Abstract

In most mammals short-wavelength-sensitive (S) cones are arranged in irregular patterns with widely variable intercell distances. Consequently, mosaics of connected interneurons either may show some type of correlation to photoreceptor placement or may establish an independent lattice with compensatory dendritic organization. Since axonless horizontal cells (A-HC’s) are supposed to direct all dendrites to overlying cones, we studied their spatial interaction with chromatic cone subclasses. In the cheetah, the bobcat, and the leopard, anti-S-opsin antibodies have consistently colabeled the A-HC’s in addition to the S cones. We investigated the interaction between the two cell mosaics, using autocorrelation and cross-correlation procedures, including a Voronoi-based density probe. Comparisons with simulations of random mosaics show significantly lower densities of S cones above the cell bodies and primary dendrites of A-HC’s. The pattern results in different long-wavelength-sensitive-L- and S-cone ratios in the central versus the peripheral zones of A-HC dendritic fields. The existence of a related pattern at the synaptic level and its potential significance for color processing may be investigated in further studies.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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1999

A. Hendrickson, H. Djajad, D. Sajuthi, “The nocturnal simian Tarsius has short wavelength cones in an unusual topography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, 238 (1999).

P. M. Martin, U. Grünert, “Analysis of the short wavelength-sensitive (‘blue’) cone mosaic in the primate retina: comparison of New World and Old World monkeys,” J. Comp. Neurol. 406, 1–14 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Galli-Resta, E. Novelli, Z. Kryger, G. H. Jacobs, B. E. Reese, “Modelling the mosaic organization of rod and cone photoreceptors with a minimal spacing rule,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 11, 1461–1469 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Luo, K. K. Gosh, P. R. Martin, U. Grünert, “Analysis of two types of cone bipolar cells in the retina of a New World monkey, the marmoset, Callithrix jacchus,” Visual Neurosci. 16, 707–719 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Hack, L. Peichl, “Horizontal cells of the rabbit retina are non-selectively connected to the cones,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 11, 2261–2274 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Pflug, H. Reitsamer, “Topographic variation of cone–cone interaction in spectral sensitivities determined from small field ERGs of rabbit retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, 238 (1999).

1998

M. A. Johnson, N. Vardi, “Regional differences in GABA and GAD immunoreactivity in rabbit horizontal cells,” Visual Neurosci. 15, 743–753 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Provencio, G. Jiang, W. J. De Grip, W. P. Hayes, M. D. Rollag, “Melanopsin: an opsin in melanophores, brain, and eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 340–345 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Soni, R. G. Foster, “A novel and ancient vertebrate opsin,” FEBS Lett. 406, 279–283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Chan, U. Grünert, “Horizontal cell connections with short wavelength sensitive cones in the retina: a comparison between New World and Old World primates,” J. Comp. Neurol. 393, 196–209 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

N. Kouyama, D. W. Marshak, “The topographical relationship between two neuronal mosaics in the short wavelength-sensitive system of the primate retina,” Visual Neurosci. 14, 159–167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, D. J. Gilbert, N. G. Copeland, N. A. Jenkins, J. Nathans, “Peropsin, a novel visual pigment-like protein located in the apical microvilli of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 9893–9898 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

J. E. Cook, “Spatial properties of retinal mosaics: an empirical evaluation of some existing measures,” Visual Neurosci. 13, 15–30 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Lee, D. K. Stafford, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Horizontal cells of the primate retina: cone specificity without spectral opponency,” Science 271, 656–659 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sandmann, B. B. Boycott, L. Peichl, “Blue-cone horizontal cells in the retinae of horses and other equidae,” J. Neurosci. 16, 3381–3396 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995

P. K. Ahnelt, J. N. Hokoç, P. Röhlich, “Photoreceptors in a primitive mammal, the South American opossum, Didelphis marsupialis aurita: characterization with anti-opsin immunolabeling,” Visual Neurosci. 12, 793–804 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, “Horizontal cells and cone photoreceptors in primate retina: a Golgi-light microscopic study of spectral connectivity,” J. Comp. Neurol. 343, 387–405 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, “Horizontal cells and cone photoreceptors in human retina: a Golgi-electron microscopic study of spectral connectivity,” J. Comp. Neurol. 343, 406–427 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Mills, S. C. Massey, “Distribution and coverage of A- and B-type horizontal cells stained with neurobiotin in the rabbit retina,” Visual Neurosci. 11, 549–560 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Chiu, J. Nathans, “A sequence upstream of the mouse blue visual pigment gene directs blue cone-specific transgene expression in mouse retinas,” Visual Neurosci. 11, 773–780 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Wikler, P. Rakic, “An array of early-differentiating cones precedes the emergence of the photoreceptor mosaic in the fetal retina,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 6534–6538 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

S. J. N. Hokoç, M. Medeiros De Oliveira, P. K. Ahnelt, “Three types of horizontal cells in a primitive mammal, the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis aurita),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 34, 1152 (1993).

E. Fernández, N. Cuenca, J. De Juan, “A compiled BASIC program for analysis of spatial point patterns, application to retinal studies,” J. Neurosci. Methods 50, 1–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

R. W. Rodieck, D. W. Marshak, “Spatial density and distribution of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells in human, macaque, and baboon retinas,” J. Comp. Neurol. 321, 46–64 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, “Packing geometry of human cone photoreceptors: variation with eccentricity and evidence for local anisotropy,” Visual Neurosci. 9, 169–180 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Szél, P. Röhlich, A. R. Caffe, B. Juliusson, G. Aguirre, T. van Veen, “Unique topographic separation of two spectral classes of cones in the mouse retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 325, 327–342 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Á. Szél, P. Röhlich, “Two cone types in rat retina detected by anti-visual pigment antibodies,” Exp. Eye Res. 55, 47–52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Rodieck, “The density recovery profile: a method for the analysis of points in the plane applicable to retinal studies,” Visual Neurosci. 6, 95–111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

E. Raviola, R. F. Dacheux, “Axonless horizontal cells of the rabbit retina: synaptic connections and origin of the rod aftereffect,” J. Neurocytol. 19, 731–736 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

B. Müller, L. Peichl, “Topography of cones and rods in the tree shrew retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 282, 581–594 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

A. Szél, T. Diamantstein, P. Röhlich, “Identification of the blue-sensitive cones in the mammalian retina by anti-visual pigment antibody,” J. Comp. Neurol. 273, 593–602 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

D. R. Williams, “Seeing through the photoreceptor mosaic,” Trends Neurosci. 9, 193–198 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

M. B. Shapiro, S. J. Schein, F. M. de Monasterio, “Regularity and structure of the spatial pattern of blue cones of macaque retina,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 80, 803–812 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Ahnelt, “Characterization of the color related receptor mosaic in the ground squirrel retina,” Vision Res. 25, 1557–1567 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

K. O. Long, S. K. Fisher, “The distributions of photoreceptors and ganglion cells in the California ground squirrel, Spermophilus beecheyi,” J. Comp. Neurol. 221, 329–340 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, R. Collier, “Consequences of spatial sampling by a human photoreceptor mosaic,” Science 221, 385–387 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

A. Gallego, “Horizontal cells of the Tetrapoda retina,” Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 113, 9–29 (1982).
[PubMed]

1981

F. M. de Monasterio, S. J. Schein, E. P. McCrane, “Staining of blue-sensitive cones of the macaque retina by a fluorescent dye,” Science 213, 1278–1281 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Famiglietti, “Functional architecture of cone bipolar cells in mammalian retina,” Vision Res. 21, 1559–1563 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

H. Kolb, A. Mariani, A. Gallego, “A second type of horizontal cell in the monkey retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 189, 31–44 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

H. Wässle, H. J. Riemann, “The mosaic of nerve cells in the mammalian retina,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 200, 441–461 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. Wässle, L. Peichl, B. B. Boycott, “Topography of horizontal cells in the retina of the domestic cat,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B. 203, 269–291 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. Wässle, B. B. Boycott, L. Peichl, “Receptor contacts of horizontal cells in the retina of the domestic cat,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 203, 247–267 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Green, R. Sibson, “Computing Dirichlet tessellations in the plane,” Comput. J. (Cambridge) 21, 68–173 (1978).

1973

B. B. Boycott, H. Kolb, “The horizontal cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 148, 115–139 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1954

P. J. Clark, F. C. Evans, “Distance to nearest neighbor as a measure of spatial relationship in populations,” Ecology 34, 445–453 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre, G.

A. Szél, P. Röhlich, A. R. Caffe, B. Juliusson, G. Aguirre, T. van Veen, “Unique topographic separation of two spectral classes of cones in the mouse retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 325, 327–342 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahnelt, P. K.

P. K. Ahnelt, J. N. Hokoç, P. Röhlich, “Photoreceptors in a primitive mammal, the South American opossum, Didelphis marsupialis aurita: characterization with anti-opsin immunolabeling,” Visual Neurosci. 12, 793–804 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, “Horizontal cells and cone photoreceptors in primate retina: a Golgi-light microscopic study of spectral connectivity,” J. Comp. Neurol. 343, 387–405 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, “Horizontal cells and cone photoreceptors in human retina: a Golgi-electron microscopic study of spectral connectivity,” J. Comp. Neurol. 343, 406–427 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. N. Hokoç, M. Medeiros De Oliveira, P. K. Ahnelt, “Three types of horizontal cells in a primitive mammal, the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis aurita),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 34, 1152 (1993).

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Ahnelt, “Characterization of the color related receptor mosaic in the ground squirrel retina,” Vision Res. 25, 1557–1567 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boots, B. N.

B. N. Boots, A. Getis, Point Pattern Analysis (Sage, Beverly Hills, Calif., 1988).

Boycott, B. B.

D. Sandmann, B. B. Boycott, L. Peichl, “Blue-cone horizontal cells in the retinae of horses and other equidae,” J. Neurosci. 16, 3381–3396 (1996).
[PubMed]

H. Wässle, L. Peichl, B. B. Boycott, “Topography of horizontal cells in the retina of the domestic cat,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B. 203, 269–291 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. Wässle, B. B. Boycott, L. Peichl, “Receptor contacts of horizontal cells in the retina of the domestic cat,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 203, 247–267 (1978).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Boycott, H. Kolb, “The horizontal cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 148, 115–139 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Peichl, D. Sandmann, B. B. Boycott, “Comparative anatomy and function of mammalian horizontal cells,” in Development and Organization of the Retina, L. M. Chalupa, B. L. Finlay, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1998).

Caffe, A. R.

A. Szél, P. Röhlich, A. R. Caffe, B. Juliusson, G. Aguirre, T. van Veen, “Unique topographic separation of two spectral classes of cones in the mouse retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 325, 327–342 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, T. L.

T. L. Chan, U. Grünert, “Horizontal cell connections with short wavelength sensitive cones in the retina: a comparison between New World and Old World primates,” J. Comp. Neurol. 393, 196–209 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiu, M. I.

M. I. Chiu, J. Nathans, “A sequence upstream of the mouse blue visual pigment gene directs blue cone-specific transgene expression in mouse retinas,” Visual Neurosci. 11, 773–780 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Clark, P. J.

P. J. Clark, F. C. Evans, “Distance to nearest neighbor as a measure of spatial relationship in populations,” Ecology 34, 445–453 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Collier, R.

D. R. Williams, R. Collier, “Consequences of spatial sampling by a human photoreceptor mosaic,” Science 221, 385–387 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, J.

J. Cook, “Getting to grips with neuronal diversity,” in Development and Organization of the Retina, L. M. Chalupa, B. L. Finlay, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1998), pp. 91–120.

Cook, J. E.

J. E. Cook, “Spatial properties of retinal mosaics: an empirical evaluation of some existing measures,” Visual Neurosci. 13, 15–30 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Copeland, N. G.

H. Sun, D. J. Gilbert, N. G. Copeland, N. A. Jenkins, J. Nathans, “Peropsin, a novel visual pigment-like protein located in the apical microvilli of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 9893–9898 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuenca, N.

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C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, “Packing geometry of human cone photoreceptors: variation with eccentricity and evidence for local anisotropy,” Visual Neurosci. 9, 169–180 (1992).
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C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. M. Dacey, B. B. Lee, D. K. Stafford, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Horizontal cells of the primate retina: cone specificity without spectral opponency,” Science 271, 656–659 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Raviola, R. F. Dacheux, “Axonless horizontal cells of the rabbit retina: synaptic connections and origin of the rod aftereffect,” J. Neurocytol. 19, 731–736 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Grip, W. J.

I. Provencio, G. Jiang, W. J. De Grip, W. P. Hayes, M. D. Rollag, “Melanopsin: an opsin in melanophores, brain, and eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 340–345 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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M. B. Shapiro, S. J. Schein, F. M. de Monasterio, “Regularity and structure of the spatial pattern of blue cones of macaque retina,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 80, 803–812 (1985).
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F. M. de Monasterio, S. J. Schein, E. P. McCrane, “Staining of blue-sensitive cones of the macaque retina by a fluorescent dye,” Science 213, 1278–1281 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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A. Szél, T. Diamantstein, P. Röhlich, “Identification of the blue-sensitive cones in the mammalian retina by anti-visual pigment antibody,” J. Comp. Neurol. 273, 593–602 (1988).
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E. V. Famiglietti, “Functional architecture of cone bipolar cells in mammalian retina,” Vision Res. 21, 1559–1563 (1981).
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E. Fernández, N. Cuenca, J. De Juan, “A compiled BASIC program for analysis of spatial point patterns, application to retinal studies,” J. Neurosci. Methods 50, 1–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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K. O. Long, S. K. Fisher, “The distributions of photoreceptors and ganglion cells in the California ground squirrel, Spermophilus beecheyi,” J. Comp. Neurol. 221, 329–340 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, R. G.

B. G. Soni, R. G. Foster, “A novel and ancient vertebrate opsin,” FEBS Lett. 406, 279–283 (1998).
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A. Gallego, “Horizontal cells of the Tetrapoda retina,” Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 113, 9–29 (1982).
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H. Kolb, A. Mariani, A. Gallego, “A second type of horizontal cell in the monkey retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 189, 31–44 (1980).
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L. Galli-Resta, E. Novelli, Z. Kryger, G. H. Jacobs, B. E. Reese, “Modelling the mosaic organization of rod and cone photoreceptors with a minimal spacing rule,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 11, 1461–1469 (1999).
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H. Sun, D. J. Gilbert, N. G. Copeland, N. A. Jenkins, J. Nathans, “Peropsin, a novel visual pigment-like protein located in the apical microvilli of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 9893–9898 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gosh, K. K.

X. Luo, K. K. Gosh, P. R. Martin, U. Grünert, “Analysis of two types of cone bipolar cells in the retina of a New World monkey, the marmoset, Callithrix jacchus,” Visual Neurosci. 16, 707–719 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Green, P. J.

P. J. Green, R. Sibson, “Computing Dirichlet tessellations in the plane,” Comput. J. (Cambridge) 21, 68–173 (1978).

Grünert, U.

X. Luo, K. K. Gosh, P. R. Martin, U. Grünert, “Analysis of two types of cone bipolar cells in the retina of a New World monkey, the marmoset, Callithrix jacchus,” Visual Neurosci. 16, 707–719 (1999).
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P. M. Martin, U. Grünert, “Analysis of the short wavelength-sensitive (‘blue’) cone mosaic in the primate retina: comparison of New World and Old World monkeys,” J. Comp. Neurol. 406, 1–14 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Chan, U. Grünert, “Horizontal cell connections with short wavelength sensitive cones in the retina: a comparison between New World and Old World primates,” J. Comp. Neurol. 393, 196–209 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hack, I.

I. Hack, L. Peichl, “Horizontal cells of the rabbit retina are non-selectively connected to the cones,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 11, 2261–2274 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayes, W. P.

I. Provencio, G. Jiang, W. J. De Grip, W. P. Hayes, M. D. Rollag, “Melanopsin: an opsin in melanophores, brain, and eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 340–345 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendrickson, A.

A. Hendrickson, H. Djajad, D. Sajuthi, “The nocturnal simian Tarsius has short wavelength cones in an unusual topography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, 238 (1999).

Hokoç, J. N.

P. K. Ahnelt, J. N. Hokoç, P. Röhlich, “Photoreceptors in a primitive mammal, the South American opossum, Didelphis marsupialis aurita: characterization with anti-opsin immunolabeling,” Visual Neurosci. 12, 793–804 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hokoç, S. J. N.

S. J. N. Hokoç, M. Medeiros De Oliveira, P. K. Ahnelt, “Three types of horizontal cells in a primitive mammal, the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis aurita),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 34, 1152 (1993).

Hughes, A.

A. Hughes, “The topography of vision in mammals of contrasting life style: comparative optics and retinal organization,” in Visual System of Vertebrates, F. Crescitelli, ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1972), Vol. 7, pp. 613–756.

Hurley, J. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, G. H.

L. Galli-Resta, E. Novelli, Z. Kryger, G. H. Jacobs, B. E. Reese, “Modelling the mosaic organization of rod and cone photoreceptors with a minimal spacing rule,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 11, 1461–1469 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkins, N. A.

H. Sun, D. J. Gilbert, N. G. Copeland, N. A. Jenkins, J. Nathans, “Peropsin, a novel visual pigment-like protein located in the apical microvilli of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 9893–9898 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, G.

I. Provencio, G. Jiang, W. J. De Grip, W. P. Hayes, M. D. Rollag, “Melanopsin: an opsin in melanophores, brain, and eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 340–345 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, M. A.

M. A. Johnson, N. Vardi, “Regional differences in GABA and GAD immunoreactivity in rabbit horizontal cells,” Visual Neurosci. 15, 743–753 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Juliusson, B.

A. Szél, P. Röhlich, A. R. Caffe, B. Juliusson, G. Aguirre, T. van Veen, “Unique topographic separation of two spectral classes of cones in the mouse retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 325, 327–342 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klock, I. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolb, H.

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, “Horizontal cells and cone photoreceptors in human retina: a Golgi-electron microscopic study of spectral connectivity,” J. Comp. Neurol. 343, 406–427 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, “Horizontal cells and cone photoreceptors in primate retina: a Golgi-light microscopic study of spectral connectivity,” J. Comp. Neurol. 343, 387–405 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kolb, A. Mariani, A. Gallego, “A second type of horizontal cell in the monkey retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 189, 31–44 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Boycott, H. Kolb, “The horizontal cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 148, 115–139 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kouyama, N.

N. Kouyama, D. W. Marshak, “The topographical relationship between two neuronal mosaics in the short wavelength-sensitive system of the primate retina,” Visual Neurosci. 14, 159–167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kryger, Z.

L. Galli-Resta, E. Novelli, Z. Kryger, G. H. Jacobs, B. E. Reese, “Modelling the mosaic organization of rod and cone photoreceptors with a minimal spacing rule,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 11, 1461–1469 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. B.

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Lee, D. K. Stafford, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Horizontal cells of the primate retina: cone specificity without spectral opponency,” Science 271, 656–659 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lerea, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, K. O.

K. O. Long, S. K. Fisher, “The distributions of photoreceptors and ganglion cells in the California ground squirrel, Spermophilus beecheyi,” J. Comp. Neurol. 221, 329–340 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, X.

X. Luo, K. K. Gosh, P. R. Martin, U. Grünert, “Analysis of two types of cone bipolar cells in the retina of a New World monkey, the marmoset, Callithrix jacchus,” Visual Neurosci. 16, 707–719 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mariani, A.

H. Kolb, A. Mariani, A. Gallego, “A second type of horizontal cell in the monkey retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 189, 31–44 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshak, D. W.

N. Kouyama, D. W. Marshak, “The topographical relationship between two neuronal mosaics in the short wavelength-sensitive system of the primate retina,” Visual Neurosci. 14, 159–167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Rodieck, D. W. Marshak, “Spatial density and distribution of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells in human, macaque, and baboon retinas,” J. Comp. Neurol. 321, 46–64 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, P. M.

P. M. Martin, U. Grünert, “Analysis of the short wavelength-sensitive (‘blue’) cone mosaic in the primate retina: comparison of New World and Old World monkeys,” J. Comp. Neurol. 406, 1–14 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, P. R.

X. Luo, K. K. Gosh, P. R. Martin, U. Grünert, “Analysis of two types of cone bipolar cells in the retina of a New World monkey, the marmoset, Callithrix jacchus,” Visual Neurosci. 16, 707–719 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Massey, S. C.

S. L. Mills, S. C. Massey, “Distribution and coverage of A- and B-type horizontal cells stained with neurobiotin in the rabbit retina,” Visual Neurosci. 11, 549–560 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McCrane, E. P.

F. M. de Monasterio, S. J. Schein, E. P. McCrane, “Staining of blue-sensitive cones of the macaque retina by a fluorescent dye,” Science 213, 1278–1281 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Medeiros De Oliveira, M.

S. J. N. Hokoç, M. Medeiros De Oliveira, P. K. Ahnelt, “Three types of horizontal cells in a primitive mammal, the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis aurita),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 34, 1152 (1993).

Milam, A. H.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mills, S. L.

S. L. Mills, S. C. Massey, “Distribution and coverage of A- and B-type horizontal cells stained with neurobiotin in the rabbit retina,” Visual Neurosci. 11, 549–560 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Müller, B.

B. Müller, L. Peichl, “Topography of cones and rods in the tree shrew retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 282, 581–594 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nathans, J.

H. Sun, D. J. Gilbert, N. G. Copeland, N. A. Jenkins, J. Nathans, “Peropsin, a novel visual pigment-like protein located in the apical microvilli of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 9893–9898 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Chiu, J. Nathans, “A sequence upstream of the mouse blue visual pigment gene directs blue cone-specific transgene expression in mouse retinas,” Visual Neurosci. 11, 773–780 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Novelli, E.

L. Galli-Resta, E. Novelli, Z. Kryger, G. H. Jacobs, B. E. Reese, “Modelling the mosaic organization of rod and cone photoreceptors with a minimal spacing rule,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 11, 1461–1469 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peichl, L.

I. Hack, L. Peichl, “Horizontal cells of the rabbit retina are non-selectively connected to the cones,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 11, 2261–2274 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sandmann, B. B. Boycott, L. Peichl, “Blue-cone horizontal cells in the retinae of horses and other equidae,” J. Neurosci. 16, 3381–3396 (1996).
[PubMed]

B. Müller, L. Peichl, “Topography of cones and rods in the tree shrew retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 282, 581–594 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wässle, B. B. Boycott, L. Peichl, “Receptor contacts of horizontal cells in the retina of the domestic cat,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 203, 247–267 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. Wässle, L. Peichl, B. B. Boycott, “Topography of horizontal cells in the retina of the domestic cat,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B. 203, 269–291 (1978).
[CrossRef]

L. Peichl, D. Sandmann, B. B. Boycott, “Comparative anatomy and function of mammalian horizontal cells,” in Development and Organization of the Retina, L. M. Chalupa, B. L. Finlay, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1998).

L. Peichl, Max-Planck-Institut für Hirnforschung, 60528 Frankfurt a.M., Germany (personal communication, 1999).

Pflug, R.

R. Pflug, H. Reitsamer, “Topographic variation of cone–cone interaction in spectral sensitivities determined from small field ERGs of rabbit retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, 238 (1999).

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pokorny, J.

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Lee, D. K. Stafford, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Horizontal cells of the primate retina: cone specificity without spectral opponency,” Science 271, 656–659 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Provencio, I.

I. Provencio, G. Jiang, W. J. De Grip, W. P. Hayes, M. D. Rollag, “Melanopsin: an opsin in melanophores, brain, and eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 340–345 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rakic, P.

K. C. Wikler, P. Rakic, “An array of early-differentiating cones precedes the emergence of the photoreceptor mosaic in the fetal retina,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 6534–6538 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Raviola, E.

E. Raviola, R. F. Dacheux, “Axonless horizontal cells of the rabbit retina: synaptic connections and origin of the rod aftereffect,” J. Neurocytol. 19, 731–736 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reese, B. E.

L. Galli-Resta, E. Novelli, Z. Kryger, G. H. Jacobs, B. E. Reese, “Modelling the mosaic organization of rod and cone photoreceptors with a minimal spacing rule,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 11, 1461–1469 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reitsamer, H.

R. Pflug, H. Reitsamer, “Topographic variation of cone–cone interaction in spectral sensitivities determined from small field ERGs of rabbit retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, 238 (1999).

Riemann, H. J.

H. Wässle, H. J. Riemann, “The mosaic of nerve cells in the mammalian retina,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 200, 441–461 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rodieck, R. W.

R. W. Rodieck, D. W. Marshak, “Spatial density and distribution of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells in human, macaque, and baboon retinas,” J. Comp. Neurol. 321, 46–64 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Rodieck, “The density recovery profile: a method for the analysis of points in the plane applicable to retinal studies,” Visual Neurosci. 6, 95–111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Röhlich, P.

P. K. Ahnelt, J. N. Hokoç, P. Röhlich, “Photoreceptors in a primitive mammal, the South American opossum, Didelphis marsupialis aurita: characterization with anti-opsin immunolabeling,” Visual Neurosci. 12, 793–804 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Szél, P. Röhlich, A. R. Caffe, B. Juliusson, G. Aguirre, T. van Veen, “Unique topographic separation of two spectral classes of cones in the mouse retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 325, 327–342 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Á. Szél, P. Röhlich, “Two cone types in rat retina detected by anti-visual pigment antibodies,” Exp. Eye Res. 55, 47–52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Szél, T. Diamantstein, P. Röhlich, “Identification of the blue-sensitive cones in the mammalian retina by anti-visual pigment antibody,” J. Comp. Neurol. 273, 593–602 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szél, B. Vigh, T. van Veen, P. Röhlich, “Development of cone distribution patterns in mammals,” in Development and Organization of the Retina, L. M. Chalupa, B. L. Finlay, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1998), pp. 43–59.

Rollag, M. D.

I. Provencio, G. Jiang, W. J. De Grip, W. P. Hayes, M. D. Rollag, “Melanopsin: an opsin in melanophores, brain, and eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 340–345 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sajuthi, D.

A. Hendrickson, H. Djajad, D. Sajuthi, “The nocturnal simian Tarsius has short wavelength cones in an unusual topography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, 238 (1999).

Sandmann, D.

D. Sandmann, B. B. Boycott, L. Peichl, “Blue-cone horizontal cells in the retinae of horses and other equidae,” J. Neurosci. 16, 3381–3396 (1996).
[PubMed]

L. Peichl, D. Sandmann, B. B. Boycott, “Comparative anatomy and function of mammalian horizontal cells,” in Development and Organization of the Retina, L. M. Chalupa, B. L. Finlay, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1998).

Schein, S. J.

M. B. Shapiro, S. J. Schein, F. M. de Monasterio, “Regularity and structure of the spatial pattern of blue cones of macaque retina,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 80, 803–812 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. M. de Monasterio, S. J. Schein, E. P. McCrane, “Staining of blue-sensitive cones of the macaque retina by a fluorescent dye,” Science 213, 1278–1281 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, M. B.

M. B. Shapiro, S. J. Schein, F. M. de Monasterio, “Regularity and structure of the spatial pattern of blue cones of macaque retina,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 80, 803–812 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sibson, R.

P. J. Green, R. Sibson, “Computing Dirichlet tessellations in the plane,” Comput. J. (Cambridge) 21, 68–173 (1978).

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, “Packing geometry of human cone photoreceptors: variation with eccentricity and evidence for local anisotropy,” Visual Neurosci. 9, 169–180 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Lee, D. K. Stafford, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Horizontal cells of the primate retina: cone specificity without spectral opponency,” Science 271, 656–659 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soni, B. G.

B. G. Soni, R. G. Foster, “A novel and ancient vertebrate opsin,” FEBS Lett. 406, 279–283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stafford, D. K.

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Lee, D. K. Stafford, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Horizontal cells of the primate retina: cone specificity without spectral opponency,” Science 271, 656–659 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, H.

H. Sun, D. J. Gilbert, N. G. Copeland, N. A. Jenkins, J. Nathans, “Peropsin, a novel visual pigment-like protein located in the apical microvilli of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 9893–9898 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szél, A.

A. Szél, P. Röhlich, A. R. Caffe, B. Juliusson, G. Aguirre, T. van Veen, “Unique topographic separation of two spectral classes of cones in the mouse retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 325, 327–342 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szél, T. Diamantstein, P. Röhlich, “Identification of the blue-sensitive cones in the mammalian retina by anti-visual pigment antibody,” J. Comp. Neurol. 273, 593–602 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szél, B. Vigh, T. van Veen, P. Röhlich, “Development of cone distribution patterns in mammals,” in Development and Organization of the Retina, L. M. Chalupa, B. L. Finlay, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1998), pp. 43–59.

Szél, Á.

Á. Szél, P. Röhlich, “Two cone types in rat retina detected by anti-visual pigment antibodies,” Exp. Eye Res. 55, 47–52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

van Veen, T.

A. Szél, P. Röhlich, A. R. Caffe, B. Juliusson, G. Aguirre, T. van Veen, “Unique topographic separation of two spectral classes of cones in the mouse retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 325, 327–342 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szél, B. Vigh, T. van Veen, P. Röhlich, “Development of cone distribution patterns in mammals,” in Development and Organization of the Retina, L. M. Chalupa, B. L. Finlay, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1998), pp. 43–59.

Vardi, N.

M. A. Johnson, N. Vardi, “Regional differences in GABA and GAD immunoreactivity in rabbit horizontal cells,” Visual Neurosci. 15, 743–753 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vigh, B.

A. Szél, B. Vigh, T. van Veen, P. Röhlich, “Development of cone distribution patterns in mammals,” in Development and Organization of the Retina, L. M. Chalupa, B. L. Finlay, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1998), pp. 43–59.

Wässle, H.

H. Wässle, B. B. Boycott, L. Peichl, “Receptor contacts of horizontal cells in the retina of the domestic cat,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 203, 247–267 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. Wässle, H. J. Riemann, “The mosaic of nerve cells in the mammalian retina,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 200, 441–461 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. Wässle, L. Peichl, B. B. Boycott, “Topography of horizontal cells in the retina of the domestic cat,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B. 203, 269–291 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wikler, K. C.

K. C. Wikler, P. Rakic, “An array of early-differentiating cones precedes the emergence of the photoreceptor mosaic in the fetal retina,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 6534–6538 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

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Requests for this program may be sent to O. Martinez at the address given on the title page.

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