Abstract

We report the photometric observation of a polychromatic laser guide star (PLGS) using the AVLIS laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The process aims at providing a measurement of the tilt of the incoming wave front at a telescope induced by atmospheric turbulence. It relies on the two-photon coherent excitation of the 4D5/2 energy level of sodium atoms in the mesosphere. We used two laser beams at 589 and 569 nm, with a maximum total average output power of ≈350 W. For the purpose of photometric calibration, a natural star was observed simultaneously through the same instrument as the PLGS at the focus of the LLNL 50-cm telescope. Photometric measurements of the 330-nm return flux confirm our previous theoretical studies that the PLGS process should allow us at a later stage to correct for the tilt at wavelengths as short as ≈1 µm at good astronomical sites. They show also that, at saturation of two-photon coherent absorption in the mesosphere, the backscattered flux increases by a factor of ≈2 when the pulse repetition rate decreases by a factor of 3 at constant average power. This unexpected behavior is briefly discussed.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Grynberg, B. Cagnac, F. Biraben, Coherent Non-Linear Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
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    [CrossRef]
  28. G. Grynberg, “Atomic physics and multicolor laser guide star,” in Laser Technology for Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Astronomy, N. Hubin, ed., Vol. 55 of ESO Workshops (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1997), pp. 71–76.
  29. C. Gastineau, “Etude de l’inversion de population per passage adiabatique rapide,” Ph.D. thesis (Université Paris-XII, Orsay, France, 1995).
  30. M. Schöck, R. Foy, J.-P. Pique, P. Chevrov, N. Ageorges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F.-C. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, J.-M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 296–307 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Le Louarn, R. Foy, N. Hubin, M. Tallon, “Laser guide star for 3.6 m and 8 m telescopes: performances and astrophysical implications,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 295, 756–768 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

R. Ragazzoni, “Absolute tip-tilt determination with laser beacons,” Astron. Astrophys. 305, L13–L16 (1996).

R. Ragazzoni, “Propagation delay of a laser beacon as a tool to retrieve absolute tilt measurements,” Astrophys. J. 465, L73–L75 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, E. Marchetti, “Auxiliary telescopes for the absolute tip-tilt determination of a laser guide star,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 276, L76–L78 (1995).

R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, M. Tallon, “The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 111, 569–578 (1995).

1994 (3)

1992 (2)

T. H. Jeys, R. M. Heinrichs, K. F. Wall, J. Korn, T. C. Hotaling, E. Kibblewhite, “Observation of optical pumping of mesospheric sodium,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1143–1145 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rigaut, E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677–684 (1992).

1991 (1)

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortions using a synthetic beacon,” Nature 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

F. Roddier, M. Sarazin, “The ESO differential image motion monitor,” Astron. Astrophys. 270, 294–300 (1990).

1987 (2)

H. M. Martin, “Image motion as a measurement of seeing quality,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 1360–1376 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Pilkington, “Artificial guide stars for adaptive imaging,” Nature 330, 116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L32 (1985).

Ageorges, N.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, J.-P. Pique, P. Chevrov, N. Ageorges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F.-C. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, J.-M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Allen, C. W.

C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities (The Athlone Press, University of London, London, 1976).

Angel, J.

Angel, J. R. P.

B. P. Jacobsen, T. Martinez, J. R. P. Angel, M. Lloyd-Hart, S. Benda, D. Middleton, H. W. Friedman, G. V. Erbert, “Field evaluation of two new continuous-wave dye laser sys-tems optimized for sodium beacon excitation,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 342–351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Avicola, K.

Barclay, H. T.

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortions using a synthetic beacon,” Nature 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Belen’kii, M. S.

M. S. Belen’kii, “Full aperture measurement technique with a laser guide star,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing. IV, C. Dainty, ed., Proc. SPIE2471, 289–300 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Belkine, I.

R. Foy, I. Belkine, E. Thiébaut, “Pre-main sequence stars by visible speckle interferometry at the CFHT and telescope/instrument constraints,” in Proceedings of the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope (CFHT) Users’s Meeting, M. Azzopardi, ed. (CFHT, Waimea, Hawaii, 1995) pp. 119–123.

I. Belkine, “Etude des contraintes atmosphériques et instrumentales en haute résolution angulaire en astrophysique,” Ph.D. thesis (Université Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Villeurbanne, France, 1996).

Bellanger, V.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, J.-P. Pique, P. Chevrov, N. Ageorges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F.-C. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, J.-M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Benda, S.

B. P. Jacobsen, T. Martinez, J. R. P. Angel, M. Lloyd-Hart, S. Benda, D. Middleton, H. W. Friedman, G. V. Erbert, “Field evaluation of two new continuous-wave dye laser sys-tems optimized for sodium beacon excitation,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 342–351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Biraben, F.

R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, M. Tallon, “The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 111, 569–578 (1995).

G. Grynberg, B. Cagnac, F. Biraben, Coherent Non-Linear Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

Bissinger, H. D.

Boeke, B. R.

Boucher, Y.

R. Foy, Y. Boucher, B. Fleury, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, A. Migus, M. Tallon, “ATLAS status report and tilt sensing using multicolour laser reference star,” in Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 42 of ESO Conferences (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 437–441.

Brase, J. M.

Brixon, L.

M. Séchaud, N. Hubin, L. Brixon, R. Jalin, R. Foy, M. Tallon, “Laser backscattered reference star for atmospheric wavefront disturbances measurement,” in Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 30 of ESO/NOAO Conferences (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 705–714.

Cagnac, B.

G. Grynberg, B. Cagnac, F. Biraben, Coherent Non-Linear Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

Chevrov, P.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, J.-P. Pique, P. Chevrov, N. Ageorges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F.-C. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, J.-M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cleis, R. A.

Davies, R.

R. Davies, Hackenberg, Ott, A. E. C. Holstenberg, S. Rabien, A. Quirrenbach, Kasper, “ALFA: First operational experience of the MPE/MPIA laser guide star system for adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 116–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duff, J.

Ellerbroek, B. L.

Erbert, G.

H. W. Friedman, G. Erbert, T. Kuklo, T. Salmon, D. Smauley, G. Thompson, J. Malik, N. Wong, K. Kanz, K. Neeb, “Sodium beacon laser system for the Lick Observatory,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds. Proc. SPIE2534, 150–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Erbert, G. V.

B. P. Jacobsen, T. Martinez, J. R. P. Angel, M. Lloyd-Hart, S. Benda, D. Middleton, H. W. Friedman, G. V. Erbert, “Field evaluation of two new continuous-wave dye laser sys-tems optimized for sodium beacon excitation,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 342–351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Esposito, S.

R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, E. Marchetti, “Auxiliary telescopes for the absolute tip-tilt determination of a laser guide star,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 276, L76–L78 (1995).

Feldt, M.

S. Hippler, M. Kasper, M. Feldt, R. Weiss, W. K. Hackenberg, T. Ott, “ALFA: three years of experience in adaptive optics with a laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 41–49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fews, H.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, J.-P. Pique, P. Chevrov, N. Ageorges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F.-C. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, J.-M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fleury, B.

R. Foy, Y. Boucher, B. Fleury, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, A. Migus, M. Tallon, “ATLAS status report and tilt sensing using multicolour laser reference star,” in Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 42 of ESO Conferences (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 437–441.

Foy, F.-C.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, J.-P. Pique, P. Chevrov, N. Ageorges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F.-C. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, J.-M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foy, R.

M. Le Louarn, R. Foy, N. Hubin, M. Tallon, “Laser guide star for 3.6 m and 8 m telescopes: performances and astrophysical implications,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 295, 756–768 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, M. Tallon, “The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 111, 569–578 (1995).

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L32 (1985).

M. Schöck, R. Foy, J.-P. Pique, P. Chevrov, N. Ageorges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F.-C. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, J.-M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Séchaud, N. Hubin, L. Brixon, R. Jalin, R. Foy, M. Tallon, “Laser backscattered reference star for atmospheric wavefront disturbances measurement,” in Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 30 of ESO/NOAO Conferences (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 705–714.

R. Foy, Y. Boucher, B. Fleury, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, A. Migus, M. Tallon, “ATLAS status report and tilt sensing using multicolour laser reference star,” in Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 42 of ESO Conferences (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 437–441.

R. Foy, I. Belkine, E. Thiébaut, “Pre-main sequence stars by visible speckle interferometry at the CFHT and telescope/instrument constraints,” in Proceedings of the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope (CFHT) Users’s Meeting, M. Azzopardi, ed. (CFHT, Waimea, Hawaii, 1995) pp. 119–123.

Friedman, H. W.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 813–824 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Jacobsen, T. Martinez, J. R. P. Angel, M. Lloyd-Hart, S. Benda, D. Middleton, H. W. Friedman, G. V. Erbert, “Field evaluation of two new continuous-wave dye laser sys-tems optimized for sodium beacon excitation,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 342–351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Friedman, G. Erbert, T. Kuklo, T. Salmon, D. Smauley, G. Thompson, J. Malik, N. Wong, K. Kanz, K. Neeb, “Sodium beacon laser system for the Lick Observatory,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds. Proc. SPIE2534, 150–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fugate, R. Q.

Gastineau, C.

C. Gastineau, “Etude de l’inversion de population per passage adiabatique rapide,” Ph.D. thesis (Université Paris-XII, Orsay, France, 1995).

Gavel, D. T.

Gendron, E.

F. Rigaut, E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677–684 (1992).

Grynberg, G.

R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, M. Tallon, “The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 111, 569–578 (1995).

R. Foy, Y. Boucher, B. Fleury, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, A. Migus, M. Tallon, “ATLAS status report and tilt sensing using multicolour laser reference star,” in Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 42 of ESO Conferences (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 437–441.

G. Grynberg, B. Cagnac, F. Biraben, Coherent Non-Linear Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

G. Grynberg, “Atomic physics and multicolor laser guide star,” in Laser Technology for Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Astronomy, N. Hubin, ed., Vol. 55 of ESO Workshops (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1997), pp. 71–76.

Hackenberg,

R. Davies, Hackenberg, Ott, A. E. C. Holstenberg, S. Rabien, A. Quirrenbach, Kasper, “ALFA: First operational experience of the MPE/MPIA laser guide star system for adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 116–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hackenberg, W. K.

S. Hippler, M. Kasper, M. Feldt, R. Weiss, W. K. Hackenberg, T. Ott, “ALFA: three years of experience in adaptive optics with a laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 41–49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heinrichs, R. M.

Higgins, C. H.

Hippler, S.

S. Hippler, M. Kasper, M. Feldt, R. Weiss, W. K. Hackenberg, T. Ott, “ALFA: three years of experience in adaptive optics with a laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 41–49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Högemann, C.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, J.-P. Pique, P. Chevrov, N. Ageorges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F.-C. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, J.-M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holstenberg, A. E. C.

R. Davies, Hackenberg, Ott, A. E. C. Holstenberg, S. Rabien, A. Quirrenbach, Kasper, “ALFA: First operational experience of the MPE/MPIA laser guide star system for adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 116–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Horton, J. A.

Hotaling, T. C.

Hubin, N.

M. Le Louarn, R. Foy, N. Hubin, M. Tallon, “Laser guide star for 3.6 m and 8 m telescopes: performances and astrophysical implications,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 295, 756–768 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Séchaud, N. Hubin, L. Brixon, R. Jalin, R. Foy, M. Tallon, “Laser backscattered reference star for atmospheric wavefront disturbances measurement,” in Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 30 of ESO/NOAO Conferences (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 705–714.

Jacobsen, B. P.

B. P. Jacobsen, T. Martinez, J. R. P. Angel, M. Lloyd-Hart, S. Benda, D. Middleton, H. W. Friedman, G. V. Erbert, “Field evaluation of two new continuous-wave dye laser sys-tems optimized for sodium beacon excitation,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 342–351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jalin, R.

M. Séchaud, N. Hubin, L. Brixon, R. Jalin, R. Foy, M. Tallon, “Laser backscattered reference star for atmospheric wavefront disturbances measurement,” in Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 30 of ESO/NOAO Conferences (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 705–714.

Jelonek, M. P.

Jeys, T. H.

Kanz, K.

H. W. Friedman, G. Erbert, T. Kuklo, T. Salmon, D. Smauley, G. Thompson, J. Malik, N. Wong, K. Kanz, K. Neeb, “Sodium beacon laser system for the Lick Observatory,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds. Proc. SPIE2534, 150–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kasper,

R. Davies, Hackenberg, Ott, A. E. C. Holstenberg, S. Rabien, A. Quirrenbach, Kasper, “ALFA: First operational experience of the MPE/MPIA laser guide star system for adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 116–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, M.

S. Hippler, M. Kasper, M. Feldt, R. Weiss, W. K. Hackenberg, T. Ott, “ALFA: three years of experience in adaptive optics with a laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 41–49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kibblewhite, E.

Kiefer, R.

Korn, J.

Kuklo, T.

H. W. Friedman, G. Erbert, T. Kuklo, T. Salmon, D. Smauley, G. Thompson, J. Malik, N. Wong, K. Kanz, K. Neeb, “Sodium beacon laser system for the Lick Observatory,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds. Proc. SPIE2534, 150–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L32 (1985).

Lange, W. J.

Laubscher, M.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, J.-P. Pique, P. Chevrov, N. Ageorges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F.-C. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, J.-M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Le Louarn, M.

M. Le Louarn, R. Foy, N. Hubin, M. Tallon, “Laser guide star for 3.6 m and 8 m telescopes: performances and astrophysical implications,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 295, 756–768 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd-Hart, M.

D. G. Sandler, S. Stahl, J. Angel, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. McCarthy, “Adaptive optics for diffraction-limited infrared imaging with 8-m telescopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 925–945 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Jacobsen, T. Martinez, J. R. P. Angel, M. Lloyd-Hart, S. Benda, D. Middleton, H. W. Friedman, G. V. Erbert, “Field evaluation of two new continuous-wave dye laser sys-tems optimized for sodium beacon excitation,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 342–351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Malik, J.

H. W. Friedman, G. Erbert, T. Kuklo, T. Salmon, D. Smauley, G. Thompson, J. Malik, N. Wong, K. Kanz, K. Neeb, “Sodium beacon laser system for the Lick Observatory,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds. Proc. SPIE2534, 150–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marchetti, E.

R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, E. Marchetti, “Auxiliary telescopes for the absolute tip-tilt determination of a laser guide star,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 276, L76–L78 (1995).

Martin, H. M.

H. M. Martin, “Image motion as a measurement of seeing quality,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 1360–1376 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, T.

B. P. Jacobsen, T. Martinez, J. R. P. Angel, M. Lloyd-Hart, S. Benda, D. Middleton, H. W. Friedman, G. V. Erbert, “Field evaluation of two new continuous-wave dye laser sys-tems optimized for sodium beacon excitation,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 342–351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Max, C. E.

McCarthy, D.

McCullough, P. R.

R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, M. Tallon, “The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 111, 569–578 (1995).

R. Foy, Y. Boucher, B. Fleury, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, A. Migus, M. Tallon, “ATLAS status report and tilt sensing using multicolour laser reference star,” in Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 42 of ESO Conferences (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 437–441.

Middleton, D.

B. P. Jacobsen, T. Martinez, J. R. P. Angel, M. Lloyd-Hart, S. Benda, D. Middleton, H. W. Friedman, G. V. Erbert, “Field evaluation of two new continuous-wave dye laser sys-tems optimized for sodium beacon excitation,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 342–351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Migus, A.

R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, M. Tallon, “The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 111, 569–578 (1995).

R. Foy, Y. Boucher, B. Fleury, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, A. Migus, M. Tallon, “ATLAS status report and tilt sensing using multicolour laser reference star,” in Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 42 of ESO Conferences (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 437–441.

Moroney, J. F.

Morris, J. R.

Murphy, D. V.

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortions using a synthetic beacon,” Nature 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Neeb, K.

H. W. Friedman, G. Erbert, T. Kuklo, T. Salmon, D. Smauley, G. Thompson, J. Malik, N. Wong, K. Kanz, K. Neeb, “Sodium beacon laser system for the Lick Observatory,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds. Proc. SPIE2534, 150–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oliker, M. D.

Olivier, S. S.

Ott,

R. Davies, Hackenberg, Ott, A. E. C. Holstenberg, S. Rabien, A. Quirrenbach, Kasper, “ALFA: First operational experience of the MPE/MPIA laser guide star system for adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 116–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ott, T.

S. Hippler, M. Kasper, M. Feldt, R. Weiss, W. K. Hackenberg, T. Ott, “ALFA: three years of experience in adaptive optics with a laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 41–49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Page, D. A.

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortions using a synthetic beacon,” Nature 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Peillet, O.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, J.-P. Pique, P. Chevrov, N. Ageorges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F.-C. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, J.-M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Petit, A.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, J.-P. Pique, P. Chevrov, N. Ageorges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F.-C. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, J.-M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pilkington, J.

J. Pilkington, “Artificial guide stars for adaptive imaging,” Nature 330, 116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pique, J.-P.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, J.-P. Pique, P. Chevrov, N. Ageorges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F.-C. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, J.-M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Presta, R. W.

Primmerman, C. A.

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortions using a synthetic beacon,” Nature 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Quirrenbach, A.

R. Davies, Hackenberg, Ott, A. E. C. Holstenberg, S. Rabien, A. Quirrenbach, Kasper, “ALFA: First operational experience of the MPE/MPIA laser guide star system for adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 116–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rabien, S.

R. Davies, Hackenberg, Ott, A. E. C. Holstenberg, S. Rabien, A. Quirrenbach, Kasper, “ALFA: First operational experience of the MPE/MPIA laser guide star system for adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 116–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

R. Ragazzoni, “Absolute tip-tilt determination with laser beacons,” Astron. Astrophys. 305, L13–L16 (1996).

R. Ragazzoni, “Propagation delay of a laser beacon as a tool to retrieve absolute tilt measurements,” Astrophys. J. 465, L73–L75 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, E. Marchetti, “Auxiliary telescopes for the absolute tip-tilt determination of a laser guide star,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 276, L76–L78 (1995).

Rapp, D. A.

Rigaut, F.

F. Rigaut, E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677–684 (1992).

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, M. Sarazin, “The ESO differential image motion monitor,” Astron. Astrophys. 270, 294–300 (1990).

Ruane, R. E.

Salmon, J. T.

Salmon, T.

H. W. Friedman, G. Erbert, T. Kuklo, T. Salmon, D. Smauley, G. Thompson, J. Malik, N. Wong, K. Kanz, K. Neeb, “Sodium beacon laser system for the Lick Observatory,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds. Proc. SPIE2534, 150–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sandler, D. G.

Sarazin, M.

F. Roddier, M. Sarazin, “The ESO differential image motion monitor,” Astron. Astrophys. 270, 294–300 (1990).

Schöck, M.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, J.-P. Pique, P. Chevrov, N. Ageorges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F.-C. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, J.-M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Séchaud, M.

M. Séchaud, N. Hubin, L. Brixon, R. Jalin, R. Foy, M. Tallon, “Laser backscattered reference star for atmospheric wavefront disturbances measurement,” in Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 30 of ESO/NOAO Conferences (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 705–714.

Segonds, P.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, J.-P. Pique, P. Chevrov, N. Ageorges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F.-C. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, J.-M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Slavin, A. C.

Smauley, D.

H. W. Friedman, G. Erbert, T. Kuklo, T. Salmon, D. Smauley, G. Thompson, J. Malik, N. Wong, K. Kanz, K. Neeb, “Sodium beacon laser system for the Lick Observatory,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds. Proc. SPIE2534, 150–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spinhirne, J. M.

Stahl, S.

Swindle, D. W.

Tallon, M.

M. Le Louarn, R. Foy, N. Hubin, M. Tallon, “Laser guide star for 3.6 m and 8 m telescopes: performances and astrophysical implications,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 295, 756–768 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, M. Tallon, “The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 111, 569–578 (1995).

M. Schöck, R. Foy, J.-P. Pique, P. Chevrov, N. Ageorges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F.-C. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, J.-M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Séchaud, N. Hubin, L. Brixon, R. Jalin, R. Foy, M. Tallon, “Laser backscattered reference star for atmospheric wavefront disturbances measurement,” in Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 30 of ESO/NOAO Conferences (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 705–714.

R. Foy, Y. Boucher, B. Fleury, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, A. Migus, M. Tallon, “ATLAS status report and tilt sensing using multicolour laser reference star,” in Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 42 of ESO Conferences (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 437–441.

Thiébaut, E.

R. Foy, I. Belkine, E. Thiébaut, “Pre-main sequence stars by visible speckle interferometry at the CFHT and telescope/instrument constraints,” in Proceedings of the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope (CFHT) Users’s Meeting, M. Azzopardi, ed. (CFHT, Waimea, Hawaii, 1995) pp. 119–123.

Thompson, G.

H. W. Friedman, G. Erbert, T. Kuklo, T. Salmon, D. Smauley, G. Thompson, J. Malik, N. Wong, K. Kanz, K. Neeb, “Sodium beacon laser system for the Lick Observatory,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds. Proc. SPIE2534, 150–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wall, K. F.

Waltjen, K. E.

Weiss, R.

S. Hippler, M. Kasper, M. Feldt, R. Weiss, W. K. Hackenberg, T. Ott, “ALFA: three years of experience in adaptive optics with a laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 41–49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weulersse, J.-M.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, J.-P. Pique, P. Chevrov, N. Ageorges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F.-C. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, J.-M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wild, W. J.

Winker, D. M.

Wong, N.

H. W. Friedman, G. Erbert, T. Kuklo, T. Salmon, D. Smauley, G. Thompson, J. Malik, N. Wong, K. Kanz, K. Neeb, “Sodium beacon laser system for the Lick Observatory,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds. Proc. SPIE2534, 150–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wynia, J. M.

Zollars, B. G.

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortions using a synthetic beacon,” Nature 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. (4)

F. Rigaut, E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677–684 (1992).

R. Ragazzoni, “Absolute tip-tilt determination with laser beacons,” Astron. Astrophys. 305, L13–L16 (1996).

F. Roddier, M. Sarazin, “The ESO differential image motion monitor,” Astron. Astrophys. 270, 294–300 (1990).

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L32 (1985).

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. (1)

R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, M. Tallon, “The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 111, 569–578 (1995).

Astrophys. J. (1)

R. Ragazzoni, “Propagation delay of a laser beacon as a tool to retrieve absolute tilt measurements,” Astrophys. J. 465, L73–L75 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (2)

R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, E. Marchetti, “Auxiliary telescopes for the absolute tip-tilt determination of a laser guide star,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 276, L76–L78 (1995).

M. Le Louarn, R. Foy, N. Hubin, M. Tallon, “Laser guide star for 3.6 m and 8 m telescopes: performances and astrophysical implications,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 295, 756–768 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

J. Pilkington, “Artificial guide stars for adaptive imaging,” Nature 330, 116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortions using a synthetic beacon,” Nature 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

H. M. Martin, “Image motion as a measurement of seeing quality,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 1360–1376 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (15)

I. Belkine, “Etude des contraintes atmosphériques et instrumentales en haute résolution angulaire en astrophysique,” Ph.D. thesis (Université Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Villeurbanne, France, 1996).

R. Foy, I. Belkine, E. Thiébaut, “Pre-main sequence stars by visible speckle interferometry at the CFHT and telescope/instrument constraints,” in Proceedings of the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope (CFHT) Users’s Meeting, M. Azzopardi, ed. (CFHT, Waimea, Hawaii, 1995) pp. 119–123.

M. S. Belen’kii, “Full aperture measurement technique with a laser guide star,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing. IV, C. Dainty, ed., Proc. SPIE2471, 289–300 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Séchaud, N. Hubin, L. Brixon, R. Jalin, R. Foy, M. Tallon, “Laser backscattered reference star for atmospheric wavefront disturbances measurement,” in Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 30 of ESO/NOAO Conferences (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 705–714.

R. Q. Fugate, “Observations of faint objects with laser beacon adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 10–21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Hippler, M. Kasper, M. Feldt, R. Weiss, W. K. Hackenberg, T. Ott, “ALFA: three years of experience in adaptive optics with a laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 41–49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, Y. Boucher, B. Fleury, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, A. Migus, M. Tallon, “ATLAS status report and tilt sensing using multicolour laser reference star,” in Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 42 of ESO Conferences (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 437–441.

H. W. Friedman, G. Erbert, T. Kuklo, T. Salmon, D. Smauley, G. Thompson, J. Malik, N. Wong, K. Kanz, K. Neeb, “Sodium beacon laser system for the Lick Observatory,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds. Proc. SPIE2534, 150–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Davies, Hackenberg, Ott, A. E. C. Holstenberg, S. Rabien, A. Quirrenbach, Kasper, “ALFA: First operational experience of the MPE/MPIA laser guide star system for adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 116–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities (The Athlone Press, University of London, London, 1976).

B. P. Jacobsen, T. Martinez, J. R. P. Angel, M. Lloyd-Hart, S. Benda, D. Middleton, H. W. Friedman, G. V. Erbert, “Field evaluation of two new continuous-wave dye laser sys-tems optimized for sodium beacon excitation,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 342–351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Grynberg, B. Cagnac, F. Biraben, Coherent Non-Linear Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

G. Grynberg, “Atomic physics and multicolor laser guide star,” in Laser Technology for Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Astronomy, N. Hubin, ed., Vol. 55 of ESO Workshops (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1997), pp. 71–76.

C. Gastineau, “Etude de l’inversion de population per passage adiabatique rapide,” Ph.D. thesis (Université Paris-XII, Orsay, France, 1995).

M. Schöck, R. Foy, J.-P. Pique, P. Chevrov, N. Ageorges, A. Petit, V. Bellanger, H. Fews, F.-C. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, O. Peillet, P. Segonds, M. Tallon, J.-M. Weulersse, “PASS-2: quantitative photometric measurements of the polychromatic laser guide star,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, Proc. SPIE4007, 296–307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of the PASS instrument. From the telescope’s Cassegrain focus, the beam crosses, through holes corresponding to the telescope’s central obscuration, the flat (1) and the two tilted dichroic beam splitters (5) and (3) to hit the spherical mirror (2). Then the beam is collimated. The ultraviolet wavelengths are reflected by the beam splitter (3) and cross the quartz prism aluminum coated on its back face; the light is reflected again by (3) and focused by (2). The beam then is folded with the flat (7), and the UV spectrum of the field, dispersed by the prism (4), is projected onto the CCD camera by the spherical mirror (8). The yellow–orange range follows the same scheme, with the exception that it crosses the UV dichroic beam splitter (3) and is reflected by the yellow–orange dichroic beam splitter (5) and dispersed by the échelle grating (6); the wavelengths D1 and D2 are separated enough that a spatial filter rejects the D2 component, which is very bright because of the direct fluorescence from the 3P3/2 level. Finally, the light of the collimated beam that is neither ultraviolet nor yellow–orange crosses the two beam splitters, is reflected by the flat (1), and is focused by the spherical mirror (2); the nondispersed image of the field in these complementary colors is focused again onto the CCD camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image of the 330-nm and D1 spots with the spectrum of the reference star SAO 60855 in the yellow and ultraviolet ranges. The saturated image of the field in other colors is in the central area; its diameter is 40. The light between the two stellar spectra is due to grating ghosts lit by the very bright Rayleigh beam at the wavelength of the D2 line, of which the very top is barely visible at the bottom right of the field image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Returned flux in the D2 line from the mesosphere (raw counts per second) as a function of the frequency of the emitted beam at 589 nm (in GHz). Circles, observations; solid curve, fit with the sum of two Gaussians (dotted curves).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Returned flux at 330 nm as a function of the power balance between the two beams at 589 nm and at 569 nm. Circles, modulator width at D2=1 GHz; squares, modulator width at D2=3 GHz; filled symbols, repetitionrate=4.3 kHz; open symbols, repetitionrate=12.9 kHz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Returned flux per second at 330 nm as a function of the frequency of the emitted beam at 569 nm (in GHz).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θ=δθ×(n-1)/δn,
IS=hνστΔνTΔνh55kW/m2,
Stilt=11+(π2/2)σlilt2(D/λc)2,

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