–67 (1995).
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T. Wilson, S. Rogers, L. Meyers, “Perceptual-based im-age fusion for hyperspectral data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1007–1017 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process

G. Sapiro, D. L. Ringach, “Anisotropic diffusion of multivalued images with applications to color filtering,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 5, 1582–1586 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging

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[CrossRef]

C. S. Xydeas, V. S. Petrovic, “Objective pixel-level image fusion performance measure,” in Sensor Fusion: Architectures, Algorithms and Applications IV, B. V. Dasarathy, ed., Proc. SPIE4051, 89–98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Aguilar, D. A. Fay, D. B. Ireland, J. P. Racamoto, W. D. Ross, A. M. Waxman, “Field evaluations of dual-band fusion for color night vision,” in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 1999, J. G. Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE3691, 168–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Sinai, J. S. McCarley, W. K. Krebs, “Scene recognition with infra-red, low-light and sensor fused imagery,” in Proceedings of the Infrared Information Symposia (IRIS) Specialty Groups on Passive Sensors (Infrared Information Analysis (IRIA), Ann Arbor, MI, 1999), pp. 1–9.

W. K. Krebs, J. S. McCarley, T. Kozek, G. M. Miller, M. J. Sinai, F. S. Werblin, “An evaluation of a sensor fusion system to improve drivers’ nighttime detection of road hazards,” in Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, Calif., 1999), pp. 1333–1337.

D. Ryan, R. Tinkler, “Night pilotage assessment of image fusion,” in Helmet- and Head-Mounted Displays and Symbology Design Requirements II, R. J. Lewadowsky, W. Stephens, L. A. Haworth, eds., Proc. SPIE2465, 50–67 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic overview of the multiscale fusion algorithm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fusion of two bands of a Landsat image: (a) original band 1, (b) original band 4, (c) fused result by using the proposed technique, (d) fused result by using wavelet maxima fusion.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Original high-resolution panchromatic and (b) low-resolution multispectral images.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of merging the images of Fig. 3 by using (a) MERGE1, (b) MERGE2, and (c) the proposed technique.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Original (a) SPOT and (b) Landsat images.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Merged images from Fig. 5 with the use of (a) IHS and (b) MERGE1.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Merged images from Fig. 5 with use of the proposed technique (a) before and (b) after histogram adaption and with the use of (c) MERGE2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral response after k-means clustering on (a) the original Landsat image, (b) the merged image by using MERGE2, and (c) the merged image by using the proposed technique.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Correlations for the Merged Results with the Use of IHS, MERGE1, MERGE2, and the Proposed Technique before and after Histogram Adaption

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dI=Ix dx+Iy dy,
(dI)2=dxdyTIx2Ix IyIx IyIy2dxdy=dxdyTInx2 Inx Iny Inx InyIny2dxdy=dxdyTGxxGxyGxyGyydxdy.
ψ1(x, y)=θ(x, y)x,ψ2(x, y)=θ(x, y)y.
Ds1(x, y)=I * ψs1(x, y),Ds2(x, y)=I * ψs2(x, y),
ψs1(x, y)=1s2ψ1xs, ys,ψs2(x, y)=1s2ψ2xs, ys
L2 j+1(x, y)=[Hj,x * [Hj,y * L2j]](x, y),
D2 j+11(x, y)=[dj,x * [Gj,y * L2j]](x, y),
D2 j+12(x, y)=[Gj,x * [dj,y * L2j]](x ,y).
D2 j1(x, y)D2 j2(x, y)=2jx(I * θ2j)(x, y)y(I * θ2j)(x, y)=2j(I * θ2j)(x, y).
[d(I * θ2 j)]2=2-2jdxdyT(Dn,2 j1)2Dn,2 j1Dn,2 j2Dn,2 j1Dn,2 j2(Dn,2 j2)2dxdy=2-2jdxdyTG2 jxxG2 jxyG2 jxyG2 jyydxdy,
λ2 j+(x, y)=2-2j[(D2 j1)2(x, y)+(D2 j2)2(x, y)]=(I * θ2 j)2,
v2 j+(x, y)=(I * θ2 j)(I * θ2 j);
D2 j1(x, y)=λ2 j+v2 j,x+(x, y),
D2 j2(x, y)=λ2 j+v2 j,y+(x, y),
D2 j1,+(x, y)=λ2 j+v2 j,x+(x, y),
D2 j2,+(x, y)=λ2 j+v2 j,y+(x, y).
Cor(A, B)=(A-A)(B-B)[(A-A)2(B-B)2]1/2,

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