Abstract

We examined individual differences in the color appearance of nonspectral lights and asked how they might be related to individual differences in sensitivity to chromatic stimuli. Observers set unique hues for moderately saturated equiluminant stimuli by varying their hue angle within a plane defined by the LvsM and SvsLM cone-opponent axes that are thought to characterize early postreceptoral color coding. Unique red settings were close to the +L pole of the LvsM axis, while green, blue, and yellow settings clustered along directions intermediate to the LvsM and SvsLM axes and thus corresponded to particular ratios of LvsM to SvsLM activity. Interobserver differences in the unique hues were substantial. However, no relationship was found between hue settings and relative sensitivity to the LvsM and SvsLM axes. Moreover, interobserver variations in different unique hues were uncorrelated and were thus inconsistent with a common underlying factor such as relative sensitivity or changes in the spectral sensitivities of the cones. Thus for the moderately saturated lights we tested, the unique hues appear largely unconstrained by normal individual differences in the cone-opponent axes. In turn, this suggests that the perceived hue for these stimuli does not depend on fixed (common) physiological weightings of the cone-opponent axes or on fixed (common) color signals in the environment.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red—or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Hering, Outlines of a Theory of the Light Sense (Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1964).
  4. M. A. Webster, “Human colour perception and its adaptation,” Network Comput. Neural Systems 7, 587–634 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. H. Brainard, “Cone contrast and opponent modulation color spaces,” in Human Color Vision, P. Kaiser, R. M. B. Boynton, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1996), pp. 563–579.
  6. M. A. Webster, J. D. Mollon, “The influence of contrast adaptation on color appearance,” Vision Res. 34, 1993–2020 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vision Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. L. Guth, “Model for color vision and light adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 976–993 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Evaluation of single-pigment shift model of anomalous trichromacy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1196–1209 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. D. Mollon, “Color vision,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 33, 41–85 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H.-C. Lee, “A computational model for opponent color encoding,” in Advanced Printing of Conference Summaries, SPSE’s 43rd Annual Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1990), pp. 178–181.
  12. R. N. Shepard, “The perceptual organization of colors: an adaptation to regularities of the terrestrial world?” in The Adapted Mind, J. Barkow, L. Cosmides, J. Tooby, eds. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1992), pp. 495–532.
  13. D. M. Purdy, “Spectral hues as a function of intensity,” J. Psychol. 43, 541–559 (1931).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Loci of spectral unique hues throughout the lifespan,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 305–311 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Chromatic discrimination axes, CRT phosphor spectra, and individual variation in color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 27–35 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. A. Webster, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Factors underlying individual differences in the color matches of normal observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1722–1735 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. A. Webster, E. Miyahara, G. Malkoc, V. E. Raker, “Variations in normal color vision. I. Cone-opponent axes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1535–1544 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Jordan, J. D. Mollon, “Rayleigh matches and unique green,” Vision Res. 35, 613–620 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. D. Mollon, G. Jordan, “On the nature of unique hues,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy, C. Dickenson, I. Murray, D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), pp. 381–392.
  20. D. H. Brainard, A. Roorda, Y. Yamauchi, J. B. Calderone, A. Metha, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, G. H. Jacobs, “Functional consequences of the relative numbers of L and M cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 607–614 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Otake, C. M. Cicerone, “L and M cone relative numerosity and red–green opponency from fovea to midperiphery in the human retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 615–627 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “L/M cone ratios and the null point of the perceptual red/green opponent system,” Farbe 34, 53–57 (1987).
  23. M. A. Webster, J. D. Mollon, “Changes in colour appearance following post-receptoral adaptation,” Nature 349, 235–238 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. I. A. MacLeod, R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1183–1186 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity of unique and other constant hues,” Vision Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. J. Chichilnisky, B. A. Wandell, “Trichromatic opponent color classification,” Vision Res. 39, 3444–3458 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vision Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. J. Larimer, D. H. Krantz, C. M. Cicerone, “Opponent-process additivity I. Red/green equilibria,” Vision Res. 14, 1127–1140 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. Larimer, D. H. Krantz, C. M. Cicerone, “Opponent-process additivity—II. Yellow/blue equilibria and nonlinear models,” Vision Res. 15, 723–731 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. C. M. Cicerone, “Constraints placed on color vision models by the relative numbers of different cone classes in human fovea centralis,” Farbe 34, 59–66 (1987).
  31. D. I. A. MacLeod, M. A. Webster, “Factors influencing the color matches of normal observers,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 81–92.
  32. W. S. Stiles, J. M. Burch, “N.P.L. colour matching investigation: final report (1958),” Opt. Acta6, 1–26 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  33. P. Kay, B. Berlin, L. Maffi, W. Merrifield, “Color naming across languages,” in Color Categories in Thought and Language, C. L. Hardin, L. Maffi, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1997), pp. 21–56.
  34. D. B. Judd, D. L. MacAdam, G. Wyszecki, “Spectral distribution of typical daylight as a function of correlated color temperature,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1031–1040 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. Cohen, “Dependency of the spectral reflectance curves of the Munsell color chips,” Psychon. Sci. 1, 369–370 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  36. S. K. Shevell, R. A. Humanski, “Color perception under chromatic adaptation: red/green equilibria with adapted short-wavelength-sensitive cones,” Vision Res. 28, 1345–1356 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. J. S. Werner, B. R. Wooten, “Opponent chromatic mechanisms: relation to photopigments and hue naming,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 422–434 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. C. F. I. Stromeyer, J. Lee, R. T. Eskew, “Peripheral chromatic sensitivity for flashes: a post-receptoral red–green asymmetry,” Vision Res. 32, 1865–1873 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. C. E. Harlow, V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, “What determines the population variability in the locus of unique green?” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, S355 (1999).
  41. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Spectral loci of unique hues: population statistics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 35, 2166 (1994).
  42. B. E. Schefrin, A. J. Adams, J. S. Werner, “Anomalies beyond sites of chromatic opponency contribute to sensitivity losses of an S-cone pathway in diabetes,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 219–228 (1991).
  43. E. Miyahara, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, R. Baron, E. Baron, “Color vision in two observers with highly biased LWS/MWS cone ratios,” Vision Res. 38, 601–612 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. M. A. Crognale, J. B. Nolan, M. A. Webster, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, “Color vision and genetics in a case of congenital optic nerve dystrophy,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).
  45. M. A. Webster, J. D. Mollon, “Adaptation and the color statistics of natural images,” Vision Res. 37, 3283–3298 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2000

1999

E. J. Chichilnisky, B. A. Wandell, “Trichromatic opponent color classification,” Vision Res. 39, 3444–3458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Harlow, V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, “What determines the population variability in the locus of unique green?” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, S355 (1999).

1998

E. Miyahara, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, R. Baron, E. Baron, “Color vision in two observers with highly biased LWS/MWS cone ratios,” Vision Res. 38, 601–612 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

M. A. Webster, J. D. Mollon, “Adaptation and the color statistics of natural images,” Vision Res. 37, 3283–3298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vision Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

M. A. Webster, “Human colour perception and its adaptation,” Network Comput. Neural Systems 7, 587–634 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

M. A. Webster, J. D. Mollon, “The influence of contrast adaptation on color appearance,” Vision Res. 34, 1993–2020 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red—or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Spectral loci of unique hues: population statistics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 35, 2166 (1994).

1993

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vision Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

C. F. I. Stromeyer, J. Lee, R. T. Eskew, “Peripheral chromatic sensitivity for flashes: a post-receptoral red–green asymmetry,” Vision Res. 32, 1865–1873 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

B. E. Schefrin, A. J. Adams, J. S. Werner, “Anomalies beyond sites of chromatic opponency contribute to sensitivity losses of an S-cone pathway in diabetes,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 219–228 (1991).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Guth, “Model for color vision and light adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 976–993 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Webster, J. D. Mollon, “Changes in colour appearance following post-receptoral adaptation,” Nature 349, 235–238 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

1988

S. K. Shevell, R. A. Humanski, “Color perception under chromatic adaptation: red/green equilibria with adapted short-wavelength-sensitive cones,” Vision Res. 28, 1345–1356 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Webster, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Factors underlying individual differences in the color matches of normal observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1722–1735 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “L/M cone ratios and the null point of the perceptual red/green opponent system,” Farbe 34, 53–57 (1987).

C. M. Cicerone, “Constraints placed on color vision models by the relative numbers of different cone classes in human fovea centralis,” Farbe 34, 59–66 (1987).

1984

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity of unique and other constant hues,” Vision Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. D. Mollon, “Color vision,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 33, 41–85 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

1977

1975

J. Larimer, D. H. Krantz, C. M. Cicerone, “Opponent-process additivity—II. Yellow/blue equilibria and nonlinear models,” Vision Res. 15, 723–731 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974

J. Larimer, D. H. Krantz, C. M. Cicerone, “Opponent-process additivity I. Red/green equilibria,” Vision Res. 14, 1127–1140 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964

1957

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1931

D. M. Purdy, “Spectral hues as a function of intensity,” J. Psychol. 43, 541–559 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, I.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red—or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Spectral loci of unique hues: population statistics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 35, 2166 (1994).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, A. J.

B. E. Schefrin, A. J. Adams, J. S. Werner, “Anomalies beyond sites of chromatic opponency contribute to sensitivity losses of an S-cone pathway in diabetes,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 219–228 (1991).

Baron, E.

E. Miyahara, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, R. Baron, E. Baron, “Color vision in two observers with highly biased LWS/MWS cone ratios,” Vision Res. 38, 601–612 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baron, R.

E. Miyahara, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, R. Baron, E. Baron, “Color vision in two observers with highly biased LWS/MWS cone ratios,” Vision Res. 38, 601–612 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berlin, B.

P. Kay, B. Berlin, L. Maffi, W. Merrifield, “Color naming across languages,” in Color Categories in Thought and Language, C. L. Hardin, L. Maffi, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1997), pp. 21–56.

Boynton, R. M.

Brainard, D. H.

D. H. Brainard, A. Roorda, Y. Yamauchi, J. B. Calderone, A. Metha, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, G. H. Jacobs, “Functional consequences of the relative numbers of L and M cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 607–614 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, “Cone contrast and opponent modulation color spaces,” in Human Color Vision, P. Kaiser, R. M. B. Boynton, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1996), pp. 563–579.

Burch, J. M.

W. S. Stiles, J. M. Burch, “N.P.L. colour matching investigation: final report (1958),” Opt. Acta6, 1–26 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. A.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity of unique and other constant hues,” Vision Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Calderone, J. B.

Chan, H.

Chichilnisky, E. J.

E. J. Chichilnisky, B. A. Wandell, “Trichromatic opponent color classification,” Vision Res. 39, 3444–3458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cicerone, C. M.

S. Otake, C. M. Cicerone, “L and M cone relative numerosity and red–green opponency from fovea to midperiphery in the human retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 615–627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Cicerone, “Constraints placed on color vision models by the relative numbers of different cone classes in human fovea centralis,” Farbe 34, 59–66 (1987).

J. Larimer, D. H. Krantz, C. M. Cicerone, “Opponent-process additivity—II. Yellow/blue equilibria and nonlinear models,” Vision Res. 15, 723–731 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Larimer, D. H. Krantz, C. M. Cicerone, “Opponent-process additivity I. Red/green equilibria,” Vision Res. 14, 1127–1140 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, J.

J. Cohen, “Dependency of the spectral reflectance curves of the Munsell color chips,” Psychon. Sci. 1, 369–370 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Crognale, M. A.

M. A. Crognale, J. B. Nolan, M. A. Webster, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, “Color vision and genetics in a case of congenital optic nerve dystrophy,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

De Valois, K. K.

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vision Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vision Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Valois, R. L.

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vision Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vision Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsner, A. E.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity of unique and other constant hues,” Vision Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Eskew, R. T.

C. F. I. Stromeyer, J. Lee, R. T. Eskew, “Peripheral chromatic sensitivity for flashes: a post-receptoral red–green asymmetry,” Vision Res. 32, 1865–1873 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, J.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Spectral loci of unique hues: population statistics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 35, 2166 (1994).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red—or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guth, S. L.

Harlow, C. E.

C. E. Harlow, V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, “What determines the population variability in the locus of unique green?” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, S355 (1999).

Hering, E.

E. Hering, Outlines of a Theory of the Light Sense (Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1964).

Humanski, R. A.

S. K. Shevell, R. A. Humanski, “Color perception under chromatic adaptation: red/green equilibria with adapted short-wavelength-sensitive cones,” Vision Res. 28, 1345–1356 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, G. H.

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jordan, G.

G. Jordan, J. D. Mollon, “Rayleigh matches and unique green,” Vision Res. 35, 613–620 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Mollon, G. Jordan, “On the nature of unique hues,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy, C. Dickenson, I. Murray, D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), pp. 381–392.

Judd, D. B.

Kay, P.

P. Kay, B. Berlin, L. Maffi, W. Merrifield, “Color naming across languages,” in Color Categories in Thought and Language, C. L. Hardin, L. Maffi, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1997), pp. 21–56.

Krantz, D. H.

J. Larimer, D. H. Krantz, C. M. Cicerone, “Opponent-process additivity—II. Yellow/blue equilibria and nonlinear models,” Vision Res. 15, 723–731 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Larimer, D. H. Krantz, C. M. Cicerone, “Opponent-process additivity I. Red/green equilibria,” Vision Res. 14, 1127–1140 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larimer, J.

J. Larimer, D. H. Krantz, C. M. Cicerone, “Opponent-process additivity—II. Yellow/blue equilibria and nonlinear models,” Vision Res. 15, 723–731 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Larimer, D. H. Krantz, C. M. Cicerone, “Opponent-process additivity I. Red/green equilibria,” Vision Res. 14, 1127–1140 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.-C.

H.-C. Lee, “A computational model for opponent color encoding,” in Advanced Printing of Conference Summaries, SPSE’s 43rd Annual Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1990), pp. 178–181.

Lee, J.

C. F. I. Stromeyer, J. Lee, R. T. Eskew, “Peripheral chromatic sensitivity for flashes: a post-receptoral red–green asymmetry,” Vision Res. 32, 1865–1873 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacAdam, D. L.

MacLeod, D. I. A.

Maffi, L.

P. Kay, B. Berlin, L. Maffi, W. Merrifield, “Color naming across languages,” in Color Categories in Thought and Language, C. L. Hardin, L. Maffi, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1997), pp. 21–56.

Mahon, L.

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vision Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malkoc, G.

Merrifield, W.

P. Kay, B. Berlin, L. Maffi, W. Merrifield, “Color naming across languages,” in Color Categories in Thought and Language, C. L. Hardin, L. Maffi, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1997), pp. 21–56.

Metha, A.

Miyahara, E.

M. A. Webster, E. Miyahara, G. Malkoc, V. E. Raker, “Variations in normal color vision. I. Cone-opponent axes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1535–1544 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Miyahara, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, R. Baron, E. Baron, “Color vision in two observers with highly biased LWS/MWS cone ratios,” Vision Res. 38, 601–612 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mollon, J. D.

M. A. Webster, J. D. Mollon, “Adaptation and the color statistics of natural images,” Vision Res. 37, 3283–3298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Jordan, J. D. Mollon, “Rayleigh matches and unique green,” Vision Res. 35, 613–620 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Webster, J. D. Mollon, “The influence of contrast adaptation on color appearance,” Vision Res. 34, 1993–2020 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Webster, J. D. Mollon, “Changes in colour appearance following post-receptoral adaptation,” Nature 349, 235–238 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Mollon, “Color vision,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 33, 41–85 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Mollon, G. Jordan, “On the nature of unique hues,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy, C. Dickenson, I. Murray, D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), pp. 381–392.

Neitz, J.

D. H. Brainard, A. Roorda, Y. Yamauchi, J. B. Calderone, A. Metha, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, G. H. Jacobs, “Functional consequences of the relative numbers of L and M cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 607–614 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Crognale, J. B. Nolan, M. A. Webster, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, “Color vision and genetics in a case of congenital optic nerve dystrophy,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

Neitz, M.

D. H. Brainard, A. Roorda, Y. Yamauchi, J. B. Calderone, A. Metha, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, G. H. Jacobs, “Functional consequences of the relative numbers of L and M cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 607–614 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Crognale, J. B. Nolan, M. A. Webster, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, “Color vision and genetics in a case of congenital optic nerve dystrophy,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

Nerger, J. L.

C. E. Harlow, V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, “What determines the population variability in the locus of unique green?” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, S355 (1999).

Nolan, J. B.

M. A. Crognale, J. B. Nolan, M. A. Webster, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, “Color vision and genetics in a case of congenital optic nerve dystrophy,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

Otake, S.

Pokorny, J.

E. Miyahara, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, R. Baron, E. Baron, “Color vision in two observers with highly biased LWS/MWS cone ratios,” Vision Res. 38, 601–612 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Chromatic discrimination axes, CRT phosphor spectra, and individual variation in color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 27–35 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “L/M cone ratios and the null point of the perceptual red/green opponent system,” Farbe 34, 53–57 (1987).

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity of unique and other constant hues,” Vision Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Evaluation of single-pigment shift model of anomalous trichromacy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1196–1209 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Purdy, D. M.

D. M. Purdy, “Spectral hues as a function of intensity,” J. Psychol. 43, 541–559 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Raker, V. E.

Roorda, A.

Schefrin, B.

Schefrin, B. E.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Spectral loci of unique hues: population statistics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 35, 2166 (1994).

B. E. Schefrin, A. J. Adams, J. S. Werner, “Anomalies beyond sites of chromatic opponency contribute to sensitivity losses of an S-cone pathway in diabetes,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 219–228 (1991).

Shepard, R. N.

R. N. Shepard, “The perceptual organization of colors: an adaptation to regularities of the terrestrial world?” in The Adapted Mind, J. Barkow, L. Cosmides, J. Tooby, eds. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1992), pp. 495–532.

Shevell, S. K.

S. K. Shevell, R. A. Humanski, “Color perception under chromatic adaptation: red/green equilibria with adapted short-wavelength-sensitive cones,” Vision Res. 28, 1345–1356 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

E. Miyahara, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, R. Baron, E. Baron, “Color vision in two observers with highly biased LWS/MWS cone ratios,” Vision Res. 38, 601–612 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Chromatic discrimination axes, CRT phosphor spectra, and individual variation in color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 27–35 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “L/M cone ratios and the null point of the perceptual red/green opponent system,” Farbe 34, 53–57 (1987).

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity of unique and other constant hues,” Vision Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Evaluation of single-pigment shift model of anomalous trichromacy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1196–1209 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, J. M. Burch, “N.P.L. colour matching investigation: final report (1958),” Opt. Acta6, 1–26 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Stromeyer, C. F. I.

C. F. I. Stromeyer, J. Lee, R. T. Eskew, “Peripheral chromatic sensitivity for flashes: a post-receptoral red–green asymmetry,” Vision Res. 32, 1865–1873 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Switkes, E.

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vision Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volbrecht, V. J.

C. E. Harlow, V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, “What determines the population variability in the locus of unique green?” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, S355 (1999).

Wandell, B. A.

E. J. Chichilnisky, B. A. Wandell, “Trichromatic opponent color classification,” Vision Res. 39, 3444–3458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Webster, M. A.

M. A. Webster, E. Miyahara, G. Malkoc, V. E. Raker, “Variations in normal color vision. I. Cone-opponent axes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1535–1544 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Webster, J. D. Mollon, “Adaptation and the color statistics of natural images,” Vision Res. 37, 3283–3298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Webster, “Human colour perception and its adaptation,” Network Comput. Neural Systems 7, 587–634 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Webster, J. D. Mollon, “The influence of contrast adaptation on color appearance,” Vision Res. 34, 1993–2020 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Webster, J. D. Mollon, “Changes in colour appearance following post-receptoral adaptation,” Nature 349, 235–238 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Webster, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Factors underlying individual differences in the color matches of normal observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1722–1735 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. I. A. MacLeod, M. A. Webster, “Factors influencing the color matches of normal observers,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 81–92.

M. A. Crognale, J. B. Nolan, M. A. Webster, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, “Color vision and genetics in a case of congenital optic nerve dystrophy,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

Werner, J. S.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Spectral loci of unique hues: population statistics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 35, 2166 (1994).

B. E. Schefrin, A. J. Adams, J. S. Werner, “Anomalies beyond sites of chromatic opponency contribute to sensitivity losses of an S-cone pathway in diabetes,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 219–228 (1991).

B. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Loci of spectral unique hues throughout the lifespan,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 305–311 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, B. R. Wooten, “Opponent chromatic mechanisms: relation to photopigments and hue naming,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 422–434 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

Wooten, B. R.

Wyszecki, G.

Yamauchi, Y.

Annu. Rev. Psychol.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red—or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mollon, “Color vision,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 33, 41–85 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Vision Sci.

B. E. Schefrin, A. J. Adams, J. S. Werner, “Anomalies beyond sites of chromatic opponency contribute to sensitivity losses of an S-cone pathway in diabetes,” Clin. Vision Sci. 6, 219–228 (1991).

Farbe

C. M. Cicerone, “Constraints placed on color vision models by the relative numbers of different cone classes in human fovea centralis,” Farbe 34, 59–66 (1987).

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “L/M cone ratios and the null point of the perceptual red/green opponent system,” Farbe 34, 53–57 (1987).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl.

C. E. Harlow, V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, “What determines the population variability in the locus of unique green?” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, S355 (1999).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Spectral loci of unique hues: population statistics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 35, 2166 (1994).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Psychol.

D. M. Purdy, “Spectral hues as a function of intensity,” J. Psychol. 43, 541–559 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. A. Webster, J. D. Mollon, “Changes in colour appearance following post-receptoral adaptation,” Nature 349, 235–238 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Network Comput. Neural Systems

M. A. Webster, “Human colour perception and its adaptation,” Network Comput. Neural Systems 7, 587–634 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Psychol. Rev.

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psychon. Sci.

J. Cohen, “Dependency of the spectral reflectance curves of the Munsell color chips,” Psychon. Sci. 1, 369–370 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res.

S. K. Shevell, R. A. Humanski, “Color perception under chromatic adaptation: red/green equilibria with adapted short-wavelength-sensitive cones,” Vision Res. 28, 1345–1356 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. I. Stromeyer, J. Lee, R. T. Eskew, “Peripheral chromatic sensitivity for flashes: a post-receptoral red–green asymmetry,” Vision Res. 32, 1865–1873 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity of unique and other constant hues,” Vision Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Chichilnisky, B. A. Wandell, “Trichromatic opponent color classification,” Vision Res. 39, 3444–3458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vision Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Larimer, D. H. Krantz, C. M. Cicerone, “Opponent-process additivity I. Red/green equilibria,” Vision Res. 14, 1127–1140 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Larimer, D. H. Krantz, C. M. Cicerone, “Opponent-process additivity—II. Yellow/blue equilibria and nonlinear models,” Vision Res. 15, 723–731 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Webster, J. D. Mollon, “The influence of contrast adaptation on color appearance,” Vision Res. 34, 1993–2020 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vision Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Jordan, J. D. Mollon, “Rayleigh matches and unique green,” Vision Res. 35, 613–620 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Webster, J. D. Mollon, “Adaptation and the color statistics of natural images,” Vision Res. 37, 3283–3298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Miyahara, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, R. Baron, E. Baron, “Color vision in two observers with highly biased LWS/MWS cone ratios,” Vision Res. 38, 601–612 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. A. Crognale, J. B. Nolan, M. A. Webster, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, “Color vision and genetics in a case of congenital optic nerve dystrophy,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

J. D. Mollon, G. Jordan, “On the nature of unique hues,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy, C. Dickenson, I. Murray, D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), pp. 381–392.

H.-C. Lee, “A computational model for opponent color encoding,” in Advanced Printing of Conference Summaries, SPSE’s 43rd Annual Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1990), pp. 178–181.

R. N. Shepard, “The perceptual organization of colors: an adaptation to regularities of the terrestrial world?” in The Adapted Mind, J. Barkow, L. Cosmides, J. Tooby, eds. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1992), pp. 495–532.

E. Hering, Outlines of a Theory of the Light Sense (Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1964).

D. H. Brainard, “Cone contrast and opponent modulation color spaces,” in Human Color Vision, P. Kaiser, R. M. B. Boynton, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1996), pp. 563–579.

D. I. A. MacLeod, M. A. Webster, “Factors influencing the color matches of normal observers,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 81–92.

W. S. Stiles, J. M. Burch, “N.P.L. colour matching investigation: final report (1958),” Opt. Acta6, 1–26 (1959).
[CrossRef]

P. Kay, B. Berlin, L. Maffi, W. Merrifield, “Color naming across languages,” in Color Categories in Thought and Language, C. L. Hardin, L. Maffi, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1997), pp. 21–56.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Locus of unique hues in cone-excitation space, measured for a single observer. Points plot the chromatic angles corresponding to unique red, green, blue, or yellow (from the study of Webster and Mollon6).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Locus of unique hues within the SvsLM and LvsM plane. Curves plot the loci of unique red, green, blue, or yellow settings for stimuli that range in contrast from 10 to 60. Each panel plots the settings for an individual observer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

S/LM sensitivity ratios estimated from hue angles compared with estimates from thresholds (circles) or adaptation (triangles). Estimates from unique hues are based on the tangent of the observer’s mean unique hue angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Locus of unique hues within the SvsLM and LvsM plane. Each point plots the chromatic angle that appeared unique red, green, blue, or yellow for one of the 51 observers. All stimuli had a fixed contrast of 30.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histograms of the distributions of hue angles. For each of the four hues, the upper panel plots the measured hue settings, for the full set of 51 observers (unshaded bars) or for the subset of 26 observers who set the hues most consistently (shaded histogram). The lower panel for each hue shows the range of hue angles predicted by assuming that all observers with different spectral sensitivities choose hues that match the same physiological weightings of the cardinal axes (unshaded bars) or choose hues that match the same environmental stimuli (shaded bars). The predictions were based on reconstructing the sensitivities of the 49 Stiles and Burch observers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectra used to calculate how the variations in the hue settings depend on the stimulus color signal. Naturalistic color signals were constructed by simulating Munsell chips viewed under Illuminant C (dashed curves). Solid curves show the monitor spectra with the equivalent chromaticity.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Unique-Hue Settings for All Subjects (n = 51) a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Unique-Hue Settings for the Most Consistent Subjects (n = 26) a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Correlations between Different Unique-Hue Settings a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Correlations between Different Unique-Hue Settings Predicted by Individual Differences in Color Matching a

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

LvsMcontrast=(rmb-0.6568) * 2754
SvsLMcontrast=(bmb-0.01825) * 4099.

Metrics