W. D. Furlan, G. Saavedra, E. Silvestre, M. Martı́nez-Corral, “On-axis irradiance for spherical aberrated optical systems with obscured rectangular apertures: a study using the Wigner distribution function,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 69–77 (1998).

[CrossRef]

M. Martı́nez-Corral, C. J. Zapata-Rodrı́guez, P. Andrés, E. Silvestre, “Effective Fresnel-number concept for evaluating the relative focal shift in focused beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 449–455 (1998).

[CrossRef]

Y. Li, “A high-accuracy formula for fast evaluation of the effect of focal shift,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1815–1819 (1991).

[CrossRef]

M. Parker Givens, “Focal shifts in diffracted converging spherical waves,” Opt. Commun. 41, 145–148 (1982).

[CrossRef]

E. Wolf, Y. Li, “Conditions for the validity of the Debye integral representation of focused fields,” Opt. Commun. 39, 205–210 (1981).

[CrossRef]

J. J. Stamnes, B. Spjelkavik, “Focusing at small angular apertures in the Debye and Kirchhoff approximations,” Opt. Commun. 40, 81–85 (1981).

[CrossRef]

Y. Li, E. Wolf, “Focal shifts in diffracted converging spherical waves,” Opt. Commun. 39, 211–215 (1981).

[CrossRef]

J. J. Stamnes, “Focusing of two-dimensional waves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 15–31 (1981).

[CrossRef]

A. Arimoto, “Intensity distribution of aberration-free diffraction patterns due to circular apertures in large F-number optical systems,” Opt. Acta 23, 245–250 (1976).

[CrossRef]

M. Martı́nez-Corral, C. J. Zapata-Rodrı́guez, P. Andrés, E. Silvestre, “Effective Fresnel-number concept for evaluating the relative focal shift in focused beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 449–455 (1998).

[CrossRef]

M. Martı́nez-Corral, P. Andrés, J. Ojeda-Castañeda, “On-axis diffractional behavior of two-dimensional pupils,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2223–2229 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Arimoto, “Intensity distribution of aberration-free diffraction patterns due to circular apertures in large F-number optical systems,” Opt. Acta 23, 245–250 (1976).

[CrossRef]

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1979), Sec. 8.8.

W. D. Furlan, G. Saavedra, E. Silvestre, M. Martı́nez-Corral, “On-axis irradiance for spherical aberrated optical systems with obscured rectangular apertures: a study using the Wigner distribution function,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 69–77 (1998).

[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996), Chap. 4.

I. S. Gradshteyn, I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series, and Products (Academic, London, 1980).

M. Gu, Principles of Three-Dimensional Imaging in Confocal Microscopes (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), Chap. 2.

P. Jacquinot, B. Roizen-Dossier, “Apodization,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1964), Vol. 3, pp. 29–186.

Y. Li, “A high-accuracy formula for fast evaluation of the effect of focal shift,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1815–1819 (1991).

[CrossRef]

Y. Li, E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional intensity distribution near the focus in systems of different Fresnel numbers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 801–808 (1984).

[CrossRef]

Y. Li, H. Platzer, “An experimental investigation of diffraction patterns in low-Fresnel-number focusing systems,” Opt. Acta 30, 1621–1643 (1983).

[CrossRef]

Y. Li, E. Wolf, “Focal shifts in diffracted converging spherical waves,” Opt. Commun. 39, 211–215 (1981).

[CrossRef]

E. Wolf, Y. Li, “Conditions for the validity of the Debye integral representation of focused fields,” Opt. Commun. 39, 205–210 (1981).

[CrossRef]

W. D. Furlan, G. Saavedra, E. Silvestre, M. Martı́nez-Corral, “On-axis irradiance for spherical aberrated optical systems with obscured rectangular apertures: a study using the Wigner distribution function,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 69–77 (1998).

[CrossRef]

M. Martı́nez-Corral, C. J. Zapata-Rodrı́guez, P. Andrés, E. Silvestre, “Effective Fresnel-number concept for evaluating the relative focal shift in focused beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 449–455 (1998).

[CrossRef]

M. Martı́nez-Corral, P. Andrés, J. Ojeda-Castañeda, “On-axis diffractional behavior of two-dimensional pupils,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2223–2229 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Parker Givens, “Focal shifts in diffracted converging spherical waves,” Opt. Commun. 41, 145–148 (1982).

[CrossRef]

Y. Li, H. Platzer, “An experimental investigation of diffraction patterns in low-Fresnel-number focusing systems,” Opt. Acta 30, 1621–1643 (1983).

[CrossRef]

P. Jacquinot, B. Roizen-Dossier, “Apodization,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1964), Vol. 3, pp. 29–186.

I. S. Gradshteyn, I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series, and Products (Academic, London, 1980).

W. D. Furlan, G. Saavedra, E. Silvestre, M. Martı́nez-Corral, “On-axis irradiance for spherical aberrated optical systems with obscured rectangular apertures: a study using the Wigner distribution function,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 69–77 (1998).

[CrossRef]

M. Martı́nez-Corral, C. J. Zapata-Rodrı́guez, P. Andrés, E. Silvestre, “Effective Fresnel-number concept for evaluating the relative focal shift in focused beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 449–455 (1998).

[CrossRef]

W. D. Furlan, G. Saavedra, E. Silvestre, M. Martı́nez-Corral, “On-axis irradiance for spherical aberrated optical systems with obscured rectangular apertures: a study using the Wigner distribution function,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 69–77 (1998).

[CrossRef]

J. J. Stamnes, B. Spjelkavik, “Focusing at small angular apertures in the Debye and Kirchhoff approximations,” Opt. Commun. 40, 81–85 (1981).

[CrossRef]

J. J. Stamnes, B. Spjelkavik, “Focusing at small angular apertures in the Debye and Kirchhoff approximations,” Opt. Commun. 40, 81–85 (1981).

[CrossRef]

J. J. Stamnes, “Focusing of two-dimensional waves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 15–31 (1981).

[CrossRef]

J. J. Stamnes, Waves in Focal Regions: Propagation, Diffraction and Focusing of Light, Sound and Water Waves (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1986), Part IV.

Y. Li, E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional intensity distribution near the focus in systems of different Fresnel numbers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 801–808 (1984).

[CrossRef]

E. Wolf, Y. Li, “Conditions for the validity of the Debye integral representation of focused fields,” Opt. Commun. 39, 205–210 (1981).

[CrossRef]

Y. Li, E. Wolf, “Focal shifts in diffracted converging spherical waves,” Opt. Commun. 39, 211–215 (1981).

[CrossRef]

E. Collet, E. Wolf, “Symmetry properties of focused fields,” Opt. Lett. 5, 264–266 (1980).

[CrossRef]

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1979), Sec. 8.8.

V. N. Mahajan, “Axial irradiance and optimum focusing of laser beams,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3042–3053 (1983).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. N. Sitter, W. T. Rhodes, “Three-dimensional imaging: a space invariant model for space variant systems,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3789–3794 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Martı́nez-Corral, P. Andrés, J. Ojeda-Castañeda, “On-axis diffractional behavior of two-dimensional pupils,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2223–2229 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. P. Karman, A. van Kuijl, M. W. Beijersbergen, J. P. Woerdman, “Measurement of the three-dimensional intensity distribution in the neighborhood of a paraxial focus,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8091–8095 (1997).

[CrossRef]

W. D. Furlan, G. Saavedra, E. Silvestre, M. Martı́nez-Corral, “On-axis irradiance for spherical aberrated optical systems with obscured rectangular apertures: a study using the Wigner distribution function,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 69–77 (1998).

[CrossRef]

Y. Li, “A high-accuracy formula for fast evaluation of the effect of focal shift,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1815–1819 (1991).

[CrossRef]

M. Martı́nez-Corral, C. J. Zapata-Rodrı́guez, P. Andrés, E. Silvestre, “Effective Fresnel-number concept for evaluating the relative focal shift in focused beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 449–455 (1998).

[CrossRef]

N. Streibl, “Three-dimensional imaging by a microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 121–127 (1985).

[CrossRef]

V. N. Mahajan, “Uniform versus Gaussian beams: a comparison of the effects of diffraction, obscuration, and aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 470–485 (1986).

[CrossRef]

For an extensive discussion on spatial invariance and thecorrect use of the point-spread function in optical systems of finite Fresnel number, see C. J. R. Sheppard, “Imaging in optical systems of finite Fresnel number,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1428–1432 (1986).

[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard, Z. S. Hegedus, “Axial behavior of pupil-plane filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 643–647 (1988).

[CrossRef]

Y. Li, E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional intensity distribution near the focus in systems of different Fresnel numbers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 801–808 (1984).

[CrossRef]

Y. Li, H. Platzer, “An experimental investigation of diffraction patterns in low-Fresnel-number focusing systems,” Opt. Acta 30, 1621–1643 (1983).

[CrossRef]

A. Arimoto, “Intensity distribution of aberration-free diffraction patterns due to circular apertures in large F-number optical systems,” Opt. Acta 23, 245–250 (1976).

[CrossRef]

J. J. Stamnes, B. Spjelkavik, “Focusing at small angular apertures in the Debye and Kirchhoff approximations,” Opt. Commun. 40, 81–85 (1981).

[CrossRef]

Y. Li, E. Wolf, “Focal shifts in diffracted converging spherical waves,” Opt. Commun. 39, 211–215 (1981).

[CrossRef]

M. Parker Givens, “Focal shifts in diffracted converging spherical waves,” Opt. Commun. 41, 145–148 (1982).

[CrossRef]

E. Wolf, Y. Li, “Conditions for the validity of the Debye integral representation of focused fields,” Opt. Commun. 39, 205–210 (1981).

[CrossRef]

J. J. Stamnes, Waves in Focal Regions: Propagation, Diffraction and Focusing of Light, Sound and Water Waves (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1986), Part IV.

P. Jacquinot, B. Roizen-Dossier, “Apodization,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1964), Vol. 3, pp. 29–186.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1979), Sec. 8.8.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996), Chap. 4.

I. S. Gradshteyn, I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series, and Products (Academic, London, 1980).

T. Wilson, ed., Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990).

M. Gu, Principles of Three-Dimensional Imaging in Confocal Microscopes (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), Chap. 2.