Abstract

A primary goal of this study was to establish whether the magnitude of the short-wavelength-sensitive- (S-) cone signal into the yellow/blue (Y/B) mechanism was influenced by the absolute or the relative numbers of S cones. This was assessed by measuring the locus of unique green for various test sizes at four eccentric locations chosen to exploit differences in the underlying mosaic of S cones. In general, the locus of unique green was unaffected by test size, retinal quadrant, or rod input but was influenced by retinal eccentricity. The locus of unique green shifted to shorter wavelengths as retinal eccentricity increased from 1° to 8°. The data do not support a model whereby the S-cone signal is determined by the absolute number of S cones, but a model based on the relative number of S cones cannot be eliminated.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  26. G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
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  27. L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
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  30. C. M. Cicerone, S. Otake, “Color-opponent sites: individual variability and changes with retinal eccentricity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, 454 (1997).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, R. H. Webb, “Mapping cone photopigment optical density,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 52–58 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. S. Marcos, R-P. Tornow, A. E. Elsner, R. Navarro, “Foveal cone spacing and cone photopigment density difference: objective measurements in the same subjects,” Vision Res. 37, 1909–1915 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  38. R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vision Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, C. J. Ayde, S. M. Imhoff, “Effect of the S-cone mosaic and rods on red/green equilibria,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2816–2826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (4)

C. M. Cicerone, S. Otake, “Color-opponent sites: individual variability and changes with retinal eccentricity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, 454 (1997).

S. Marcos, R-P. Tornow, A. E. Elsner, R. Navarro, “Foveal cone spacing and cone photopigment density difference: objective measurements in the same subjects,” Vision Res. 37, 1909–1915 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 37, 2813–2828 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, C. E. Harlow, “The biomodality of unique green revisited,” Vision Res. 37, 407–416 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, J. Bechtold, “Rod influence on unique-hue loci: comparison to successive scotopic color contrast,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 37, 727 (1996).

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 21, 3407–3414 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Naarendorp, K. S. Rice, P. A. Sieving, “Summation of rod and S cone signals at threshold in human observers,” Vision Res. 36, 2681–2688 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1993 (4)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, A. E. Storniolo, “Spectral loci of unique hues: implications for color vision models,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 34, 749 (1993).

A. L. Nagy, J. A. Doyal, “Red–green discrimination as a function of stimulus field size in peripheral vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1147–1156 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vision Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, R. H. Webb, “Mapping cone photopigment optical density,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 52–58 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

1991 (2)

S. L. Guth, “Model for color vision and light adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 976–993 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–625 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (4)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Loci of spectral unique hues throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 305–311 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Ahnelt, C. Keri, H. Kolb, “Identification of pedicles of putative blue-sensitive cones in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 293, 39–53 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. W. Daw, R. J. Jensen, W. J. Brunken, “Rod pathways in mammalian retinae,” Trends Neurosci. 13, 110–115 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1984 (2)

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vision Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctuate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

B. A. Ambler, R. W. Proctor, “Rod involvement in peripheral color processing,” Scand. J. Psychol. 17, 142–148 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

J. Larimer, D. H. Krantz, C. M. Cicerone, “Opponent process additivity—II. Yellow/blue equilibria and nonlinear models,” Vision Res. 15, 723–731 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

P. W. Trezona, “Additivity in the tetrachromatic colour matching system,” Vision Res. 14, 1291–1303 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

M. Alpern, “Rhodopsin kinetics in the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 217, 447–471 (1971).

1966 (1)

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1957 (1)

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abramov, I.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, A. E. Storniolo, “Spectral loci of unique hues: implications for color vision models,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 34, 749 (1993).

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahnelt, P. K.

P. K. Ahnelt, C. Keri, H. Kolb, “Identification of pedicles of putative blue-sensitive cones in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 293, 39–53 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–625 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, “Rhodopsin kinetics in the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 217, 447–471 (1971).

Ambler, B. A.

B. A. Ambler, R. W. Proctor, “Rod involvement in peripheral color processing,” Scand. J. Psychol. 17, 142–148 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayde, C. J.

Bechtold, J.

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, J. Bechtold, “Rod influence on unique-hue loci: comparison to successive scotopic color contrast,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 37, 727 (1996).

Brunken, W. J.

N. W. Daw, R. J. Jensen, W. J. Brunken, “Rod pathways in mammalian retinae,” Trends Neurosci. 13, 110–115 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buck, S. L.

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, J. Bechtold, “Rod influence on unique-hue loci: comparison to successive scotopic color contrast,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 37, 727 (1996).

Burns, S. A.

Cicerone, C. M.

C. M. Cicerone, S. Otake, “Color-opponent sites: individual variability and changes with retinal eccentricity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, 454 (1997).

J. L. Nerger, C. M. Cicerone, “The ratio of L to M cones in the human parfoveal retina,” Vision Res. 32, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Larimer, D. H. Krantz, C. M. Cicerone, “Opponent process additivity—II. Yellow/blue equilibria and nonlinear models,” Vision Res. 15, 723–731 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Otake, C. M. Cicerone, “The relative numbers of L and M cones and the cone density distribution in the peripheral retina,” in Advances in Color Vision, Vol. 4 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 35–37.

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–625 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daw, N. W.

N. W. Daw, R. J. Jensen, W. J. Brunken, “Rod pathways in mammalian retinae,” Trends Neurosci. 13, 110–115 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Valois, K. K.

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vision Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Valois, R. L.

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vision Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demarco, P.

Doyal, J. A.

Drum, B.

Elsner, A. E.

S. Marcos, R-P. Tornow, A. E. Elsner, R. Navarro, “Foveal cone spacing and cone photopigment density difference: objective measurements in the same subjects,” Vision Res. 37, 1909–1915 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, R. H. Webb, “Mapping cone photopigment optical density,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 52–58 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, “Color matching at high illuminances: the color-match-area effect and photopigment bleaching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 698–704 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vision Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, J.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, A. E. Storniolo, “Spectral loci of unique hues: implications for color vision models,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 34, 749 (1993).

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guth, S. L.

Hagstrom, S. A.

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harlow, C. E.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, C. E. Harlow, “The biomodality of unique green revisited,” Vision Res. 37, 407–416 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayhoe, M. M.

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctuate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurley, J. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–625 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imhoff, S. M.

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, R. J.

N. W. Daw, R. J. Jensen, W. J. Brunken, “Rod pathways in mammalian retinae,” Trends Neurosci. 13, 110–115 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keri, C.

P. K. Ahnelt, C. Keri, H. Kolb, “Identification of pedicles of putative blue-sensitive cones in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 293, 39–53 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klock, I. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–625 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knau, H.

H. Knau, L. T. Sharpe, “L/M cone ratios as a function of retinal eccentricity,” presented at the XVth Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Göttingen, Germany, July 23–27, 1999.

Knight, R.

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, J. Bechtold, “Rod influence on unique-hue loci: comparison to successive scotopic color contrast,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 37, 727 (1996).

Kolb, H.

P. K. Ahnelt, C. Keri, H. Kolb, “Identification of pedicles of putative blue-sensitive cones in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 293, 39–53 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krantz, D. H.

J. Larimer, D. H. Krantz, C. M. Cicerone, “Opponent process additivity—II. Yellow/blue equilibria and nonlinear models,” Vision Res. 15, 723–731 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kremers, J.

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 37, 2813–2828 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Larimer, J.

J. Larimer, D. H. Krantz, C. M. Cicerone, “Opponent process additivity—II. Yellow/blue equilibria and nonlinear models,” Vision Res. 15, 723–731 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. B.

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 37, 2813–2828 (1997).
[CrossRef]

LeGrand, Y.

Y. LeGrand, Light, Color, and Vision (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Lerea, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–625 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctuate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Marcos, S.

S. Marcos, R-P. Tornow, A. E. Elsner, R. Navarro, “Foveal cone spacing and cone photopigment density difference: objective measurements in the same subjects,” Vision Res. 37, 1909–1915 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milam, A. H.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–625 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naarendorp, F.

F. Naarendorp, K. S. Rice, P. A. Sieving, “Summation of rod and S cone signals at threshold in human observers,” Vision Res. 36, 2681–2688 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagy, A. L.

Navarro, R.

S. Marcos, R-P. Tornow, A. E. Elsner, R. Navarro, “Foveal cone spacing and cone photopigment density difference: objective measurements in the same subjects,” Vision Res. 37, 1909–1915 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neitz, J.

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 37, 2813–2828 (1997).
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S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vision Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 37, 2813–2828 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell, U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 21, 3407–3414 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Trezona, “Additivity in the tetrachromatic colour matching system,” Vision Res. 14, 1291–1303 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctuate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
[CrossRef]

F. Naarendorp, K. S. Rice, P. A. Sieving, “Summation of rod and S cone signals at threshold in human observers,” Vision Res. 36, 2681–2688 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Nerger, C. M. Cicerone, “The ratio of L to M cones in the human parfoveal retina,” Vision Res. 32, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vision Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

S. Otake, C. M. Cicerone, “The relative numbers of L and M cones and the cone density distribution in the peripheral retina,” in Advances in Color Vision, Vol. 4 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 35–37.

H. Knau, L. T. Sharpe, “L/M cone ratios as a function of retinal eccentricity,” presented at the XVth Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Göttingen, Germany, July 23–27, 1999.

Y. LeGrand, Light, Color, and Vision (Wiley, New York, 1957).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Predicted patterns of the locus of unique green for the absolute (panel A) and relative (panel B) S-cone models (see text for details).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Unique green loci plotted as a function of stimulus size for 1° and 8° nasal and superior retinal eccentricities. Different symbols denote different observers; error bars represent ±1 SEM based on between-session variability.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Unique green loci measured in the nasal retina in comparison with unique green loci measured in the superior retina. Different symbols specify different retinal eccentricities and test sizes; error bars represent ±1 SEM based on between-session variability. Dashed lines delimit the ±3-nm-shift criterion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Unique green loci measured at 1° retinal eccentricity in comparison with unique green loci obtained at 8° retinal eccentricity. Different symbols specify different retinal quadrants and test sizes; error bars represent ±1 SEM based on between-session variability. Dashed lines delimit the ±3-nm-shift criterion.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Unique green loci measured in the rod-bleach condition in comparison with those from the no-bleach condition. Different symbols specify different retinal eccentricities and test sizes; error bars represent ±1 SEM based on between-session variability. Dashed lines delimit the ±3-nm-shift criterion.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Unique green loci obtained in the nasal (upper panel) and superior (lower panel) retinal quadrants are plotted in the manner of Fig. 1. Different symbols denote the three observers. The solid line represents the mean of the three observers.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Estimates of Relative and Absolute Number of S Cones and Total Cones

Equations (1)

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k1S(λ)-k2M(λ)-k3L(λ)=0.

Metrics