Abstract

We have used a subthreshold summation protocol to analyze spatial color–color interaction. By means of a CRT color monitor, we measured the threshold contours for a spatial frequency of 0.5 cycles/degree. Heterochromatic flicker photometry was used to obtain isoluminance. The results suggest that the blue–yellow (b–y) and red–green (r–g) contrast thresholds remained unchanged by the addition of fixed r–g and b–y subthreshold pedestals. Our subthreshold summation data then support the stochastic independence of color-vision mechanisms derived from Mullen and Sankeralli’s work [Vision Res. 39, 733 (1999)] despite the differences that exist between the two experimental methods.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, “Simultaneous masking interactions between chromatic and luminance gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 11–18 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Switkes, A. Bradley, K. K. De Valois, “Contrast dependence and mechanisms of masking interactions among chromatic and luminance gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1149–1162 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Bradley, E. Switkes, K. K. De Valois, “Orientation and spatial frequency selectivity of adaptation to color and luminance gratings,” Vision Res. 28, 841–856 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. T. Mullen, M. A. Losada, “Evidence for separate pathways for color and luminance detection mechanisms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3136–3151 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Gur, V. Akri, “Isoluminant stimuli may not expose the full contribution of colour to visual functioning: Spatial contrast sensitivity measurements indicate interaction between colour and luminance processing,” Vision Res. 32, 1253–1262 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. T. Mullen, S. J. Cropper, M. A. Losada, “Absence of linear subthreshold summation between red–green and luminance mechanisms over a wide range of spatio-temporal conditions,” Vision Res. 37, 1157–1165 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. T. Mullen, M. J. Sankeralli, “Evidence for the stochastic independence of the blue–yellow, red–green and luminance detection mechanisms revealed by subthreshold summation,” Vision Res. 39, 733–745 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. V. S. Graham, Visual Pattern Analyzers (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1989).
  9. R. M. Boynton, “A system of photometry and colorimetry based on cone excitations,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 244–252 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. P. Lucassen, J. Walraven, “Evaluation of a simple method of color monitor recalibration,” Color Res. Appl. 15, 321–326 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. H. Brainard, “Calibration of a computer-controlled color monitor,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 23–34 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. A. Díaz, J. R. Jiménez, E. Hita, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Optimizing the constant-channel chromaticity and color gamut of CRT color displays by control of brightness and contrast level,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1711–1718 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. F. Quick, “A vector-magnitude model of contrast detection,” Kybernetik 16, 65–67 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. G. Robson, N. Graham, “Probability summation and regional variation in contrast sensitivity across the visual field,” Vision Res. 21, 409–418 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

K. T. Mullen, M. J. Sankeralli, “Evidence for the stochastic independence of the blue–yellow, red–green and luminance detection mechanisms revealed by subthreshold summation,” Vision Res. 39, 733–745 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

K. T. Mullen, S. J. Cropper, M. A. Losada, “Absence of linear subthreshold summation between red–green and luminance mechanisms over a wide range of spatio-temporal conditions,” Vision Res. 37, 1157–1165 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

M. Gur, V. Akri, “Isoluminant stimuli may not expose the full contribution of colour to visual functioning: Spatial contrast sensitivity measurements indicate interaction between colour and luminance processing,” Vision Res. 32, 1253–1262 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

M. P. Lucassen, J. Walraven, “Evaluation of a simple method of color monitor recalibration,” Color Res. Appl. 15, 321–326 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. H. Brainard, “Calibration of a computer-controlled color monitor,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 23–34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

A. Bradley, E. Switkes, K. K. De Valois, “Orientation and spatial frequency selectivity of adaptation to color and luminance gratings,” Vision Res. 28, 841–856 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Switkes, A. Bradley, K. K. De Valois, “Contrast dependence and mechanisms of masking interactions among chromatic and luminance gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1149–1162 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

R. M. Boynton, “A system of photometry and colorimetry based on cone excitations,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 244–252 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

J. G. Robson, N. Graham, “Probability summation and regional variation in contrast sensitivity across the visual field,” Vision Res. 21, 409–418 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

R. F. Quick, “A vector-magnitude model of contrast detection,” Kybernetik 16, 65–67 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akri, V.

M. Gur, V. Akri, “Isoluminant stimuli may not expose the full contribution of colour to visual functioning: Spatial contrast sensitivity measurements indicate interaction between colour and luminance processing,” Vision Res. 32, 1253–1262 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, “A system of photometry and colorimetry based on cone excitations,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 244–252 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, A.

A. Bradley, E. Switkes, K. K. De Valois, “Orientation and spatial frequency selectivity of adaptation to color and luminance gratings,” Vision Res. 28, 841–856 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Switkes, A. Bradley, K. K. De Valois, “Contrast dependence and mechanisms of masking interactions among chromatic and luminance gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1149–1162 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brainard, D. H.

D. H. Brainard, “Calibration of a computer-controlled color monitor,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 23–34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cropper, S. J.

K. T. Mullen, S. J. Cropper, M. A. Losada, “Absence of linear subthreshold summation between red–green and luminance mechanisms over a wide range of spatio-temporal conditions,” Vision Res. 37, 1157–1165 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Valois, K. K.

Díaz, J. A.

Graham, N.

J. G. Robson, N. Graham, “Probability summation and regional variation in contrast sensitivity across the visual field,” Vision Res. 21, 409–418 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graham, N. V. S.

N. V. S. Graham, Visual Pattern Analyzers (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1989).

Gur, M.

M. Gur, V. Akri, “Isoluminant stimuli may not expose the full contribution of colour to visual functioning: Spatial contrast sensitivity measurements indicate interaction between colour and luminance processing,” Vision Res. 32, 1253–1262 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hita, E.

Jiménez, J. R.

Jiménez del Barco, L.

Losada, M. A.

K. T. Mullen, S. J. Cropper, M. A. Losada, “Absence of linear subthreshold summation between red–green and luminance mechanisms over a wide range of spatio-temporal conditions,” Vision Res. 37, 1157–1165 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Mullen, M. A. Losada, “Evidence for separate pathways for color and luminance detection mechanisms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3136–3151 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lucassen, M. P.

M. P. Lucassen, J. Walraven, “Evaluation of a simple method of color monitor recalibration,” Color Res. Appl. 15, 321–326 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mullen, K. T.

K. T. Mullen, M. J. Sankeralli, “Evidence for the stochastic independence of the blue–yellow, red–green and luminance detection mechanisms revealed by subthreshold summation,” Vision Res. 39, 733–745 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Mullen, S. J. Cropper, M. A. Losada, “Absence of linear subthreshold summation between red–green and luminance mechanisms over a wide range of spatio-temporal conditions,” Vision Res. 37, 1157–1165 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Mullen, M. A. Losada, “Evidence for separate pathways for color and luminance detection mechanisms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3136–3151 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Quick, R. F.

R. F. Quick, “A vector-magnitude model of contrast detection,” Kybernetik 16, 65–67 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robson, J. G.

J. G. Robson, N. Graham, “Probability summation and regional variation in contrast sensitivity across the visual field,” Vision Res. 21, 409–418 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sankeralli, M. J.

K. T. Mullen, M. J. Sankeralli, “Evidence for the stochastic independence of the blue–yellow, red–green and luminance detection mechanisms revealed by subthreshold summation,” Vision Res. 39, 733–745 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Switkes, E.

Walraven, J.

M. P. Lucassen, J. Walraven, “Evaluation of a simple method of color monitor recalibration,” Color Res. Appl. 15, 321–326 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Color Res. Appl. (3)

R. M. Boynton, “A system of photometry and colorimetry based on cone excitations,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 244–252 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Lucassen, J. Walraven, “Evaluation of a simple method of color monitor recalibration,” Color Res. Appl. 15, 321–326 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, “Calibration of a computer-controlled color monitor,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 23–34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Kybernetik (1)

R. F. Quick, “A vector-magnitude model of contrast detection,” Kybernetik 16, 65–67 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (5)

J. G. Robson, N. Graham, “Probability summation and regional variation in contrast sensitivity across the visual field,” Vision Res. 21, 409–418 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bradley, E. Switkes, K. K. De Valois, “Orientation and spatial frequency selectivity of adaptation to color and luminance gratings,” Vision Res. 28, 841–856 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gur, V. Akri, “Isoluminant stimuli may not expose the full contribution of colour to visual functioning: Spatial contrast sensitivity measurements indicate interaction between colour and luminance processing,” Vision Res. 32, 1253–1262 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Mullen, S. J. Cropper, M. A. Losada, “Absence of linear subthreshold summation between red–green and luminance mechanisms over a wide range of spatio-temporal conditions,” Vision Res. 37, 1157–1165 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Mullen, M. J. Sankeralli, “Evidence for the stochastic independence of the blue–yellow, red–green and luminance detection mechanisms revealed by subthreshold summation,” Vision Res. 39, 733–745 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

N. V. S. Graham, Visual Pattern Analyzers (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1989).

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Subthreshold-summation results (upper plot for observer JH, lower plot for observer JL) obtained as a function of pedestal contrast. Linear interaction between color-vision mechanisms is represented as dashed lines on the plots; best fits of the data by the least χ2 method are shown as solid curves. Fitted k values [see Eq. (3)] and the correlation coefficient for the fit are also shown. Error bars represent ±1 standard error.

Equations (3)

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Ci=(Ex1-Ex2)/Pi,
Pi=2(Ecpi-Eeqi),
(r/g)k+(b/y)k=1,

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