Abstract

Relevant data on the distribution of color cones are summarized, with special emphasis on the marked dorso–ventral asymmetries observed in a number of mammalian species. In addition, an overview is given of studies that demonstrate the coexistence of two visual pigments within the same cone cell. The biological significance of these phenomena is discussed in conjunction with comparative immunocytochemical analyses of subprimate retinas. Based on various cone distribution patterns and temporal and spatial visual pigment coexpression, two models of cone photoreceptor differentiation are suggested.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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1999

T. S. Vihtelic, C. J. Doro, D. R. Hyde, “Cloning and characterization of six zebrafish photoreceptor opsin cDNAs and immunolocalization of their corresponding proteins,” Visual Neurosci. 16, 571–585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Calderone, G. H. Jacobs, “Cone receptor variations and their functional consequences in two species of hamster,” Visual Neurosci. 16, 53–63 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Bumsted, A. Hendrickson, “Distribution and development of short-wavelength cones differ between macaca monkey and human fovea,” J. Comp. Neurol. 403, 502–516 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lyubarsky, B. Falsini, M. E. Pennesi, P. Valentini, E. N. Pugh, “UV- and midwave-sensitive cone-driven retinal responses of the mouse: a possible phenotype for coexpression of cone photopigments,” J. Neurosci. 19, 442–455 (1999).

G. H. Jacobs, J. C. Fenwick, J. B. Calderone, S. S. Deeb, “Human cone pigment expressed in transgenic mice yields altered vision,” J. Neurosci. 19, 3258–3265 (1999).
[PubMed]

P. McCaffery, E. Wagner, J. O’Neil, M. Petkovich, U. C. Dräger, “Dorsal and ventral retinal territories defined by retinois acid synthesis, break-down and nuclear receptor expression,” Mech. Dev. 85, 203–214 (1999).
[PubMed]

1998

Á. Szél, Á. Lukáts, T. Fekete, J. Somogyi, H. M. Petry, H. M. Cooper, P. Röhlich, “Visual pigment coexpression in cone cells,” Med. Sci. Mon. 4, 46–56 (1998).

Z. Kryger, L. Galli-Resta, G. H. Jacobs, B. E. Reese, “The topography of rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina of the ground squirrel,” Visual Neurosci. 15, 685–691 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Glösmann, P. Ahnelt, “Coexpression of M- and S-opsin extends over the entire inferior mouse retina,” Eur. J. Neurosci. Suppl. 10 (abstr.), 357 (1998).

W. S. Chang, W. A. Harris, “Sequential genesis and determination of cone and rod photoreceptors in Xenopus,” J. Neurobiol. 35, 227–244 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Peichl, K. Moutairou, “Absence of short-wavelength sensitive cones in the retinae of seals (Carnivora) and African giant rats (Rodentia),” Eur. J. Neurosci. 10, 2586–2594 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Fasick, T. W. Cronin, D. M. Hunt, P. R. Robinson, “The visual pigments of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus),” Visual Neurosci. 15, 643–651 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Peichl, H. Kunzle, P. Vogel, “Cone photoreceptors in insectivore retinae,” Eur. J. Neurosci. Suppl. 10 (abstr.), 355 (1998).

K. C. Wikler, D. L. Stull, B. E. Reese, P. T. Johnson, E. Bogenmann, “Localization of protein kinase C to UV-sensitive photoreceptors in the mouse retina,” Visual Neurosci. 15, 87–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Galli-Resta, “Patterning the vertebrate retina: the early appearance of retinal mosaics,” Semin. Cell Biol. 9, 279–284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Bumsted, C. Jasoni, Á. Szél, A. Hendrickson, “Spatial and temporal expression of cone opsins during monkey retinal development,” J. Comp. Neurol. 378, 117–134 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Beaudet, I. N. Flamarique, C. W. Hawryshyn, “Cone photoreceptor topography in the retina of sexually mature pacific salmonid fishes,” J. Comp. Neurol. 383, 49–59 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. von Schantz, S. M. Argamaso-Herman, Á. Szél, R. G. Foster, “Photopigments and photoentrainment in the Syrian golden hamster,” Brain Res. 770, 131–138 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Wikler, P. Rakic, N. Bhattacharyya, P. R. MacLeish, “Early emergence of photoreceptor mosaicism in the primate retina revealed by a novel cone-specific monoclonal antibody,” J. Comp. Neurol. 377, 500–508 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

S. L. Bruhn, C. L. Cepko, “Development of the pattern of photoreceptors in the chick retina,” J. Neurosci. 16, 1430–1439 (1996).
[PubMed]

K. C. Wikler, Á. Szél, A. L. Jacobsen, “Positional information and opsin identity in retinal cones,” J. Comp. Neurol. 374, 96–107 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Makino, R. L. Dodd, “Multiple visual pigments in a photoreceptor of the salamander retina,” J. Gen. Physiol. 108, 27–34 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Stenkamp, O. Hisatomi, L. K. Barthel, F. Tokunaga, P. A. Raymond, “Temporal expression of rod and cone opsins in embryonic goldfish retina predicts the spatial organization of the cone mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 363–376 (1996).

Á. Szél, P. Röhlich, A. R. Caffé, T. van Veen, “Distribution of cone photoreceptors in the mammalian retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 35, 445–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Cepko, “The patterning and onset of opsin expression in vertebrate retinae,” Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 6, 542–546 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

P. A. Raymond, L. K. Barthel, G. A. Curran, “Developmental patterning of rod and cone photoreceptors in embryonic zebrafish,” J. Comp. Neurol. 359, 537–550 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Famiglietti, S. J. Sharpe, “Regional topography of rod and immunocytochemically characterized blue and green cone photoreceptors in rabbit retina,” Visual Neurosci. 12, 1151–1175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Calderone, G. H. Jacobs, “Regional variations in the relative sensitivity to UV light in the mouse retina,” Visual Neurosci. 12, 463–468 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Robinson, E. A. Schmitt, J. E. Dowling, “Temporal and spatial patterns of opsin gene expression in zebrafish,” Visual Neurosci. 12, 895–906 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. Bergström, B. Ehinger, K. Wilke, C. L. Zucker, A. R. Adolph, Á. Szél, “Development of cell markers in subretinal rabbit retinal transplants,” Exp. Eye Res. 58, 301–313 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Á. Szél, B. Juliusson, A. Bergström, K. Wilke, B. Ehinger, T. van Veen, “Reversed ratio of color-specific cones in the rabbit retinal cell transplants,” Dev. Brain Res. 81, 1–9 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, C. L. Tucker, B. Woodford, Á. Szél, J. Lem, A. Gianella-Borradori, M. I. Simon, E. Bogenmann, “The human blue opsin promoter directs transgene expression in short-wave cones and bipolar cells in the mouse retina,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2611–2615 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Á. Szél, T. van Veen, P. Röhlich, “Retinal cone differentiation,” Nature 370, 336 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kolb, “The architecture of functional neural circuits in the vertebrate retina—the proctor lecture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 2385–2404 (1994).

P. Röhlich, T. van Veen, Á. Szél, “Two different visual pigments in one retinal cone cell,” Neuron 13, 1159–1166 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Juliusson, A. Bergström, P. Röhlich, B. Ehinger, T. van Veen, Á. Szél, “Complementary cone fields of the rabbit retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 811–818 (1994).

G. H. Jacobs, J. F. Deegan, “Sensitivity to ultraviolet light in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): characteristics and mechanisms,” Vision Res. 34, 1433–1441 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Chiu, J. Nathans, “Blue cones and bipolar cells share transcriptional specificity as determined by expression of human blue visual pigment-derived transgenes,” J. Neurosci. 14, 3426–3436 (1994).
[PubMed]

Á. Szél, G. Csorba, A. R. Caffé, G. Szél, P. Röhlich, T. van Veen, “Different patterns of retinal cone topography in two genera of rodents, Mus and Apodemus,” Cell Tissue Res. 276, 143–150 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Von Schantz, Á. Szél, T. van Veen, D. B. Farber, “Expression of soluble phototransduction-associated proteins in ground squirrel retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3922–3930 (1994).

A. Söderpalm, Á. Szél, A. R. Caffé, T. van Veen, “Selective development of one cone photoreceptor type in retinal organ culture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3910–3921 (1994).

K. C. Wikler, P. Rakic, “An array of early differentiating cones precedes the emergence of the photoreceptor mosaic in the fetal monkey retina,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 6534–6538 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

P. McCaffery, K. C. Posch, J. L. Napoli, L. Gudas, U. C. Dräger, “Changing patterns of the retinoic acid system in the developing retina,” Dev. Biol. 158, 390–399 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Caffé, A. Söderpalm, T. van Veen, “Photoreceptor-specific protein expression of mouse retina in organ culture and retardation of rd degeneration in vitro by a combination of basic fibroblast and nerve growth factors,” Curr. Eye Res. 12, 719–726 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Á. Szél, M. von Schantz, P. Röhlich, D. B. Farber, T. van Veen, “Difference in PNA label intensity between short-wavelength and middle-wavelength sensitive cones in the ground squirrel retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 3641–3645 (1993).

G. H. Jacobs, “The distribution and nature of colour vision among the mammals,” Biol. Rev. 68, 413–471 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Röhlich, Á. Szél, “Binding sites of photoreceptor-specific antibodies COS-1, OS-2 and AO,” Curr. Eye Res. 12, 935–944 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Cameron, S. S. Easter, “The cone photoreceptor mosaic of the green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus,” Visual Neurosci. 10, 375–384 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamamoto, P. Gouras, “Color opponent neurons in mouse retina,” Soc. Neurosci. Symp. 19, 1257 (1993).

Á. Szél, P. Röhlich, T. van Veen, “Short-wave sensitive cones in the rodent retinas,” Exp. Eye Res. 57, 503–505 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Petry, J. T. Erichsen, Á. Szél, “Immunocytochemical identification of photoreceptor populations in the tree shrew retina,” Brain Res. 616, 344–350 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Á. Szél, P. Röhlich, K. Mieziewska, G. Aguirre, T. van Veen, “Spatial and temporal differences between the expression of short- and middle-wave sensitive cone pigments in the mouse retina: a developmental study,” J. Comp. Neurol. 331, 564–577 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

Á. Szél, P. Röhlich, “Two cone types of the rat retina detected by anti-visual pigment antibodies,” Exp. Eye Res. 55, 47–52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mollon, J. K. Bowmaker, “The spatial arrangement of cones in the primate fovea,” Nature 360, 677–679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Wang, J. P. Macke, S. L. Merbs, D. J. Zack, B. Klaunberg, J. Bennett, J. Gearhart, J. Nathans, “A locus control region adjacent to the human red and green visual pigment genes,” Neuron 9, 429–440 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Á. Szél, P. Röhlich, A. R. Caffé, B. Juliusson, G. D. Aguirre, T. van Veen, “Unique topographic separation of two spectral classes of cones in the mouse retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 325, 327–342 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Harris, S. L. Messersmith, “Two cellular inductions involved in photoreceptor determination in the Xenopus retina,” Neuron 9, 357–372 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

K. C. Wikler, P. Rakic, “Relation of an array of early-differentiating cones to the photoreceptor mosaic in the primate retina,” Nature 351, 397–400 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lem, M. L. Applebury, J. D. Falk, J. G. Flannery, M. I. Simon, “Tissue-specific and developmental regulation of rod opsin chimeric genes in transgenic mice,” Neuron 6, 201–210 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Zack, J. Bennett, Y. Wang, C. Davenport, B. Klaunberg, J. Gearhart, J. Nathans, “Unusual topography of bovine rhodopsin promoter-IacZ fusion gene expression in transgenic mouse retinas,” Neuron 6, 187–199 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, A. Hendrickson, “Organization and development of the primate photoreceptor mosaic,” Prog. Retinal Res. 10, 89–120 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Jacobs, J. Neitz, J. F. Deegan, “Retinal receptors in rodents maximally sensitive to ultraviolet light,” Nature 353, 655–656 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Reitner, L. T. Sharpe, E. Zrenner, “Is colour vision possible with only rods and blue-sensitive cones?” Nature 352, 798–800 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

S. N. Archer, J. N. Lythgoe, “The visual pigment basis for cone polymorphism in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata,” Vision Res. 30, 225–233 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Wikler, P. Rakic, “Distribution of photoreceptor subtypes in the retina of diurnal and nocturnal primates,” J. Neurosci. 10, 3390–3401 (1990).
[PubMed]

1989

S. Yokoyama, R. Yokoyama, “Molecular evolution of human visual pigment genes,” Mol. Biol. Evol. 6, 186–197 (1989).
[PubMed]

C. L. Lerea, A. H. Bunt-Milam, J. B. Hurley, “Alfa-transducin is present in blue-, green-, and red-sensitive cone photoreceptors in the human retina,” Neuron 3, 367–376 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Caffé, H. Visser, H. G. Jansen, S. Sanyal, “Histotypic differentiation of neonatal mouse retina in organ culture,” Curr. Eye Res. 8, 1083–1092 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

Á. Szél, P. Röhlich, “Four photoreceptor types in the ground squirrel retina as evidenced by immunocytochemistry,” Vision Res. 28, 1297–1302 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Á. Szél, T. Diamantstein, P. Röhlich, “Identification of the blue-sensitive cones in the mammalian retina by anti-visual pigment antibody,” J. Comp. Neurol. 273, 593–602 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

Á. Szél, L. Takács, É. Monostori, T. Diamantstein, I. Vigh-Teichmann, P. Röhlich, “Monoclonal antibody recognizing cone visual pigment,” Exp. Eye Res. 43, 871–883 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Lerea, D. E. Somers, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Bunt-Milam, “Identification of specific transducin alfa subunits in retinal rod and cone photoreceptors,” Science 234, 77–80 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nathans, D. Thomas, D. Hogness, “Molecular genetics of human colour vision. The genes encoding blue, green, and red pigments,” Science 232, 193–202 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Constantine-Paton, A. S. Blum, R. Mendez-Otero, C. J. Barnstable, “A cell surface molecule distributed in a dorsoventral gradient in the perinatal rat retina,” Nature 324, 459–462 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

D. Bok, “Retinal photoreceptor-pigment epithelium interactions,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 1659–1694 (1985).

P. K. Ahnelt, “Characterization of the color related receptor mosaic in the ground squirrel retina,” Vision Res. 25, 1557–1568 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. M. de Monasterio, E. P. McCrane, J. K. Newlander, S. J. Schein, “Density profile of blue-sensitive cones along the horizontal meridian of macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 289–302 (1985).

1981

F. M. de Monasterio, S. J. Schein, E. P. McCrane, “Staining of blue-sensitive cones of the macaque retina by a fluorescent dye,” Science 213, 1278–1281 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vision Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

L. D. Carter-Dawson, M. M. LaVail, “Rods and cones in the mouse retina. I. Structural analysis using light and electron microscopy,” J. Comp. Neurol. 188, 245–262 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976

R. W. Young, “Visual cells and the concept of renewal,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 15, 700–725 (1976).

R. E. Marc, H. G. Sperling, “The chromatic organization of the goldfish cone mosaic,” Vision Res. 16, 1211–1224 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975

R. S. Harwerth, H. G. Sperling, “Effects of intense visible radiation on the increment-threshold spectral sensitivity of the rhesus monkey eye,” Vision Res. 15, 1193–1204 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1935

G. A. Osterberg, “Topography of the layer of rods and cones in the human retina,” Acta Ophthalmol. 13, 1–97 (1935).

Adolph, A. R.

A. Bergström, B. Ehinger, K. Wilke, C. L. Zucker, A. R. Adolph, Á. Szél, “Development of cell markers in subretinal rabbit retinal transplants,” Exp. Eye Res. 58, 301–313 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aguirre, G.

Á. Szél, P. Röhlich, K. Mieziewska, G. Aguirre, T. van Veen, “Spatial and temporal differences between the expression of short- and middle-wave sensitive cone pigments in the mouse retina: a developmental study,” J. Comp. Neurol. 331, 564–577 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aguirre, G. D.

Á. Szél, P. Röhlich, A. R. Caffé, B. Juliusson, G. D. Aguirre, T. van Veen, “Unique topographic separation of two spectral classes of cones in the mouse retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 325, 327–342 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahnelt, P.

M. Glösmann, P. Ahnelt, “Coexpression of M- and S-opsin extends over the entire inferior mouse retina,” Eur. J. Neurosci. Suppl. 10 (abstr.), 357 (1998).

Ahnelt, P. K.

P. K. Ahnelt, “Characterization of the color related receptor mosaic in the ground squirrel retina,” Vision Res. 25, 1557–1568 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applebury, M. L.

J. Lem, M. L. Applebury, J. D. Falk, J. G. Flannery, M. I. Simon, “Tissue-specific and developmental regulation of rod opsin chimeric genes in transgenic mice,” Neuron 6, 201–210 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Archer, S. N.

S. N. Archer, J. N. Lythgoe, “The visual pigment basis for cone polymorphism in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata,” Vision Res. 30, 225–233 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Argamaso-Herman, S. M.

M. von Schantz, S. M. Argamaso-Herman, Á. Szél, R. G. Foster, “Photopigments and photoentrainment in the Syrian golden hamster,” Brain Res. 770, 131–138 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barnstable, C. J.

M. Constantine-Paton, A. S. Blum, R. Mendez-Otero, C. J. Barnstable, “A cell surface molecule distributed in a dorsoventral gradient in the perinatal rat retina,” Nature 324, 459–462 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barthel, L. K.

D. L. Stenkamp, O. Hisatomi, L. K. Barthel, F. Tokunaga, P. A. Raymond, “Temporal expression of rod and cone opsins in embryonic goldfish retina predicts the spatial organization of the cone mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 363–376 (1996).

P. A. Raymond, L. K. Barthel, G. A. Curran, “Developmental patterning of rod and cone photoreceptors in embryonic zebrafish,” J. Comp. Neurol. 359, 537–550 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaudet, L.

L. Beaudet, I. N. Flamarique, C. W. Hawryshyn, “Cone photoreceptor topography in the retina of sexually mature pacific salmonid fishes,” J. Comp. Neurol. 383, 49–59 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, J.

Y. S. Wang, J. P. Macke, S. L. Merbs, D. J. Zack, B. Klaunberg, J. Bennett, J. Gearhart, J. Nathans, “A locus control region adjacent to the human red and green visual pigment genes,” Neuron 9, 429–440 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Zack, J. Bennett, Y. Wang, C. Davenport, B. Klaunberg, J. Gearhart, J. Nathans, “Unusual topography of bovine rhodopsin promoter-IacZ fusion gene expression in transgenic mouse retinas,” Neuron 6, 187–199 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergström, A.

A. Bergström, B. Ehinger, K. Wilke, C. L. Zucker, A. R. Adolph, Á. Szél, “Development of cell markers in subretinal rabbit retinal transplants,” Exp. Eye Res. 58, 301–313 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Á. Szél, B. Juliusson, A. Bergström, K. Wilke, B. Ehinger, T. van Veen, “Reversed ratio of color-specific cones in the rabbit retinal cell transplants,” Dev. Brain Res. 81, 1–9 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Juliusson, A. Bergström, P. Röhlich, B. Ehinger, T. van Veen, Á. Szél, “Complementary cone fields of the rabbit retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 811–818 (1994).

Bhattacharyya, N.

K. C. Wikler, P. Rakic, N. Bhattacharyya, P. R. MacLeish, “Early emergence of photoreceptor mosaicism in the primate retina revealed by a novel cone-specific monoclonal antibody,” J. Comp. Neurol. 377, 500–508 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blum, A. S.

M. Constantine-Paton, A. S. Blum, R. Mendez-Otero, C. J. Barnstable, “A cell surface molecule distributed in a dorsoventral gradient in the perinatal rat retina,” Nature 324, 459–462 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogenmann, E.

K. C. Wikler, D. L. Stull, B. E. Reese, P. T. Johnson, E. Bogenmann, “Localization of protein kinase C to UV-sensitive photoreceptors in the mouse retina,” Visual Neurosci. 15, 87–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, C. L. Tucker, B. Woodford, Á. Szél, J. Lem, A. Gianella-Borradori, M. I. Simon, E. Bogenmann, “The human blue opsin promoter directs transgene expression in short-wave cones and bipolar cells in the mouse retina,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2611–2615 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bok, D.

D. Bok, “Retinal photoreceptor-pigment epithelium interactions,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 1659–1694 (1985).

Bowmaker, J. K.

J. D. Mollon, J. K. Bowmaker, “The spatial arrangement of cones in the primate fovea,” Nature 360, 677–679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruhn, S. L.

S. L. Bruhn, C. L. Cepko, “Development of the pattern of photoreceptors in the chick retina,” J. Neurosci. 16, 1430–1439 (1996).
[PubMed]

Bumsted, K.

K. Bumsted, A. Hendrickson, “Distribution and development of short-wavelength cones differ between macaca monkey and human fovea,” J. Comp. Neurol. 403, 502–516 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bumsted, C. Jasoni, Á. Szél, A. Hendrickson, “Spatial and temporal expression of cone opsins during monkey retinal development,” J. Comp. Neurol. 378, 117–134 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bunt-Milam, A. H.

C. L. Lerea, A. H. Bunt-Milam, J. B. Hurley, “Alfa-transducin is present in blue-, green-, and red-sensitive cone photoreceptors in the human retina,” Neuron 3, 367–376 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Lerea, D. E. Somers, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Bunt-Milam, “Identification of specific transducin alfa subunits in retinal rod and cone photoreceptors,” Science 234, 77–80 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caffé, A. R.

Á. Szél, P. Röhlich, A. R. Caffé, T. van Veen, “Distribution of cone photoreceptors in the mammalian retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 35, 445–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Á. Szél, G. Csorba, A. R. Caffé, G. Szél, P. Röhlich, T. van Veen, “Different patterns of retinal cone topography in two genera of rodents, Mus and Apodemus,” Cell Tissue Res. 276, 143–150 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Söderpalm, Á. Szél, A. R. Caffé, T. van Veen, “Selective development of one cone photoreceptor type in retinal organ culture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3910–3921 (1994).

A. R. Caffé, A. Söderpalm, T. van Veen, “Photoreceptor-specific protein expression of mouse retina in organ culture and retardation of rd degeneration in vitro by a combination of basic fibroblast and nerve growth factors,” Curr. Eye Res. 12, 719–726 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Á. Szél, P. Röhlich, A. R. Caffé, B. Juliusson, G. D. Aguirre, T. van Veen, “Unique topographic separation of two spectral classes of cones in the mouse retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 325, 327–342 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Caffé, H. Visser, H. G. Jansen, S. Sanyal, “Histotypic differentiation of neonatal mouse retina in organ culture,” Curr. Eye Res. 8, 1083–1092 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calderone, J. B.

G. H. Jacobs, J. C. Fenwick, J. B. Calderone, S. S. Deeb, “Human cone pigment expressed in transgenic mice yields altered vision,” J. Neurosci. 19, 3258–3265 (1999).
[PubMed]

J. B. Calderone, G. H. Jacobs, “Cone receptor variations and their functional consequences in two species of hamster,” Visual Neurosci. 16, 53–63 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Calderone, G. H. Jacobs, “Regional variations in the relative sensitivity to UV light in the mouse retina,” Visual Neurosci. 12, 463–468 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cameron, D. A.

D. A. Cameron, S. S. Easter, “The cone photoreceptor mosaic of the green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus,” Visual Neurosci. 10, 375–384 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carter-Dawson, L. D.

L. D. Carter-Dawson, M. M. LaVail, “Rods and cones in the mouse retina. I. Structural analysis using light and electron microscopy,” J. Comp. Neurol. 188, 245–262 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cepko, C. L.

S. L. Bruhn, C. L. Cepko, “Development of the pattern of photoreceptors in the chick retina,” J. Neurosci. 16, 1430–1439 (1996).
[PubMed]

C. L. Cepko, “The patterning and onset of opsin expression in vertebrate retinae,” Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 6, 542–546 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W. S.

W. S. Chang, W. A. Harris, “Sequential genesis and determination of cone and rod photoreceptors in Xenopus,” J. Neurobiol. 35, 227–244 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, C. L. Tucker, B. Woodford, Á. Szél, J. Lem, A. Gianella-Borradori, M. I. Simon, E. Bogenmann, “The human blue opsin promoter directs transgene expression in short-wave cones and bipolar cells in the mouse retina,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2611–2615 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiu, M. I.

M. I. Chiu, J. Nathans, “Blue cones and bipolar cells share transcriptional specificity as determined by expression of human blue visual pigment-derived transgenes,” J. Neurosci. 14, 3426–3436 (1994).
[PubMed]

Constantine-Paton, M.

M. Constantine-Paton, A. S. Blum, R. Mendez-Otero, C. J. Barnstable, “A cell surface molecule distributed in a dorsoventral gradient in the perinatal rat retina,” Nature 324, 459–462 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, H. M.

Á. Szél, Á. Lukáts, T. Fekete, J. Somogyi, H. M. Petry, H. M. Cooper, P. Röhlich, “Visual pigment coexpression in cone cells,” Med. Sci. Mon. 4, 46–56 (1998).

Cronin, T. W.

J. I. Fasick, T. W. Cronin, D. M. Hunt, P. R. Robinson, “The visual pigments of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus),” Visual Neurosci. 15, 643–651 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Csorba, G.

Á. Szél, G. Csorba, A. R. Caffé, G. Szél, P. Röhlich, T. van Veen, “Different patterns of retinal cone topography in two genera of rodents, Mus and Apodemus,” Cell Tissue Res. 276, 143–150 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, A. Hendrickson, “Organization and development of the primate photoreceptor mosaic,” Prog. Retinal Res. 10, 89–120 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Curran, G. A.

P. A. Raymond, L. K. Barthel, G. A. Curran, “Developmental patterning of rod and cone photoreceptors in embryonic zebrafish,” J. Comp. Neurol. 359, 537–550 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davenport, C.

D. J. Zack, J. Bennett, Y. Wang, C. Davenport, B. Klaunberg, J. Gearhart, J. Nathans, “Unusual topography of bovine rhodopsin promoter-IacZ fusion gene expression in transgenic mouse retinas,” Neuron 6, 187–199 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Monasterio, F. M.

F. M. de Monasterio, E. P. McCrane, J. K. Newlander, S. J. Schein, “Density profile of blue-sensitive cones along the horizontal meridian of macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 289–302 (1985).

F. M. de Monasterio, S. J. Schein, E. P. McCrane, “Staining of blue-sensitive cones of the macaque retina by a fluorescent dye,” Science 213, 1278–1281 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Deeb, S. S.

G. H. Jacobs, J. C. Fenwick, J. B. Calderone, S. S. Deeb, “Human cone pigment expressed in transgenic mice yields altered vision,” J. Neurosci. 19, 3258–3265 (1999).
[PubMed]

Deegan, J. F.

G. H. Jacobs, J. F. Deegan, “Sensitivity to ultraviolet light in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): characteristics and mechanisms,” Vision Res. 34, 1433–1441 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Jacobs, J. Neitz, J. F. Deegan, “Retinal receptors in rodents maximally sensitive to ultraviolet light,” Nature 353, 655–656 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diamantstein, T.

Á. Szél, T. Diamantstein, P. Röhlich, “Identification of the blue-sensitive cones in the mammalian retina by anti-visual pigment antibody,” J. Comp. Neurol. 273, 593–602 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Á. Szél, L. Takács, É. Monostori, T. Diamantstein, I. Vigh-Teichmann, P. Röhlich, “Monoclonal antibody recognizing cone visual pigment,” Exp. Eye Res. 43, 871–883 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dodd, R. L.

C. L. Makino, R. L. Dodd, “Multiple visual pigments in a photoreceptor of the salamander retina,” J. Gen. Physiol. 108, 27–34 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doro, C. J.

T. S. Vihtelic, C. J. Doro, D. R. Hyde, “Cloning and characterization of six zebrafish photoreceptor opsin cDNAs and immunolocalization of their corresponding proteins,” Visual Neurosci. 16, 571–585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. E.

J. Robinson, E. A. Schmitt, J. E. Dowling, “Temporal and spatial patterns of opsin gene expression in zebrafish,” Visual Neurosci. 12, 895–906 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dräger, U. C.

P. McCaffery, E. Wagner, J. O’Neil, M. Petkovich, U. C. Dräger, “Dorsal and ventral retinal territories defined by retinois acid synthesis, break-down and nuclear receptor expression,” Mech. Dev. 85, 203–214 (1999).
[PubMed]

P. McCaffery, K. C. Posch, J. L. Napoli, L. Gudas, U. C. Dräger, “Changing patterns of the retinoic acid system in the developing retina,” Dev. Biol. 158, 390–399 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Easter, S. S.

D. A. Cameron, S. S. Easter, “The cone photoreceptor mosaic of the green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus,” Visual Neurosci. 10, 375–384 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ehinger, B.

B. Juliusson, A. Bergström, P. Röhlich, B. Ehinger, T. van Veen, Á. Szél, “Complementary cone fields of the rabbit retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 811–818 (1994).

A. Bergström, B. Ehinger, K. Wilke, C. L. Zucker, A. R. Adolph, Á. Szél, “Development of cell markers in subretinal rabbit retinal transplants,” Exp. Eye Res. 58, 301–313 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Á. Szél, B. Juliusson, A. Bergström, K. Wilke, B. Ehinger, T. van Veen, “Reversed ratio of color-specific cones in the rabbit retinal cell transplants,” Dev. Brain Res. 81, 1–9 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Erichsen, J. T.

H. M. Petry, J. T. Erichsen, Á. Szél, “Immunocytochemical identification of photoreceptor populations in the tree shrew retina,” Brain Res. 616, 344–350 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falk, J. D.

J. Lem, M. L. Applebury, J. D. Falk, J. G. Flannery, M. I. Simon, “Tissue-specific and developmental regulation of rod opsin chimeric genes in transgenic mice,” Neuron 6, 201–210 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falsini, B.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the two most frequent cone distribution patterns in rodent retinas. The isodensity lines demonstrate cone cell densities as counted from opsin-labeled whole mounts. Multiply the numbers ×1000 cones/mm2; the central black dots mark the optic nerve heads. M cones (maps a and c) and S cones (maps b and d) are detected with MAb COS-1 and MAb OS-2, respectively. Maps a and b derive from the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and show typical examples of homogeneous cone distribution. Maps c and d illustrate the cone distribution patterns of the common house mouse (Mus musculus), a representative species that exhibits asymmetric topography of color cones. Note that it is only the dorsal half of the house mouse retina that is populated by both S and M cones. Their ratio is the same, approximately 1:10, as that observed in the homogeneous retina. The lower half of the retina, in contrast, contains exclusively S cones. The density of the ventral S cones is similar to or even higher than that of the M+S cones together in the dorsal retina.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Consecutive tangential sections derived from the transition zone of the adult house mouse retina. The two semithin sections demonstrate the same area of photoreceptors cut at the outer segment level. The immunopositive cones appear as small, slightly elongated dots. Note that numerous cone outer segments are recognized by both antibodies (small arrows). Cones labeled by only one antibody are marked with large arrows. Magnification bar at lower right, 20 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Consecutive tangential sections derived from the developing rat retina. The two semithin sections show the same area of photoreceptors cut at the outer segment level. The immunopositive cones appear as small dots. Note that whereas some cones are labeled only for OS-2 (a, thick arrows) or COS-1 (b, long arrows), there are many cone outer segments that are recognized by both antibodies (small arrows). Magnification bar at lower right, 20 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Based on immunocytochemistry with antivisual pigment antibodies, one possible mechanism of cone development is transdifferentiation. In the early postnatal retina, all cones express S pigment at first (a); then most of these cones start to synthesize M pigment (b). These transforming cones cause the temporary population of dual cones to be stained by both COS-1 and OS-2. A smaller fraction of cones keeps on producing S pigment during the entire development time (c, darker circle). The dual cones (b) turn to be definitive green cones (c, lighter circles), whereas the genuine S cones make up the definitive S cone population (c, darker circle).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Another possible way in which cones could develop is without transdifferentiation, i.e., all cones are predestined to be either S cones or M cones. In the early prenatal retina (a), a few cones already express S pigment (filled circle). These cones do not undergo any shift and continuously produce the S pigment (b and c, darker filled circles). The majority of cones are nonexpressing before the second postnatal week, when this population gradually starts to synthesize the green pigment (b and c, lighter filled circles). There are no dual cones at any time.

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