Abstract

Flicker photometric measurements yield spectral sensitivity curves that are well fitted by sums of the spectral sensitivity curves of long-wavelength-sensitive (L) cones and middle-wavelength-sensitive (M) cones if the L cones are given twice the weight of the M cones. This result has been interpreted as implying that L cones are more numerous than M cones but is also consistent with a different numerical ratio, say, 1:1, and with the assignment of greater weight to the L cone input than to the M cone input by the mechanism subserving flicker photometry. Measurements of temporal sensitivity are presented for lights that modulate the inputs of either only the L cones or only the M cones. Sensitivity to modulation of the L cones is approximately twice that of modulation of the M cones at 30 Hz, but that advantage disappears at 2 Hz. Thus flicker sensitivity is equivocal with regard to cone numerosity. Electrophysiological, anatomical, and psychophysical evidence is reviewed, with particular weight placed on the statistics of color appearance of small, brief, monochromatic lights and on increment thresholds measured on the same observers. It is concluded that, in the central fovea, the ratio of L:M cone numbers is close to unity and may not be so variable as is usually supposed.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  22. R. L. P. Vimal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. K. Shevell, “Foveal cone thresholds,” Vision Res. 29, 61–78 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  24. M. S. Smirnov, “Measurement of wave aberration in the human eye,” Biophys. J. 6, 52–65 (1961).
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    [CrossRef]
  26. F. Holmgren, “Studien uber die elementaren Farbenempfindungen,” Skanad. Arch. Physiol. 1, 152–183 (1889).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. A. Bouman, P. L. Walraven, “Some color naming experiments with red and green monochromatic lights,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 834–839 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Krauskopf, “On identifying detectors,” in Visual Psychophysics and Physiology, J. C. Armington, J. Krauskopf, B. R. Wooten, eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 283–295.
  29. J. Krauskopf, R. Srebro, “Spectral sensitivity of color mechanisms: derivation from fluctuations in color appearance near threshold,” Science 150, 1477–1479 (1965).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. H. Wässle, B. B. Boycott, “Functional architecture of the mammalian retina,” Physiol. Rev. 71, 447–480 (1991).
    [PubMed]
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1999 (3)

H. Sun, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Control of modulation of the human photoreceptors,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, 354 (1999).

A. Roorda, D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, D. R. Williams, “The packing arrangement of S, M, and L cones in the living primate retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, 365 (1999).

1998 (3)

M. J. M. Lankheet, P. Lennie, J. Krauskopf, “Temporal-chromatic interactions in LGN P-cells,” Visual Neurosci. 15, 47–54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. M. Lankheet, P. Lennie, J. Krauskopf, “Distinctive characteristics of subclasses of red–green P-cells in the LGN of macaque,” Visual Neurosci. 15, 37–46 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. R. Gegenfurtner, M. J. Hawken, “Temporal and chromatic properties of motion mechanisms,” Vision Res. 35, 1547–1563 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

D. J. Calkins, S. J. Schein, Y. Tsukamoto, P. Sterling, “M and L cones in macaque fovea connect to midget ganglion cells by different numbers of excitatory synapses,” Nature 371, 70–77 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J. D. Mollon, J. K. Bowmaker, “The spatial arrangement of cones in the primate,” Nature 360, 677–679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (3)

M. F. Wesner, J. Pokorny, S. K. Shevell, V. C. Smith, “Foveal cone detection statistics in color normals and dichromats,” Vision Res. 31, 1021–1037 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. van den Brink, “Measurement of the geometrical aberrations of the eye,” Vision Res. 2, 233–244 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Wässle, B. B. Boycott, “Functional architecture of the mammalian retina,” Physiol. Rev. 71, 447–480 (1991).
[PubMed]

1989 (2)

C. M. Cicerone, J. L. Nerger, “The relative number of long-wavelength-sensitive to middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the human fovea centralis,” Vision Res. 29, 115–128 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. L. P. Vimal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. K. Shevell, “Foveal cone thresholds,” Vision Res. 29, 61–78 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

D. A. Baylor, B. J. Nunn, J. L. Schnapf, “Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey, Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. (London) 390, 145–160 (1987).

1984 (1)

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

1983 (1)

H. J. A. Dartnall, J. K. Bowmaker, J. D. Mollon, “Human visual pigments: microspectrophotometric results from the eyes of seven persons,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 220, 115–130 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. D. Mollon, “Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptor in an Old World primate Macaca fascicularis” J. Physiol. (London) 298, 131–143 (1980).

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. N. Lythgoe, J. D. Mollon, “The visual pigments of rods and cones in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta,” J. Physiol. (London) 274, 329–348 (1978).

1975 (1)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

J. J. Vos, P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

J. Krauskopf, R. Srebro, “Spectral sensitivity of color mechanisms: derivation from fluctuations in color appearance near threshold,” Science 150, 1477–1479 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964 (1)

W. A. H. Rushton, H. D. Baker, “Red/green sensitivity in normal vision,” Vision Res. 4, 75–85 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1961 (1)

M. S. Smirnov, “Measurement of wave aberration in the human eye,” Biophys. J. 6, 52–65 (1961).

1957 (1)

1889 (1)

F. Holmgren, “Studien uber die elementaren Farbenempfindungen,” Skanad. Arch. Physiol. 1, 152–183 (1889).
[CrossRef]

Baker, H. D.

W. A. H. Rushton, H. D. Baker, “Red/green sensitivity in normal vision,” Vision Res. 4, 75–85 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baylor, D. A.

D. A. Baylor, B. J. Nunn, J. L. Schnapf, “Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey, Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. (London) 390, 145–160 (1987).

Bouman, M. A.

Bowmaker, J. K.

J. D. Mollon, J. K. Bowmaker, “The spatial arrangement of cones in the primate,” Nature 360, 677–679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. A. Dartnall, J. K. Bowmaker, J. D. Mollon, “Human visual pigments: microspectrophotometric results from the eyes of seven persons,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 220, 115–130 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. D. Mollon, “Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptor in an Old World primate Macaca fascicularis” J. Physiol. (London) 298, 131–143 (1980).

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. N. Lythgoe, J. D. Mollon, “The visual pigments of rods and cones in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta,” J. Physiol. (London) 274, 329–348 (1978).

Boycott, B. B.

H. Wässle, B. B. Boycott, “Functional architecture of the mammalian retina,” Physiol. Rev. 71, 447–480 (1991).
[PubMed]

Boynton, R. M.

Calkins, D. J.

D. J. Calkins, S. J. Schein, Y. Tsukamoto, P. Sterling, “M and L cones in macaque fovea connect to midget ganglion cells by different numbers of excitatory synapses,” Nature 371, 70–77 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cicerone, C. M.

C. M. Cicerone, J. L. Nerger, “The relative number of long-wavelength-sensitive to middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the human fovea centralis,” Vision Res. 29, 115–128 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dartnall, H. J. A.

H. J. A. Dartnall, J. K. Bowmaker, J. D. Mollon, “Human visual pigments: microspectrophotometric results from the eyes of seven persons,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 220, 115–130 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. D. Mollon, “Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptor in an Old World primate Macaca fascicularis” J. Physiol. (London) 298, 131–143 (1980).

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. N. Lythgoe, J. D. Mollon, “The visual pigments of rods and cones in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta,” J. Physiol. (London) 274, 329–348 (1978).

Derrington, A. M.

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

Eisner, A.

Gegenfurtner, K. R.

K. R. Gegenfurtner, M. J. Hawken, “Temporal and chromatic properties of motion mechanisms,” Vision Res. 35, 1547–1563 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagstrom, S. A.

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawken, M. J.

K. R. Gegenfurtner, M. J. Hawken, “Temporal and chromatic properties of motion mechanisms,” Vision Res. 35, 1547–1563 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heeley, D. W.

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holmgren, F.

F. Holmgren, “Studien uber die elementaren Farbenempfindungen,” Skanad. Arch. Physiol. 1, 152–183 (1889).
[CrossRef]

Krauskopf, J.

M. J. M. Lankheet, P. Lennie, J. Krauskopf, “Temporal-chromatic interactions in LGN P-cells,” Visual Neurosci. 15, 47–54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. M. Lankheet, P. Lennie, J. Krauskopf, “Distinctive characteristics of subclasses of red–green P-cells in the LGN of macaque,” Visual Neurosci. 15, 37–46 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Krauskopf, R. Srebro, “Spectral sensitivity of color mechanisms: derivation from fluctuations in color appearance near threshold,” Science 150, 1477–1479 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Krauskopf, “On identifying detectors,” in Visual Psychophysics and Physiology, J. C. Armington, J. Krauskopf, B. R. Wooten, eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 283–295.

Lankheet, M. J. M.

M. J. M. Lankheet, P. Lennie, J. Krauskopf, “Temporal-chromatic interactions in LGN P-cells,” Visual Neurosci. 15, 47–54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. M. Lankheet, P. Lennie, J. Krauskopf, “Distinctive characteristics of subclasses of red–green P-cells in the LGN of macaque,” Visual Neurosci. 15, 37–46 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lennie, P.

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, D. R. Williams, “The packing arrangement of S, M, and L cones in the living primate retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, 365 (1999).

M. J. M. Lankheet, P. Lennie, J. Krauskopf, “Distinctive characteristics of subclasses of red–green P-cells in the LGN of macaque,” Visual Neurosci. 15, 37–46 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. M. Lankheet, P. Lennie, J. Krauskopf, “Temporal-chromatic interactions in LGN P-cells,” Visual Neurosci. 15, 47–54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

Lythgoe, J. N.

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. N. Lythgoe, J. D. Mollon, “The visual pigments of rods and cones in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta,” J. Physiol. (London) 274, 329–348 (1978).

MacLeod, D. I. A.

Metha, A. B.

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, D. R. Williams, “The packing arrangement of S, M, and L cones in the living primate retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, 365 (1999).

Mollon, J. D.

J. D. Mollon, J. K. Bowmaker, “The spatial arrangement of cones in the primate,” Nature 360, 677–679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. A. Dartnall, J. K. Bowmaker, J. D. Mollon, “Human visual pigments: microspectrophotometric results from the eyes of seven persons,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 220, 115–130 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. D. Mollon, “Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptor in an Old World primate Macaca fascicularis” J. Physiol. (London) 298, 131–143 (1980).

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. N. Lythgoe, J. D. Mollon, “The visual pigments of rods and cones in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta,” J. Physiol. (London) 274, 329–348 (1978).

Neitz, J.

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neitz, M.

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nerger, J. L.

C. M. Cicerone, J. L. Nerger, “The relative number of long-wavelength-sensitive to middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the human fovea centralis,” Vision Res. 29, 115–128 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nunn, B. J.

D. A. Baylor, B. J. Nunn, J. L. Schnapf, “Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey, Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. (London) 390, 145–160 (1987).

Pokorny, J.

H. Sun, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Control of modulation of the human photoreceptors,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, 354 (1999).

M. F. Wesner, J. Pokorny, S. K. Shevell, V. C. Smith, “Foveal cone detection statistics in color normals and dichromats,” Vision Res. 31, 1021–1037 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. L. P. Vimal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. K. Shevell, “Foveal cone thresholds,” Vision Res. 29, 61–78 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roorda, A.

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, D. R. Williams, “The packing arrangement of S, M, and L cones in the living primate retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, 365 (1999).

A. Roorda, D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton, H. D. Baker, “Red/green sensitivity in normal vision,” Vision Res. 4, 75–85 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schein, S. J.

D. J. Calkins, S. J. Schein, Y. Tsukamoto, P. Sterling, “M and L cones in macaque fovea connect to midget ganglion cells by different numbers of excitatory synapses,” Nature 371, 70–77 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnapf, J. L.

D. A. Baylor, B. J. Nunn, J. L. Schnapf, “Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey, Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. (London) 390, 145–160 (1987).

Shevell, S. K.

M. F. Wesner, J. Pokorny, S. K. Shevell, V. C. Smith, “Foveal cone detection statistics in color normals and dichromats,” Vision Res. 31, 1021–1037 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. L. P. Vimal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. K. Shevell, “Foveal cone thresholds,” Vision Res. 29, 61–78 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smirnov, M. S.

M. S. Smirnov, “Measurement of wave aberration in the human eye,” Biophys. J. 6, 52–65 (1961).

Smith, V. C.

H. Sun, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Control of modulation of the human photoreceptors,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, 354 (1999).

M. F. Wesner, J. Pokorny, S. K. Shevell, V. C. Smith, “Foveal cone detection statistics in color normals and dichromats,” Vision Res. 31, 1021–1037 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. L. P. Vimal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. K. Shevell, “Foveal cone thresholds,” Vision Res. 29, 61–78 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srebro, R.

J. Krauskopf, R. Srebro, “Spectral sensitivity of color mechanisms: derivation from fluctuations in color appearance near threshold,” Science 150, 1477–1479 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterling, P.

D. J. Calkins, S. J. Schein, Y. Tsukamoto, P. Sterling, “M and L cones in macaque fovea connect to midget ganglion cells by different numbers of excitatory synapses,” Nature 371, 70–77 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, “Further studies of visual mechanisms by the two-colour threshold method,” in Colloquio sobre Problemas Opticos de la Vision (n.p., Madrid, 1953), Vol. 1, pp. 65–103; reprinted in W. S. Stiles, Mechanisms of Colour Vision (Academic, New York, 1978).

Sun, H.

H. Sun, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Control of modulation of the human photoreceptors,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, 354 (1999).

Tsukamoto, Y.

D. J. Calkins, S. J. Schein, Y. Tsukamoto, P. Sterling, “M and L cones in macaque fovea connect to midget ganglion cells by different numbers of excitatory synapses,” Nature 371, 70–77 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van den Brink, G.

G. van den Brink, “Measurement of the geometrical aberrations of the eye,” Vision Res. 2, 233–244 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vimal, R. L. P.

R. L. P. Vimal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. K. Shevell, “Foveal cone thresholds,” Vision Res. 29, 61–78 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walraven, P. L.

J. J. Vos, P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Bouman, P. L. Walraven, “Some color naming experiments with red and green monochromatic lights,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 834–839 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Wässle, H.

H. Wässle, B. B. Boycott, “Functional architecture of the mammalian retina,” Physiol. Rev. 71, 447–480 (1991).
[PubMed]

Wesner, M. F.

M. F. Wesner, J. Pokorny, S. K. Shevell, V. C. Smith, “Foveal cone detection statistics in color normals and dichromats,” Vision Res. 31, 1021–1037 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, D. R. Williams, “The packing arrangement of S, M, and L cones in the living primate retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, 365 (1999).

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, D. R. Williams, “The packing arrangement of S, M, and L cones in the living primate retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 40, 365 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Physiol. (London) (4)

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Nature (3)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. S. Stiles, “Further studies of visual mechanisms by the two-colour threshold method,” in Colloquio sobre Problemas Opticos de la Vision (n.p., Madrid, 1953), Vol. 1, pp. 65–103; reprinted in W. S. Stiles, Mechanisms of Colour Vision (Academic, New York, 1978).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temporal modulation sensitivities for stimuli that vary the input to either the L cones only or the M cones only. The results of eight repetitions for L-only and M-only modulations are plotted at each temporal frequency. Error bars represent a range of ±2 times the standard error, i.e., the 95% confidence limits of the plotted data points.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal modulation sensitivities for stimuli that vary the input to either the L cones only or the M cones only. Results for five observers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of color naming of small, brief, near-threshold monochromatic flashes from three laboratories for four observers. (a) Adapted from Cicerone and Nerger (Ref. 21). (b) Adapted from Bouman and Walraven (Ref. 27). (c) Adapted from Krauskopf (Ref. 28). Lines were added to illustrate the locations of wavelengths at which the observers called twice as many flashes red as green.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretical plot of the fraction of detections resulting from the activation of exactly 1–5 detectors as a function of probability of detection. The numbers on the curves indicate the number of detectors activated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fraction of the flashes detected that were called either red or green as a function of fraction detected. The wavelengths are shown. The curve that depicts the fraction of the detections resulting from the activation of but one detector taken from Fig. 4 is superimposed upon the data. As discussed in the text, this curve understates the prediction of the fraction of the flashes expected to be seen as saturated reds and greens.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of relative spectral sensitivities (bottom) derived by color-naming and increment threshold procedures for green and red and for π4 and π5. Placement of curves on the ordinate is arbitrary. The upper curves plot the logarithmic difference of the π4 and π5 and the green and red sensitivities.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Ratios of Sensitivities of L and M Cones for Modulation Frequencies of 1.8 and 29 Hz and Ratios of These Ratios

Equations (2)

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Pk=N!k!(N-k)!pk(1-p)N-k.
PS=1-(1-p)N.

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