Abstract

Detection thresholds for luminance increments or decrements are normally related to rapid light changes. The goal of this study was to determine detection thresholds for slowly changing achromatic Ganzfeld luminances before and after adaptation to a constant Ganzfeld illumination, subsequently called Ganzfeld adaptation. During Ganzfeld adaptation, perceived brightness decreased slowly and leveled off (on average after 5–7 min), despite constant illumination of the retina. The state of adaptation was characterized by using magnitude estimation. Comparing detection thresholds for changing light intensities before and after Ganzfeld adaptation showed that the sensitivity for luminance changes is independent of the perceived brightness. A further issue addressed was the time dependence of the luminance change. Is there a limit below which a change of luminance is no longer perceivable? Even for the slowest gradient tested (0.01 log/min), subjects were able to detect the change of luminance, although they were not able to perceive a continuous brightness change. Similar thresholds (ca. 0.24 log unit) for shallow and steep luminance gradients suggest an absolute luminance detection mechanism. Possible underlying mechanisms and neurophysiological substrates are discussed.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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2000 (1)

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

J. M. Schubert, A. L. Gilchrist, “Relative luminance is not derived from absolute luminance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Abstract Book 2826-3, 1258 (1992).

1989 (1)

M. Gur, “Color and brightness fade-out in the Ganzfeld is wavelength dependent,” Vision Res. 29, 1335–1341 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

H. J. M. Gerrits, “Differences in peripheral and foveal effects observed in stabilized vision,” Exp. Brain Res. 32, 225–244 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

R. Taeumer, J. Hennig, D. Pernice, “The ocular dipole—a damped oscillator stimulated by the speed of change in illumination,” Vision Res. 14, 637–645 (1974).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

H. J. M. Gerrits, A. J. H. Vendrik, “Artificial movements of a stabilized image,” Vision Res. 10, 1443–1456 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (2)

J. B. M. Sparrock, “Stabilized images: increment threshold and subjective brightness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 872–874 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Waygood, “The visibility of rate of change of luminance in the presence or absence of a boundary,” Opt. Acta 16, 61–64 (1969).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

1965 (1)

1964 (1)

P. A. Cibis, “Lokal adaptation,” Ber. Dtsch. Ophthalmol. Ges. 66, 193–202 (1964).

1963 (1)

Ch. Enroth-Cugell, R. W. Jones, “Responses of cat retinal ganglion cells to exponentially changing light intensities,” J. Neurophysiol. 26, 894–907 (1963).
[PubMed]

1961 (1)

F. J. J. Clarke, “Visual recovery following local adaptation of the peripheral retina (Troxler’s effect),” Opt. Acta 8, 121–135 (1961).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

F. J. J. Clarke, “Rapid light adaptation of localized areas of the extra-foveal retina,” Opt. Acta 4, 69–77 (1957).
[Crossref]

Aubert, H.

H. Aubert, Physiologie der Netzhaut (E. Morgenstern, Breslau, Germany, 1865).

Aulhorn, E.

E. Aulhorn, H. Harms, “Visual perimetry,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Vol. VII/4, Visual Psychophysics, pp. 102–145.

Berendschot, T. T. J. M.

Burkhardt, D. A.

Cibis, P. A.

P. A. Cibis, “Lokal adaptation,” Ber. Dtsch. Ophthalmol. Ges. 66, 193–202 (1964).

Clarke, F. J. J.

F. J. J. Clarke, “Visual recovery following local adaptation of the peripheral retina (Troxler’s effect),” Opt. Acta 8, 121–135 (1961).
[Crossref]

F. J. J. Clarke, “Rapid light adaptation of localized areas of the extra-foveal retina,” Opt. Acta 4, 69–77 (1957).
[Crossref]

Cornsweet, T. N.

Enroth-Cugell, Ch.

Ch. Enroth-Cugell, R. W. Jones, “Responses of cat retinal ganglion cells to exponentially changing light intensities,” J. Neurophysiol. 26, 894–907 (1963).
[PubMed]

Gerrits, H. J. M.

H. J. M. Gerrits, “Differences in peripheral and foveal effects observed in stabilized vision,” Exp. Brain Res. 32, 225–244 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. M. Gerrits, A. J. H. Vendrik, “Artificial movements of a stabilized image,” Vision Res. 10, 1443–1456 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilchrist, A. L.

J. M. Schubert, A. L. Gilchrist, “Relative luminance is not derived from absolute luminance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Abstract Book 2826-3, 1258 (1992).

Gur, M.

M. Gur, “Color and brightness fade-out in the Ganzfeld is wavelength dependent,” Vision Res. 29, 1335–1341 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harms, H.

E. Aulhorn, H. Harms, “Visual perimetry,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Vol. VII/4, Visual Psychophysics, pp. 102–145.

Hennig, J.

R. Taeumer, J. Hennig, D. Pernice, “The ocular dipole—a damped oscillator stimulated by the speed of change in illumination,” Vision Res. 14, 637–645 (1974).
[Crossref]

Jones, R. W.

Ch. Enroth-Cugell, R. W. Jones, “Responses of cat retinal ganglion cells to exponentially changing light intensities,” J. Neurophysiol. 26, 894–907 (1963).
[PubMed]

Knau, H.

Kremers, J.

Pernice, D.

R. Taeumer, J. Hennig, D. Pernice, “The ocular dipole—a damped oscillator stimulated by the speed of change in illumination,” Vision Res. 14, 637–645 (1974).
[Crossref]

Pirenne, M. H.

M. H. Pirenne, “Light adaptation. I. The Troxler phenomenon,” in The Eye, H. Davson, ed. (Academic, New York, 1962), Vol. 2, pp. 197–199.

Scholl, P. N. H.

Schubert, J. M.

J. M. Schubert, A. L. Gilchrist, “Relative luminance is not derived from absolute luminance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Abstract Book 2826-3, 1258 (1992).

Sharpe, L. T.

Sparrock, J. B. M.

Spillmann, L.

Stevens, S. S.

S. S. Stevens, “The psychophysics of sensory functions,” in Sensory Communication, W. A. Rosenblith, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1961), pp. 1–33.

Taeumer, R.

R. Taeumer, J. Hennig, D. Pernice, “The ocular dipole—a damped oscillator stimulated by the speed of change in illumination,” Vision Res. 14, 637–645 (1974).
[Crossref]

Teller, D. Y.

Troxler, I. V. P.

I. V. P. Troxler, “Über das Verschwinden gegebener Gegenstände innerhalb unseres Gesichtskreises,” in Ophthalmische Bibliothek, K. Himly, J. A. Schmidt, eds. (F. Fromann, Jena, Germany, 1804), Vol. 2, Part 2, pp. 51–53.

Usui, T.

Vendrik, A. J. H.

H. J. M. Gerrits, A. J. H. Vendrik, “Artificial movements of a stabilized image,” Vision Res. 10, 1443–1456 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waygood, M.

M. Waygood, “The visibility of rate of change of luminance in the presence or absence of a boundary,” Opt. Acta 16, 61–64 (1969).
[Crossref]

Yarbus, A. L.

A. L. Yarbus, Eye Movements in Vision (translation by B. Haigh) (Plenum, New York, 1967).

Ber. Dtsch. Ophthalmol. Ges. (1)

P. A. Cibis, “Lokal adaptation,” Ber. Dtsch. Ophthalmol. Ges. 66, 193–202 (1964).

Exp. Brain Res. (1)

H. J. M. Gerrits, “Differences in peripheral and foveal effects observed in stabilized vision,” Exp. Brain Res. 32, 225–244 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Abstract Book (1)

J. M. Schubert, A. L. Gilchrist, “Relative luminance is not derived from absolute luminance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Abstract Book 2826-3, 1258 (1992).

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

Ch. Enroth-Cugell, R. W. Jones, “Responses of cat retinal ganglion cells to exponentially changing light intensities,” J. Neurophysiol. 26, 894–907 (1963).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Acta (3)

F. J. J. Clarke, “Visual recovery following local adaptation of the peripheral retina (Troxler’s effect),” Opt. Acta 8, 121–135 (1961).
[Crossref]

F. J. J. Clarke, “Rapid light adaptation of localized areas of the extra-foveal retina,” Opt. Acta 4, 69–77 (1957).
[Crossref]

M. Waygood, “The visibility of rate of change of luminance in the presence or absence of a boundary,” Opt. Acta 16, 61–64 (1969).
[Crossref]

Vision Res. (3)

H. J. M. Gerrits, A. J. H. Vendrik, “Artificial movements of a stabilized image,” Vision Res. 10, 1443–1456 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gur, “Color and brightness fade-out in the Ganzfeld is wavelength dependent,” Vision Res. 29, 1335–1341 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Taeumer, J. Hennig, D. Pernice, “The ocular dipole—a damped oscillator stimulated by the speed of change in illumination,” Vision Res. 14, 637–645 (1974).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

S. S. Stevens, “The psychophysics of sensory functions,” in Sensory Communication, W. A. Rosenblith, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1961), pp. 1–33.

I. V. P. Troxler, “Über das Verschwinden gegebener Gegenstände innerhalb unseres Gesichtskreises,” in Ophthalmische Bibliothek, K. Himly, J. A. Schmidt, eds. (F. Fromann, Jena, Germany, 1804), Vol. 2, Part 2, pp. 51–53.

M. H. Pirenne, “Light adaptation. I. The Troxler phenomenon,” in The Eye, H. Davson, ed. (Academic, New York, 1962), Vol. 2, pp. 197–199.

A. L. Yarbus, Eye Movements in Vision (translation by B. Haigh) (Plenum, New York, 1967).

E. Aulhorn, H. Harms, “Visual perimetry,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Vol. VII/4, Visual Psychophysics, pp. 102–145.

H. Aubert, Physiologie der Netzhaut (E. Morgenstern, Breslau, Germany, 1865).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of procedures used for measuring detection thresholds of luminance changes after (left) and before (right) Ganzfeld adaptation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Thresholds for slowly changing Ganzfeld luminances as a function of the initial luminance for subject GG. Different symbols correspond to different luminance gradients. Filled symbols refer to thresholds without brightness fading (procedure 2), and open symbols refer to thresholds after Ganzfeld adaptation (procedure 1). Positive thresholds correspond to luminance decrements, negative thresholds to luminance increments.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Threshold Means and Standard Deviations for Luminance Changes Before and After Ganzfeld Adaptation (i.e., Brightness Fading)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Threshold Means and Standard Deviations for Up and Down Luminance Gradients

Metrics