Abstract

We analyzed the ratio of L:M cone photopigment mRNA in the retinas of Old World monkeys, using the method of rapid polymerase chain reaction–single-strand conformation polymorphism. The L:M cone pigment mRNA ratio in whole retina ranged from 0.6 to 7.0, with a mean of ∼1.6 (standard deviation, ±0.56; n=26). There was no change in this ratio with eccentricity up to 9 mm (∼45°), though the ratio was ∼30% greater in temporal than in nasal retina. The mRNA ratios are in good agreement with the L:M cone ratio in these same retinas, inferred from electrophysiological recordings of cone signal gain in horizontal cell interneurons. The correlation between mRNA ratios and physiological cone gain ratio supports the conclusion that both measures reflect the relative number of L and M cones.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]
  33. T. Hayashi, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Position of a ‘green–red’ hybrid gene in the visual pigment array determines colour-vision phenotype,” Nat. Genet. 22, 90–93 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (4)

Y. Wang, P. M. Smallwood, M. Cowan, D. Blesh, A. Lawler, J. Nathans, “Mutually exclusive expression of human red and green visual pigment reporter transgenes occurs at high frequency in murine cone photoreceptors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 5251–5256 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Hayashi, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Position of a ‘green–red’ hybrid gene in the visual pigment array determines colour-vision phenotype,” Nat. Genet. 22, 90–93 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kremers, T. Usui, H. P. Scholl, L. T. Sharpe, “Cone signal contributions to electrograms in dichromats and trichromats,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 920–930 (1999).

A. Roorda, D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (4)

P. D. Gowdy, C. M. Cicerone, “The spatial arrangement of the L and M cones in the central fovea of the living human eye,” Vision Res. 38, 2575–2589 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Shaaban, S. S. Deeb, “Functional analysis of the promoters of the human red and green visual pigment genes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 885–896 (1998).

F. Grosveld, E. de Boer, N. Dillon, J. Gribnau, T. McMorrow, E. Milot, T. Trimborn, M. Wijgerde, P. Fraser, “The dynamics of globin gene expression and position effects,” Novartis Found. Symp. 214, 67–79 (1998).
[PubMed]

1997 (2)

G. H. Jacobs, J. F. Deegan, “Spectral sensitivity of macaque monkeys measured with ERG flicker photometry,” Visual Neurosci. 14, 921–928 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamaguchi, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Visual pigment gene structure and expression in human retinae,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 6, 981–990 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

O. S. Packer, D. R. Williams, D. G. Bensinger, “Photopigment transmittance imaging of the primate photoreceptor mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 16, 2251–2260 (1996).
[PubMed]

D. M. Dacey, “Circuitry for color coding in the primate retina,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 582–588 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

J. Winderickx, L. Battisti, Y. Hibiya, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Haplotype diversity in the human red and green opsin genes: evidence for frequent sequence exchange in exon 3,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 2, 1413–1421 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (5)

R. E. Ibbotson, D. M. Hunt, J. K. Bowmaker, J. D. Mollon, “Sequence divergence and copy number of the middle- and long-wave photopigment genes in Old World monkeys,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 247, 145–454 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, J. P. Macke, S. L. Merbs, D. J. Zack, B. Klaunberg, J. Bennett, J. Gearhart, J. Nathans, “A locus control region adjacent to the human red and green visual pigment genes,” Neuron 9, 429–440 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Winderickx, L. Battisti, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Selective expression of human X chromosome-linked green opsin genes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 9710–9714 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Mollon, J. K. Bowmaker, “The spatial arrangement of cones in the primate fovea,” Nature 360, 677–679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Nerger, C. M. Cicerone, “The ratio of L cones to M cones in the human parafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 32, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Wesner, J. Pokorny, S. K. Shevell, V. C. Smith, “Foveal cone detection statistics in color-normals and dichromats,” Vision Res. 31, 1021–1037 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

M. Lutze, N. J. Cox, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Genetic studies of variation in Rayleigh and photometric matches in normal trichromats,” Vision Res. 30, 149–162 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

C. M. Cicerone, J. L. Nerger, “The relative numbers of long-wavelength-sensitive to middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the human fovea centralis,” Vision Res. 29, 115–128 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Vimal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. K. Shevell, “Foveal cone thresholds,” Vision Res. 29, 61–78 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

A. Szel, T. Diamantstein, P. Rohlich, “Identification of the blue-sensitive cones in the mammalian retina by anti-visual pigment antibody,” J. Comp. Neurol. 273, 593–602 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “The physiological basis of heterochromatic flicker photometry demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 404, 323–347 (1988).

1985 (1)

F. M. de Monasterio, E. P. McCrane, J. K. Newlander, S. J. Schein, “Density profile of blue-sensitive cones along the horizontal meridian of macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 289–302 (1985).

1984 (1)

J. K. Bowmaker, “Microspectrophotometry of vertebrate photoreceptors. A brief review,” Vision Res. 24, 1641–1650 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

H. J. A. Dartnall, J. K. Bowmaker, J. D. Mollon, “Human visual pigments: microspectrophotometric results from the eyes of seven persons,” Proc. R. Soc. London 220, 115–130 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

R. E. Marc, H. G. Sperling, “Chromatic organization of primate cones,” Science 196, 454–456 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964 (1)

W. A. Rushton, H. D. Baker, “Red/green sensitivity in normal vision,” Vision Res. 4, 75–85 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1948 (1)

H. L. De Vries, “The heredity of the relative numbers of red and green receptors in the human eye,” Genetica (The Hague) 24, 199–212 (1948).

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, H. D.

W. A. Rushton, H. D. Baker, “Red/green sensitivity in normal vision,” Vision Res. 4, 75–85 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Battisti, L.

J. Winderickx, L. Battisti, Y. Hibiya, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Haplotype diversity in the human red and green opsin genes: evidence for frequent sequence exchange in exon 3,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 2, 1413–1421 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Winderickx, L. Battisti, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Selective expression of human X chromosome-linked green opsin genes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 9710–9714 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, J.

Y. Wang, J. P. Macke, S. L. Merbs, D. J. Zack, B. Klaunberg, J. Bennett, J. Gearhart, J. Nathans, “A locus control region adjacent to the human red and green visual pigment genes,” Neuron 9, 429–440 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bensinger, D. G.

O. S. Packer, D. R. Williams, D. G. Bensinger, “Photopigment transmittance imaging of the primate photoreceptor mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 16, 2251–2260 (1996).
[PubMed]

Blesh, D.

Y. Wang, P. M. Smallwood, M. Cowan, D. Blesh, A. Lawler, J. Nathans, “Mutually exclusive expression of human red and green visual pigment reporter transgenes occurs at high frequency in murine cone photoreceptors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 5251–5256 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bowmaker, J. K.

J. D. Mollon, J. K. Bowmaker, “The spatial arrangement of cones in the primate fovea,” Nature 360, 677–679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Ibbotson, D. M. Hunt, J. K. Bowmaker, J. D. Mollon, “Sequence divergence and copy number of the middle- and long-wave photopigment genes in Old World monkeys,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 247, 145–454 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Bowmaker, “Microspectrophotometry of vertebrate photoreceptors. A brief review,” Vision Res. 24, 1641–1650 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. A. Dartnall, J. K. Bowmaker, J. D. Mollon, “Human visual pigments: microspectrophotometric results from the eyes of seven persons,” Proc. R. Soc. London 220, 115–130 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cicerone, C. M.

P. D. Gowdy, C. M. Cicerone, “The spatial arrangement of the L and M cones in the central fovea of the living human eye,” Vision Res. 38, 2575–2589 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Nerger, C. M. Cicerone, “The ratio of L cones to M cones in the human parafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 32, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Cicerone, J. L. Nerger, “The relative numbers of long-wavelength-sensitive to middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the human fovea centralis,” Vision Res. 29, 115–128 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cowan, M.

Y. Wang, P. M. Smallwood, M. Cowan, D. Blesh, A. Lawler, J. Nathans, “Mutually exclusive expression of human red and green visual pigment reporter transgenes occurs at high frequency in murine cone photoreceptors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 5251–5256 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cox, N. J.

M. Lutze, N. J. Cox, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Genetic studies of variation in Rayleigh and photometric matches in normal trichromats,” Vision Res. 30, 149–162 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dacey, D. M.

Dartnall, H. J. A.

H. J. A. Dartnall, J. K. Bowmaker, J. D. Mollon, “Human visual pigments: microspectrophotometric results from the eyes of seven persons,” Proc. R. Soc. London 220, 115–130 (1983).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, E.

F. Grosveld, E. de Boer, N. Dillon, J. Gribnau, T. McMorrow, E. Milot, T. Trimborn, M. Wijgerde, P. Fraser, “The dynamics of globin gene expression and position effects,” Novartis Found. Symp. 214, 67–79 (1998).
[PubMed]

de Monasterio, F. M.

F. M. de Monasterio, E. P. McCrane, J. K. Newlander, S. J. Schein, “Density profile of blue-sensitive cones along the horizontal meridian of macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 289–302 (1985).

De Vries, H. L.

H. L. De Vries, “The heredity of the relative numbers of red and green receptors in the human eye,” Genetica (The Hague) 24, 199–212 (1948).

Deeb, S. S.

T. Hayashi, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Position of a ‘green–red’ hybrid gene in the visual pigment array determines colour-vision phenotype,” Nat. Genet. 22, 90–93 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Shaaban, S. S. Deeb, “Functional analysis of the promoters of the human red and green visual pigment genes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 885–896 (1998).

T. Yamaguchi, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Visual pigment gene structure and expression in human retinae,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 6, 981–990 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Winderickx, L. Battisti, Y. Hibiya, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Haplotype diversity in the human red and green opsin genes: evidence for frequent sequence exchange in exon 3,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 2, 1413–1421 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Winderickx, L. Battisti, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Selective expression of human X chromosome-linked green opsin genes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 9710–9714 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deegan, J. F.

G. H. Jacobs, J. F. Deegan, “Spectral sensitivity of macaque monkeys measured with ERG flicker photometry,” Visual Neurosci. 14, 921–928 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Diamantstein, T.

A. Szel, T. Diamantstein, P. Rohlich, “Identification of the blue-sensitive cones in the mammalian retina by anti-visual pigment antibody,” J. Comp. Neurol. 273, 593–602 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diller, L. C.

Dillon, N.

F. Grosveld, E. de Boer, N. Dillon, J. Gribnau, T. McMorrow, E. Milot, T. Trimborn, M. Wijgerde, P. Fraser, “The dynamics of globin gene expression and position effects,” Novartis Found. Symp. 214, 67–79 (1998).
[PubMed]

Fraser, P.

F. Grosveld, E. de Boer, N. Dillon, J. Gribnau, T. McMorrow, E. Milot, T. Trimborn, M. Wijgerde, P. Fraser, “The dynamics of globin gene expression and position effects,” Novartis Found. Symp. 214, 67–79 (1998).
[PubMed]

Gearhart, J.

Y. Wang, J. P. Macke, S. L. Merbs, D. J. Zack, B. Klaunberg, J. Bennett, J. Gearhart, J. Nathans, “A locus control region adjacent to the human red and green visual pigment genes,” Neuron 9, 429–440 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gowdy, P. D.

P. D. Gowdy, C. M. Cicerone, “The spatial arrangement of the L and M cones in the central fovea of the living human eye,” Vision Res. 38, 2575–2589 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gribnau, J.

F. Grosveld, E. de Boer, N. Dillon, J. Gribnau, T. McMorrow, E. Milot, T. Trimborn, M. Wijgerde, P. Fraser, “The dynamics of globin gene expression and position effects,” Novartis Found. Symp. 214, 67–79 (1998).
[PubMed]

Grosveld, F.

F. Grosveld, E. de Boer, N. Dillon, J. Gribnau, T. McMorrow, E. Milot, T. Trimborn, M. Wijgerde, P. Fraser, “The dynamics of globin gene expression and position effects,” Novartis Found. Symp. 214, 67–79 (1998).
[PubMed]

Hagstrom, S. A.

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayashi, T.

T. Hayashi, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Position of a ‘green–red’ hybrid gene in the visual pigment array determines colour-vision phenotype,” Nat. Genet. 22, 90–93 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hibiya, Y.

J. Winderickx, L. Battisti, Y. Hibiya, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Haplotype diversity in the human red and green opsin genes: evidence for frequent sequence exchange in exon 3,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 2, 1413–1421 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunt, D. M.

R. E. Ibbotson, D. M. Hunt, J. K. Bowmaker, J. D. Mollon, “Sequence divergence and copy number of the middle- and long-wave photopigment genes in Old World monkeys,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 247, 145–454 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hurley, J. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibbotson, R. E.

R. E. Ibbotson, D. M. Hunt, J. K. Bowmaker, J. D. Mollon, “Sequence divergence and copy number of the middle- and long-wave photopigment genes in Old World monkeys,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 247, 145–454 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, G. H.

G. H. Jacobs, J. F. Deegan, “Spectral sensitivity of macaque monkeys measured with ERG flicker photometry,” Visual Neurosci. 14, 921–928 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, J.

J. Jacobs, J. Neitz, “Electrophysiological estimates of individual variation in the L/M cone ratio,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Color Vision Deficiencies, B. Drum, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), Vol. VI, pp. 107–112.

Klaunberg, B.

Y. Wang, J. P. Macke, S. L. Merbs, D. J. Zack, B. Klaunberg, J. Bennett, J. Gearhart, J. Nathans, “A locus control region adjacent to the human red and green visual pigment genes,” Neuron 9, 429–440 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klock, I. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kremers, J.

J. Kremers, T. Usui, H. P. Scholl, L. T. Sharpe, “Cone signal contributions to electrograms in dichromats and trichromats,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 920–930 (1999).

Lawler, A.

Y. Wang, P. M. Smallwood, M. Cowan, D. Blesh, A. Lawler, J. Nathans, “Mutually exclusive expression of human red and green visual pigment reporter transgenes occurs at high frequency in murine cone photoreceptors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 5251–5256 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. B.

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “The physiological basis of heterochromatic flicker photometry demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 404, 323–347 (1988).

Lerea, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lutze, M.

M. Lutze, N. J. Cox, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Genetic studies of variation in Rayleigh and photometric matches in normal trichromats,” Vision Res. 30, 149–162 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macke, J. P.

Y. Wang, J. P. Macke, S. L. Merbs, D. J. Zack, B. Klaunberg, J. Bennett, J. Gearhart, J. Nathans, “A locus control region adjacent to the human red and green visual pigment genes,” Neuron 9, 429–440 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marc, R. E.

R. E. Marc, H. G. Sperling, “Chromatic organization of primate cones,” Science 196, 454–456 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, P. R.

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “The physiological basis of heterochromatic flicker photometry demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 404, 323–347 (1988).

McCrane, E. P.

F. M. de Monasterio, E. P. McCrane, J. K. Newlander, S. J. Schein, “Density profile of blue-sensitive cones along the horizontal meridian of macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 289–302 (1985).

McMorrow, T.

F. Grosveld, E. de Boer, N. Dillon, J. Gribnau, T. McMorrow, E. Milot, T. Trimborn, M. Wijgerde, P. Fraser, “The dynamics of globin gene expression and position effects,” Novartis Found. Symp. 214, 67–79 (1998).
[PubMed]

Merbs, S. L.

Y. Wang, J. P. Macke, S. L. Merbs, D. J. Zack, B. Klaunberg, J. Bennett, J. Gearhart, J. Nathans, “A locus control region adjacent to the human red and green visual pigment genes,” Neuron 9, 429–440 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milam, A. H.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milot, E.

F. Grosveld, E. de Boer, N. Dillon, J. Gribnau, T. McMorrow, E. Milot, T. Trimborn, M. Wijgerde, P. Fraser, “The dynamics of globin gene expression and position effects,” Novartis Found. Symp. 214, 67–79 (1998).
[PubMed]

Mollon, J. D.

R. E. Ibbotson, D. M. Hunt, J. K. Bowmaker, J. D. Mollon, “Sequence divergence and copy number of the middle- and long-wave photopigment genes in Old World monkeys,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 247, 145–454 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mollon, J. K. Bowmaker, “The spatial arrangement of cones in the primate fovea,” Nature 360, 677–679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. A. Dartnall, J. K. Bowmaker, J. D. Mollon, “Human visual pigments: microspectrophotometric results from the eyes of seven persons,” Proc. R. Soc. London 220, 115–130 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Motulsky, A. G.

T. Hayashi, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Position of a ‘green–red’ hybrid gene in the visual pigment array determines colour-vision phenotype,” Nat. Genet. 22, 90–93 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yamaguchi, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Visual pigment gene structure and expression in human retinae,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 6, 981–990 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Winderickx, L. Battisti, Y. Hibiya, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Haplotype diversity in the human red and green opsin genes: evidence for frequent sequence exchange in exon 3,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 2, 1413–1421 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Winderickx, L. Battisti, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Selective expression of human X chromosome-linked green opsin genes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 9710–9714 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nathans, J.

Y. Wang, P. M. Smallwood, M. Cowan, D. Blesh, A. Lawler, J. Nathans, “Mutually exclusive expression of human red and green visual pigment reporter transgenes occurs at high frequency in murine cone photoreceptors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 5251–5256 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, J. P. Macke, S. L. Merbs, D. J. Zack, B. Klaunberg, J. Bennett, J. Gearhart, J. Nathans, “A locus control region adjacent to the human red and green visual pigment genes,” Neuron 9, 429–440 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neitz, J.

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jacobs, J. Neitz, “Electrophysiological estimates of individual variation in the L/M cone ratio,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Color Vision Deficiencies, B. Drum, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), Vol. VI, pp. 107–112.

Neitz, M.

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nerger, J. L.

J. L. Nerger, C. M. Cicerone, “The ratio of L cones to M cones in the human parafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 32, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Cicerone, J. L. Nerger, “The relative numbers of long-wavelength-sensitive to middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the human fovea centralis,” Vision Res. 29, 115–128 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newlander, J. K.

F. M. de Monasterio, E. P. McCrane, J. K. Newlander, S. J. Schein, “Density profile of blue-sensitive cones along the horizontal meridian of macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 289–302 (1985).

Packer, O. S.

O. S. Packer, D. R. Williams, D. G. Bensinger, “Photopigment transmittance imaging of the primate photoreceptor mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 16, 2251–2260 (1996).
[PubMed]

Pokorny, J.

M. F. Wesner, J. Pokorny, S. K. Shevell, V. C. Smith, “Foveal cone detection statistics in color-normals and dichromats,” Vision Res. 31, 1021–1037 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lutze, N. J. Cox, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Genetic studies of variation in Rayleigh and photometric matches in normal trichromats,” Vision Res. 30, 149–162 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Vimal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. K. Shevell, “Foveal cone thresholds,” Vision Res. 29, 61–78 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rohlich, P.

A. Szel, T. Diamantstein, P. Rohlich, “Identification of the blue-sensitive cones in the mammalian retina by anti-visual pigment antibody,” J. Comp. Neurol. 273, 593–602 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roorda, A.

A. Roorda, D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rushton, W. A.

W. A. Rushton, H. D. Baker, “Red/green sensitivity in normal vision,” Vision Res. 4, 75–85 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schein, S. J.

F. M. de Monasterio, E. P. McCrane, J. K. Newlander, S. J. Schein, “Density profile of blue-sensitive cones along the horizontal meridian of macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 289–302 (1985).

Scholl, H. P.

J. Kremers, T. Usui, H. P. Scholl, L. T. Sharpe, “Cone signal contributions to electrograms in dichromats and trichromats,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 920–930 (1999).

Shaaban, S. A.

S. A. Shaaban, S. S. Deeb, “Functional analysis of the promoters of the human red and green visual pigment genes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 885–896 (1998).

Shapley, R.

R. Shapley, “Parallel neural pathways and visual function,” in The Cognitive Neurosciences, M. S. Gazzaniga, E. Bizzi, I. B. Black, C. Blakemore, L. Cosmides, S. M. Kosslyn, J. E. LeDoux, J. A. Movshon, S. Pinker, M. I. Posner, P. Rakic, D. L. Schacter, J. Tooby, E. Tulving, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1995), pp. 315–324.

Sharpe, L. T.

J. Kremers, T. Usui, H. P. Scholl, L. T. Sharpe, “Cone signal contributions to electrograms in dichromats and trichromats,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 920–930 (1999).

Shevell, S. K.

M. F. Wesner, J. Pokorny, S. K. Shevell, V. C. Smith, “Foveal cone detection statistics in color-normals and dichromats,” Vision Res. 31, 1021–1037 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Vimal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. K. Shevell, “Foveal cone thresholds,” Vision Res. 29, 61–78 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smallwood, P. M.

Y. Wang, P. M. Smallwood, M. Cowan, D. Blesh, A. Lawler, J. Nathans, “Mutually exclusive expression of human red and green visual pigment reporter transgenes occurs at high frequency in murine cone photoreceptors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 5251–5256 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V. C.

M. F. Wesner, J. Pokorny, S. K. Shevell, V. C. Smith, “Foveal cone detection statistics in color-normals and dichromats,” Vision Res. 31, 1021–1037 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lutze, N. J. Cox, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Genetic studies of variation in Rayleigh and photometric matches in normal trichromats,” Vision Res. 30, 149–162 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Vimal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. K. Shevell, “Foveal cone thresholds,” Vision Res. 29, 61–78 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sperling, H. G.

R. E. Marc, H. G. Sperling, “Chromatic organization of primate cones,” Science 196, 454–456 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szel, A.

A. Szel, T. Diamantstein, P. Rohlich, “Identification of the blue-sensitive cones in the mammalian retina by anti-visual pigment antibody,” J. Comp. Neurol. 273, 593–602 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trimborn, T.

F. Grosveld, E. de Boer, N. Dillon, J. Gribnau, T. McMorrow, E. Milot, T. Trimborn, M. Wijgerde, P. Fraser, “The dynamics of globin gene expression and position effects,” Novartis Found. Symp. 214, 67–79 (1998).
[PubMed]

Usui, T.

J. Kremers, T. Usui, H. P. Scholl, L. T. Sharpe, “Cone signal contributions to electrograms in dichromats and trichromats,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 920–930 (1999).

Valberg, A.

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “The physiological basis of heterochromatic flicker photometry demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 404, 323–347 (1988).

Verweij, J.

Vimal, R. L.

R. L. Vimal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. K. Shevell, “Foveal cone thresholds,” Vision Res. 29, 61–78 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, P. M. Smallwood, M. Cowan, D. Blesh, A. Lawler, J. Nathans, “Mutually exclusive expression of human red and green visual pigment reporter transgenes occurs at high frequency in murine cone photoreceptors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 5251–5256 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, J. P. Macke, S. L. Merbs, D. J. Zack, B. Klaunberg, J. Bennett, J. Gearhart, J. Nathans, “A locus control region adjacent to the human red and green visual pigment genes,” Neuron 9, 429–440 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wesner, M. F.

M. F. Wesner, J. Pokorny, S. K. Shevell, V. C. Smith, “Foveal cone detection statistics in color-normals and dichromats,” Vision Res. 31, 1021–1037 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wijgerde, M.

F. Grosveld, E. de Boer, N. Dillon, J. Gribnau, T. McMorrow, E. Milot, T. Trimborn, M. Wijgerde, P. Fraser, “The dynamics of globin gene expression and position effects,” Novartis Found. Symp. 214, 67–79 (1998).
[PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

D. M. Dacey, L. C. Diller, J. Verweij, D. R. Williams, “Physiology of L- and M-cone inputs to H1 horizontal cells in the primate retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 589–596 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. S. Packer, D. R. Williams, D. G. Bensinger, “Photopigment transmittance imaging of the primate photoreceptor mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 16, 2251–2260 (1996).
[PubMed]

Winderickx, J.

J. Winderickx, L. Battisti, Y. Hibiya, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Haplotype diversity in the human red and green opsin genes: evidence for frequent sequence exchange in exon 3,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 2, 1413–1421 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Winderickx, L. Battisti, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Selective expression of human X chromosome-linked green opsin genes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 9710–9714 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, T.

T. Yamaguchi, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Visual pigment gene structure and expression in human retinae,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 6, 981–990 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zack, D. J.

Y. Wang, J. P. Macke, S. L. Merbs, D. J. Zack, B. Klaunberg, J. Bennett, J. Gearhart, J. Nathans, “A locus control region adjacent to the human red and green visual pigment genes,” Neuron 9, 429–440 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genetica (The Hague) (1)

H. L. De Vries, “The heredity of the relative numbers of red and green receptors in the human eye,” Genetica (The Hague) 24, 199–212 (1948).

Hum. Mol. Genet. (2)

T. Yamaguchi, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Visual pigment gene structure and expression in human retinae,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 6, 981–990 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Winderickx, L. Battisti, Y. Hibiya, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Haplotype diversity in the human red and green opsin genes: evidence for frequent sequence exchange in exon 3,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 2, 1413–1421 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (3)

S. A. Shaaban, S. S. Deeb, “Functional analysis of the promoters of the human red and green visual pigment genes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 885–896 (1998).

J. Kremers, T. Usui, H. P. Scholl, L. T. Sharpe, “Cone signal contributions to electrograms in dichromats and trichromats,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 920–930 (1999).

F. M. de Monasterio, E. P. McCrane, J. K. Newlander, S. J. Schein, “Density profile of blue-sensitive cones along the horizontal meridian of macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 289–302 (1985).

J. Comp. Neurol. (2)

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szel, T. Diamantstein, P. Rohlich, “Identification of the blue-sensitive cones in the mammalian retina by anti-visual pigment antibody,” J. Comp. Neurol. 273, 593–602 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (1)

O. S. Packer, D. R. Williams, D. G. Bensinger, “Photopigment transmittance imaging of the primate photoreceptor mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 16, 2251–2260 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “The physiological basis of heterochromatic flicker photometry demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 404, 323–347 (1988).

Nat. Genet. (1)

T. Hayashi, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Position of a ‘green–red’ hybrid gene in the visual pigment array determines colour-vision phenotype,” Nat. Genet. 22, 90–93 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

J. D. Mollon, J. K. Bowmaker, “The spatial arrangement of cones in the primate fovea,” Nature 360, 677–679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuron (1)

Y. Wang, J. P. Macke, S. L. Merbs, D. J. Zack, B. Klaunberg, J. Bennett, J. Gearhart, J. Nathans, “A locus control region adjacent to the human red and green visual pigment genes,” Neuron 9, 429–440 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

NeuroReport (1)

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novartis Found. Symp. (1)

F. Grosveld, E. de Boer, N. Dillon, J. Gribnau, T. McMorrow, E. Milot, T. Trimborn, M. Wijgerde, P. Fraser, “The dynamics of globin gene expression and position effects,” Novartis Found. Symp. 214, 67–79 (1998).
[PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (3)

D. M. Dacey, “Circuitry for color coding in the primate retina,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 582–588 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Winderickx, L. Battisti, A. G. Motulsky, S. S. Deeb, “Selective expression of human X chromosome-linked green opsin genes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 9710–9714 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, P. M. Smallwood, M. Cowan, D. Blesh, A. Lawler, J. Nathans, “Mutually exclusive expression of human red and green visual pigment reporter transgenes occurs at high frequency in murine cone photoreceptors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 5251–5256 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London (1)

H. J. A. Dartnall, J. K. Bowmaker, J. D. Mollon, “Human visual pigments: microspectrophotometric results from the eyes of seven persons,” Proc. R. Soc. London 220, 115–130 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B (1)

R. E. Ibbotson, D. M. Hunt, J. K. Bowmaker, J. D. Mollon, “Sequence divergence and copy number of the middle- and long-wave photopigment genes in Old World monkeys,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 247, 145–454 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. E. Marc, H. G. Sperling, “Chromatic organization of primate cones,” Science 196, 454–456 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (9)

M. Lutze, N. J. Cox, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Genetic studies of variation in Rayleigh and photometric matches in normal trichromats,” Vision Res. 30, 149–162 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Gowdy, C. M. Cicerone, “The spatial arrangement of the L and M cones in the central fovea of the living human eye,” Vision Res. 38, 2575–2589 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Bowmaker, “Microspectrophotometry of vertebrate photoreceptors. A brief review,” Vision Res. 24, 1641–1650 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Rushton, H. D. Baker, “Red/green sensitivity in normal vision,” Vision Res. 4, 75–85 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Vimal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. K. Shevell, “Foveal cone thresholds,” Vision Res. 29, 61–78 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Wesner, J. Pokorny, S. K. Shevell, V. C. Smith, “Foveal cone detection statistics in color-normals and dichromats,” Vision Res. 31, 1021–1037 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Cicerone, J. L. Nerger, “The relative numbers of long-wavelength-sensitive to middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the human fovea centralis,” Vision Res. 29, 115–128 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Nerger, C. M. Cicerone, “The ratio of L cones to M cones in the human parafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 32, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visual Neurosci. (1)

G. H. Jacobs, J. F. Deegan, “Spectral sensitivity of macaque monkeys measured with ERG flicker photometry,” Visual Neurosci. 14, 921–928 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. Shapley, “Parallel neural pathways and visual function,” in The Cognitive Neurosciences, M. S. Gazzaniga, E. Bizzi, I. B. Black, C. Blakemore, L. Cosmides, S. M. Kosslyn, J. E. LeDoux, J. A. Movshon, S. Pinker, M. I. Posner, P. Rakic, D. L. Schacter, J. Tooby, E. Tulving, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1995), pp. 315–324.

J. Jacobs, J. Neitz, “Electrophysiological estimates of individual variation in the L/M cone ratio,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Color Vision Deficiencies, B. Drum, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), Vol. VI, pp. 107–112.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Strategy for amplification of the L and M exon-4–exon-5 coding region. A, Diagram of the X-chromosome-linked L–M visual pigment gene array. The numbered rectangles represent exons, and the solid lines connecting them represent introns. Diagram is not to scale. B, Sequence of the (top) M and (bottom) L segments that encompass the 3 end of exon 4 and the 5 end of exon 5, amplified with primers 148 and 78 (indicated by arrows). The dashes indicate identity in sequence between the L and the M segments. The position of intron 4 is indicated, but, because cDNA was used as the template, only exonic sequences are amplified.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Standard curve for quantification of the L:M mRNA ratio. A, Phosphor image of a single-strand conformation gel, showing the separation of L from M pigment cDNA strands. Known ratios (indicated above the lanes as input L:M mRNA ratios) of purified L and M pigment cDNA were generated and were used as templates in the competitive PCR amplification reaction by use of primers 148 (end labeled  32P) and 78 (see Fig. 1B), the sequence of which matches both L and M templates. The L- and M-derived PCR products were resolved by electrophoresis, as described in Section 2. Band densities were determined with a phophorimager. B, Plot of input and observed [±1 standard deviation (SD)] L:M cDNA ratios.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

L:M mRNA ratios in whole monkey retinas. A, Phosphor image of a single-strand conformation gel of PCR-amplified segments. RNA was isolated from whole monkey retinas, reverse transcribed into cDNA, and used as a template to amplify the segment shown in Fig. 1B. Monkey identification (ID) numbers are indicated above the lanes and correspond to those in B. Monkeys 17 and 26 are P. anubis males, 20 and 22 are M. fascicularis females, and the rest are M. nemestrina males (monkeys 19, 21, 24) and females (monkeys 16, 18, 23, 25). Differences in mobility of the bands from different species reflect sequence differences. B, L:M mRNA ratios (±1 SD) estimated from band densities shown in A. Monkey ID numbers are shown on the abscissa. Males are indicated by the label M above the bars. Black bars, M. nemestrina; white bar, M. mulatta; striped bars, M. fascicularis; black bars with white squares, P. anubis. Inset, frequency distribution of the L:M mRNA ratios.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relation of retinal location to L:M mRNA ratio. A, Schematic retina illustrates how retinal tissue was sampled. We sampled circular punches ∼3 mm in diameter along the horizontal and vertical meridians, noting retinal eccentricity, in millimeters from the fovea. Diagonal lines delineate retinal quadrants, as indicated. B, Histogram of percentage of L pigment mRNA normalized to foveal values as a function of eccentricity. Data are for the retinas listed in Table 1, with the exception of monkey 88105, for which precise eccentricity information was not available. No significant change in the L:M pigment mRNA ratio as a function of retinal eccentricity out to 9 mm was present. Values are means from five retinas; error bars indicate ±1 SD. Data at 12 mm are based on one retina. C, Histogram of percentage of L pigment mRNA by retinal quadrant (N, nasal; T, temporal; S, superior; I, inferior) normalized to the temporal quadrant; error bars indicate ±1 SD. The temporal quadrant shows the highest L pigment mRNA level; nasal retina shows a consistently large reduction of ∼30% relative to the temporal quadrant (p=0.022; two-tailed t test). Data are for the 10 eyes (9 animals) listed in Tables 1 and 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot of percentage of L cone contrast gain for H1 horizontal cells against percentage of L pigment mRNA level for the same piece of retinal tissue. The two data sets are highly cor-related (correlation coefficient r=0.85; two-tailed t test; P =0.05). A line with a slope of 1 is drawn through the data points. The values for the mRNA are the means of three measurements; error bars indicate ±1 SD. Values for the H1 cell contrast gains are taken from cells located within a 3-mm-tissue punch that was used for the mRNA analysis. Multiple measurements of M and L cone contrast gain were made on each H1 cell, and the data points are mean values. SD’s were small, ranging from 0.5% to 1.5% of the mean, and are not shown.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 L:M Pigment mRNA Ratios in Monkey Retinal Sections in 3-mm Punches along the Nasal–Temporal and Superior–Inferior Axesa

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Table 2 L:M Pigment mRNA Ratios in Patches from the Superior, Inferior, Temporal, and Nasal Regionsa,b

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