Abstract

Foveal and parafoveal increment thresholds were measured for 50 observers (12–88 years of age) under conditions that isolated retinal mechanisms dominated by short- (S-), middle- (M-), or long- (L-) wave-sensitive cones. Thresholds were obtained on the plateau of the threshold-versus-intensity function of each isolated mechanism and were referred to the retina by using individual measurements of ocular media and macular pigment density. Age-related increases in foveal thresholds, specified at the retina, were found for all three cone mechanisms. Parallel sensitivity losses for each cone mechanism were also observed at 4° and 8° in the temporal retina. A significant positive correlation was found between foveal macular pigment density and the S-cone, but not the M- and L-cone, log sensitivity difference (0°8°) specified at the retina. This relation is expected from the hypothesis that the macular pigment protects the photoreceptors from senescent losses in sensitivity. However, because this result is independent of age, it is interpreted as being due to local gain changes resulting from differential filtering of incident light by the macular pigment between the fovea and the parafovea.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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2000 (1)

1999 (4)

J. M. Kraft, J. S. Werner, “Aging and the saturation of colors: 1. Colorimetric purity discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 223–230 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kraft, J. S. Werner, “Aging and the saturation of colors: 2. Scaling of color appearance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 231–235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mollon, “Color vision,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 33, 41–85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Beatty, K. Hui-Hiang, D. Carden, I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment optical density measurement: a novel compact instrument,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 19, 105–111 (1999).

1998 (4)

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 22, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Preservation of visual sensitivity of older subjects: association with macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 397–406 (1998).

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Knau, H. Jägle, “Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity functions,” Vision Res. 38, 3233–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, J. J. Weiter, “Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394–2404 (1998).

1997 (4)

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Individual variations in the spatial profile of the human macular pigment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187–1196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K-J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, M. D. Kilburn, “The macular pigment: a possible role in protection from age-related macular degeneration,” Adv. Pharmacol. (San Diego) 38, 537–556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, H. Joa, M. D. Kilburn, L. L. Moore, K. E. Sprague, “A one year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 57–62 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (4)

J. S. Werner, “Visual problems of the retina during ageing: compensation mechanisms and colour constancy across the life span,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 15, 621–645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Cigarette smoking and retinal carotenoids: implications for age-related macular degeneration,” Vision Res. 36, 3003–3009 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Judd, G. H. McClelland, E. R. Smith, “Testing treatment by covariate interactions when treatment varies within subjects,” Psychol. Methods 1, 366–378 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Swanson, G. E. Fish, “Age-related changes in the color-match-area effect,” Vision Res. 36, 2079–2085 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

D. M. Snodderly, “Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. Suppl. 62, 1448S–1461S (1995).

1994 (3)

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Block, L. M. Coyle, A. M. Hartman, S. M. Scoppa, “Revision of dietary analysis software for the Health Habits and History Questionnaire,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 139, 1190–1196 (1994).
[PubMed]

J. M. Kraft, J. S. Werner, “Spectral efficiency across the life span: flicker photometry and brightness matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1213–1221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (6)

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, R. H. Webb, “Mapping cone photopigment optical density,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 52–58 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, B. E. Schefrin, “Loci of achromatic points throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1509–1516 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Maxwell, H. D. Delaney, “Bivariate median splits and spurious statistical significance,” Psychol. Bull. 113, 181–190 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Rimm, G. Colditz, “Smoking, alcohol, and plasma levels of carotenes and vitamin E,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 686, 323–333 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Savage, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, A. J. Adams, S. E. Hewlett, “Age changes in the optical density of human ocular media,” Clin. Vision Sci. 8, 97–108 (1993).

B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in the color appearance of broadband surfaces,” Color Res. Appl. 18, 380–389 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

H. Hibino, “Red–green and yellow–blue opponent-color responses as a function of retinal eccentricity,” Vision Res. 32, 1955–1964 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J-L. Schremser, T. P. Williams, “Photoreceptor plasticity in the albino rat retina following unilateral optic nerve section,” Exp. Eye Res. 55, 393–399 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, M. Plach, N. Utlaut, E. Switkes, “Sites of age-related sensitivity loss in a short-wave cone pathway,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 355–363 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

A. Stockman, D. I. A. MacLeod, D. D. DePriest, “The temporal properties of the human short-wave photoreceptors and their associated pathways,” Vision Res. 31, 189–208 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1988 (6)

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

J. S. Werner, V. G. Steele, “Sensitivity of human foveal color mechanisms throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2122–2130 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, J. D. Twelker, J. M. Quigg, “Age-related changes in the central visual field for short-wavelength-sensitive pathways,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2131–2139 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, “Short-wavelength-sensitive-cone sensitivity loss with aging: a protective role for macular pigment?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2140–2144 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,” J. Physiol. (London) 395, 577–587 (1988).

W. S. Stryker, L. A. Kaplan, E. A. Stein, M. J. Stampfer, A. Sober, W. C. Willett, “The relation of diet, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption to plasma beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol levels,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 127, 283–296 (1988).
[PubMed]

1987 (4)

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Pease, A. J. Adams, E. Nuccio, “Optical density of human macular pigment,” Vision Res. 27, 705–710 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. Lutze, “Aging of the human lens,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1437–1440 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

G. Block, A. M. Hartman, C. M. Dresser, M. D. Carroll, J. Gannon, L. Gardner, “A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testing,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 124, 453–469 (1986).
[PubMed]

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1980 (4)

A. Eisner, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Blue-sensitive cones do not contribute to luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 121–123 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Variation in density of macular pigmentation and in short-wave cone sensitivity with eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 706–711 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Wandell, E. N. Pugh, “A field-additive pathway detects brief-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes,” Vision Res. 20, 613–624 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Wandell, E. N. Pugh, “Detection of long-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes by a chromatically coded pathway,” Vision Res. 20, 625–636 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. J. Starr, “Variability of color mixture data—II. The effect of viewing field size on the unit coordinates,” Vision Res. 16, 1095–1098 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

D. van Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

B. R. Wooten, G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (2)

G. S. Brindley, J. J. Du Croz, W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497–500 (1966).

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1962 (1)

E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).

1958 (1)

V. Kadlecová, M. Peles̆ka, A. Vas̆ko, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 18, 1520–1521 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Adams, A. J.

G. L. Savage, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, A. J. Adams, S. E. Hewlett, “Age changes in the optical density of human ocular media,” Clin. Vision Sci. 8, 97–108 (1993).

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, J. D. Twelker, J. M. Quigg, “Age-related changes in the central visual field for short-wavelength-sensitive pathways,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2131–2139 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Pease, A. J. Adams, E. Nuccio, “Optical density of human macular pigment,” Vision Res. 27, 705–710 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ajani, U. A.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beatty, S.

S. Beatty, K. Hui-Hiang, D. Carden, I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment optical density measurement: a novel compact instrument,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 19, 105–111 (1999).

Beausencourt, E.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, J. J. Weiter, “Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394–2404 (1998).

Bhatt, P.

J. D. Moreland, P. Bhatt, “Retinal distribution of macular pigment,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies VII, G. Verriest, ed. (Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands, 1984), pp. 127–132.

Bieber, M. L.

M. L. Bieber, J. S. Werner, “The spatial distribution of human macular pigment,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. I of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 10–13.

Blair, N.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Block, G.

G. Block, L. M. Coyle, A. M. Hartman, S. M. Scoppa, “Revision of dietary analysis software for the Health Habits and History Questionnaire,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 139, 1190–1196 (1994).
[PubMed]

G. Block, A. M. Hartman, C. M. Dresser, M. D. Carroll, J. Gannon, L. Gardner, “A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testing,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 124, 453–469 (1986).
[PubMed]

Boettner, E. A.

E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).

Bone, R. A.

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, H. Joa, M. D. Kilburn, L. L. Moore, K. E. Sprague, “A one year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 57–62 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, M. D. Kilburn, “The macular pigment: a possible role in protection from age-related macular degeneration,” Adv. Pharmacol. (San Diego) 38, 537–556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

R. A. Bone, Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, Fla. 33199, August1999 (personal communication for λ<420 nm).

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, J. J. Du Croz, W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497–500 (1966).

Burns, S. A.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, J. J. Weiter, “Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394–2404 (1998).

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, R. H. Webb, “Mapping cone photopigment optical density,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 52–58 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burton, T. C.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bush, R. A.

T. P. Williams, J. S. Penn, R. A. Bush, C. L. Makino, “Renewal of rod outer segment and regulation of daily photon catch by the rat retina,” in Proceedings of the Yamada Conference XXI (Yamada Science Foundation, Kyoto, Japan, 1988), pp. 255–260.

Cains, A.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carden, D.

S. Beatty, K. Hui-Hiang, D. Carden, I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment optical density measurement: a novel compact instrument,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 19, 105–111 (1999).

Carroll, M. D.

G. Block, A. M. Hartman, C. M. Dresser, M. D. Carroll, J. Gannon, L. Gardner, “A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testing,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 124, 453–469 (1986).
[PubMed]

Cicerone, C. M.

Colditz, G.

E. Rimm, G. Colditz, “Smoking, alcohol, and plasma levels of carotenes and vitamin E,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 686, 323–333 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coyle, L. M.

G. Block, L. M. Coyle, A. M. Hartman, S. M. Scoppa, “Revision of dietary analysis software for the Health Habits and History Questionnaire,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 139, 1190–1196 (1994).
[PubMed]

Delaney, H. D.

S. E. Maxwell, H. D. Delaney, “Bivariate median splits and spurious statistical significance,” Psychol. Bull. 113, 181–190 (1993).
[CrossRef]

DePriest, D. D.

A. Stockman, D. I. A. MacLeod, D. D. DePriest, “The temporal properties of the human short-wave photoreceptors and their associated pathways,” Vision Res. 31, 189–208 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donnelly, S. K.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dresser, C. M.

G. Block, A. M. Hartman, C. M. Dresser, M. D. Carroll, J. Gannon, L. Gardner, “A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testing,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 124, 453–469 (1986).
[PubMed]

Du Croz, J. J.

G. S. Brindley, J. J. Du Croz, W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497–500 (1966).

Edwards, R. B.

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K-J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

Eisner, A.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

A. Eisner, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Blue-sensitive cones do not contribute to luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 121–123 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsner, A. E.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, J. J. Weiter, “Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394–2404 (1998).

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, R. H. Webb, “Mapping cone photopigment optical density,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 52–58 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farber, M. D.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, L.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

Fish, G. E.

W. H. Swanson, G. E. Fish, “Age-related changes in the color-match-area effect,” Vision Res. 36, 2079–2085 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleming, S. A.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

Gannon, J.

G. Block, A. M. Hartman, C. M. Dresser, M. D. Carroll, J. Gannon, L. Gardner, “A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testing,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 124, 453–469 (1986).
[PubMed]

Gardner, L.

G. Block, A. M. Hartman, C. M. Dresser, M. D. Carroll, J. Gannon, L. Gardner, “A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testing,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 124, 453–469 (1986).
[PubMed]

Gragoudas, E. S.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G.

G. L. Savage, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, A. J. Adams, S. E. Hewlett, “Age changes in the optical density of human ocular media,” Clin. Vision Sci. 8, 97–108 (1993).

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, “Short-wavelength-sensitive-cone sensitivity loss with aging: a protective role for macular pigment?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2140–2144 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagstrom, S. A.

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 22, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haller, J.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, B. R.

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Preservation of visual sensitivity of older subjects: association with macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 397–406 (1998).

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Individual variations in the spatial profile of the human macular pigment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187–1196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K-J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Cigarette smoking and retinal carotenoids: implications for age-related macular degeneration,” Vision Res. 36, 3003–3009 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartman, A. M.

G. Block, L. M. Coyle, A. M. Hartman, S. M. Scoppa, “Revision of dietary analysis software for the Health Habits and History Questionnaire,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 139, 1190–1196 (1994).
[PubMed]

G. Block, A. M. Hartman, C. M. Dresser, M. D. Carroll, J. Gannon, L. Gardner, “A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testing,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 124, 453–469 (1986).
[PubMed]

Hewlett, S. E.

G. L. Savage, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, A. J. Adams, S. E. Hewlett, “Age changes in the optical density of human ocular media,” Clin. Vision Sci. 8, 97–108 (1993).

Hibino, H.

H. Hibino, “Red–green and yellow–blue opponent-color responses as a function of retinal eccentricity,” Vision Res. 32, 1955–1964 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiller, R.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hui-Hiang, K.

S. Beatty, K. Hui-Hiang, D. Carden, I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment optical density measurement: a novel compact instrument,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 19, 105–111 (1999).

Jägle, H.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Knau, H. Jägle, “Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity functions,” Vision Res. 38, 3233–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Knau, H. Jägle, L. T. Sharpe, “L/M cone ratios as a function of retinal eccentricity,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

Joa, H.

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, H. Joa, M. D. Kilburn, L. L. Moore, K. E. Sprague, “A one year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 57–62 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, C. A.

Johnson, E. J.

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K-J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

Judd, C. M.

C. M. Judd, G. H. McClelland, E. R. Smith, “Testing treatment by covariate interactions when treatment varies within subjects,” Psychol. Methods 1, 366–378 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Judd, G. H. McClelland, Data Analysis: A Model Comparison Approach (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, San Diego, Calif., 1989).

Kadlecová, V.

V. Kadlecová, M. Peles̆ka, A. Vas̆ko, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 18, 1520–1521 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, L. A.

W. S. Stryker, L. A. Kaplan, E. A. Stein, M. J. Stampfer, A. Sober, W. C. Willett, “The relation of diet, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption to plasma beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol levels,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 127, 283–296 (1988).
[PubMed]

Kilburn, M. D.

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, M. D. Kilburn, “The macular pigment: a possible role in protection from age-related macular degeneration,” Adv. Pharmacol. (San Diego) 38, 537–556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, H. Joa, M. D. Kilburn, L. L. Moore, K. E. Sprague, “A one year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 57–62 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, M. L.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

Kliegl, R.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Knau, H.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Knau, H. Jägle, “Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity functions,” Vision Res. 38, 3233–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Knau, H. Jägle, L. T. Sharpe, “L/M cone ratios as a function of retinal eccentricity,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

Koenderink, J. J.

Kraft, J. M.

Krinsky, N. I.

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K-J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

Landrum, J. T.

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, H. Joa, M. D. Kilburn, L. L. Moore, K. E. Sprague, “A one year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 57–62 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, M. D. Kilburn, “The macular pigment: a possible role in protection from age-related macular degeneration,” Adv. Pharmacol. (San Diego) 38, 537–556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

Lokdenhof, E. E.

Lutze, M.

MacLeod, D. I. A.

A. Stockman, D. I. A. MacLeod, D. D. DePriest, “The temporal properties of the human short-wave photoreceptors and their associated pathways,” Vision Res. 31, 189–208 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Eisner, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Blue-sensitive cones do not contribute to luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 121–123 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makino, C. L.

T. P. Williams, J. S. Penn, R. A. Bush, C. L. Makino, “Renewal of rod outer segment and regulation of daily photon catch by the rat retina,” in Proceedings of the Yamada Conference XXI (Yamada Science Foundation, Kyoto, Japan, 1988), pp. 255–260.

Mauldin, W. M.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

Maxwell, S. E.

S. E. Maxwell, H. D. Delaney, “Bivariate median splits and spurious statistical significance,” Psychol. Bull. 113, 181–190 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, G. H.

C. M. Judd, G. H. McClelland, E. R. Smith, “Testing treatment by covariate interactions when treatment varies within subjects,” Psychol. Methods 1, 366–378 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Judd, G. H. McClelland, Data Analysis: A Model Comparison Approach (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, San Diego, Calif., 1989).

Miller, D. T.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mollon, J. D.

J. D. Mollon, “Color vision,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 33, 41–85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moore, L. L.

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, H. Joa, M. D. Kilburn, L. L. Moore, K. E. Sprague, “A one year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 57–62 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland, P. Bhatt, “Retinal distribution of macular pigment,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies VII, G. Verriest, ed. (Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands, 1984), pp. 127–132.

Murray, I. J.

S. Beatty, K. Hui-Hiang, D. Carden, I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment optical density measurement: a novel compact instrument,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 19, 105–111 (1999).

Neitz, J.

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 22, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neitz, M.

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 22, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nuccio, E.

P. L. Pease, A. J. Adams, E. Nuccio, “Optical density of human macular pigment,” Vision Res. 27, 705–710 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Otake, S.

Pease, P. L.

P. L. Pease, A. J. Adams, E. Nuccio, “Optical density of human macular pigment,” Vision Res. 27, 705–710 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Peles?ka, M.

V. Kadlecová, M. Peles̆ka, A. Vas̆ko, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 18, 1520–1521 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Penn, J. S.

T. P. Williams, J. S. Penn, R. A. Bush, C. L. Makino, “Renewal of rod outer segment and regulation of daily photon catch by the rat retina,” in Proceedings of the Yamada Conference XXI (Yamada Science Foundation, Kyoto, Japan, 1988), pp. 255–260.

Plach, M.

Pokorny, J.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. Lutze, “Aging of the human lens,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1437–1440 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Evaluation of single-pigment shift model of anomalous trichromacy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1196–1209 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. J. Starr, “Variability of color mixture data—II. The effect of viewing field size on the unit coordinates,” Vision Res. 16, 1095–1098 (1976).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polyak, S. L.

S. L. Polyak, The Retina (U. of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 1941).

Pugh, E. N.

B. A. Wandell, E. N. Pugh, “A field-additive pathway detects brief-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes,” Vision Res. 20, 613–624 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Wandell, E. N. Pugh, “Detection of long-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes by a chromatically coded pathway,” Vision Res. 20, 625–636 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quigg, J. M.

Rimm, E.

E. Rimm, G. Colditz, “Smoking, alcohol, and plasma levels of carotenes and vitamin E,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 686, 323–333 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rushton, W. A. H.

G. S. Brindley, J. J. Du Croz, W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497–500 (1966).

Russell, R. M.

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K-J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

Savage, G. L.

G. L. Savage, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, A. J. Adams, S. E. Hewlett, “Age changes in the optical density of human ocular media,” Clin. Vision Sci. 8, 97–108 (1993).

Schefrin, B. E.

Schremser, J-L.

J-L. Schremser, T. P. Williams, “Photoreceptor plasticity in the albino rat retina following unilateral optic nerve section,” Exp. Eye Res. 55, 393–399 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scoppa, S. M.

G. Block, L. M. Coyle, A. M. Hartman, S. M. Scoppa, “Revision of dietary analysis software for the Health Habits and History Questionnaire,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 139, 1190–1196 (1994).
[PubMed]

Seddon, J. M.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, L. T.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Knau, H. Jägle, “Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity functions,” Vision Res. 38, 3233–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Knau, H. Jägle, L. T. Sharpe, “L/M cone ratios as a function of retinal eccentricity,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

Smith, E. R.

C. M. Judd, G. H. McClelland, E. R. Smith, “Testing treatment by covariate interactions when treatment varies within subjects,” Psychol. Methods 1, 366–378 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V. C.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. Lutze, “Aging of the human lens,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1437–1440 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Evaluation of single-pigment shift model of anomalous trichromacy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1196–1209 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. J. Starr, “Variability of color mixture data—II. The effect of viewing field size on the unit coordinates,” Vision Res. 16, 1095–1098 (1976).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snodderly, D. M.

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Preservation of visual sensitivity of older subjects: association with macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 397–406 (1998).

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Individual variations in the spatial profile of the human macular pigment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187–1196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K-J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Cigarette smoking and retinal carotenoids: implications for age-related macular degeneration,” Vision Res. 36, 3003–3009 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Snodderly, “Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. Suppl. 62, 1448S–1461S (1995).

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W. S. Stryker, L. A. Kaplan, E. A. Stein, M. J. Stampfer, A. Sober, W. C. Willett, “The relation of diet, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption to plasma beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol levels,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 127, 283–296 (1988).
[PubMed]

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J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sprague, K. E.

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, H. Joa, M. D. Kilburn, L. L. Moore, K. E. Sprague, “A one year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 57–62 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stabell, B.

Stabell, U.

Stampfer, M. J.

W. S. Stryker, L. A. Kaplan, E. A. Stein, M. J. Stampfer, A. Sober, W. C. Willett, “The relation of diet, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption to plasma beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol levels,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 127, 283–296 (1988).
[PubMed]

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J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. J. Starr, “Variability of color mixture data—II. The effect of viewing field size on the unit coordinates,” Vision Res. 16, 1095–1098 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Steele, V. G.

Stein, E. A.

W. S. Stryker, L. A. Kaplan, E. A. Stein, M. J. Stampfer, A. Sober, W. C. Willett, “The relation of diet, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption to plasma beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol levels,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 127, 283–296 (1988).
[PubMed]

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Stockman, A.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Knau, H. Jägle, “Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity functions,” Vision Res. 38, 3233–3239 (1998).
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A. Stockman, D. I. A. MacLeod, D. D. DePriest, “The temporal properties of the human short-wave photoreceptors and their associated pathways,” Vision Res. 31, 189–208 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stryker, W. S.

W. S. Stryker, L. A. Kaplan, E. A. Stein, M. J. Stampfer, A. Sober, W. C. Willett, “The relation of diet, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption to plasma beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol levels,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 127, 283–296 (1988).
[PubMed]

Swanson, W. H.

W. H. Swanson, G. E. Fish, “Age-related changes in the color-match-area effect,” Vision Res. 36, 2079–2085 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Switkes, E.

Tarsis, S. L.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

Twelker, J. D.

Utlaut, N.

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D. van Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
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V. Kadlecová, M. Peles̆ka, A. Vas̆ko, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 18, 1520–1521 (1958).
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F. Viénot, “Can variation in macular pigment account for the variation of colour matches with retinal position?” in Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 107–116.

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D. van Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
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J. J. Vos, Tabulated Characteristics of a Proposed 2° Fundamental Observer (Institute for Perception, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 1978).

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B. R. Wooten, G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wandell, B. A.

B. A. Wandell, E. N. Pugh, “Detection of long-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes by a chromatically coded pathway,” Vision Res. 20, 625–636 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Wandell, E. N. Pugh, “A field-additive pathway detects brief-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes,” Vision Res. 20, 613–624 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,” J. Physiol. (London) 395, 577–587 (1988).

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Webb, R. H.

Weiter, J. J.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, J. J. Weiter, “Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394–2404 (1998).

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J. M. Kraft, J. S. Werner, “Aging and the saturation of colors: 2. Scaling of color appearance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 231–235 (1999).
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J. M. Kraft, J. S. Werner, “Aging and the saturation of colors: 1. Colorimetric purity discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 223–230 (1999).
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J. S. Werner, “Visual problems of the retina during ageing: compensation mechanisms and colour constancy across the life span,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 15, 621–645 (1996).
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J. M. Kraft, J. S. Werner, “Spectral efficiency across the life span: flicker photometry and brightness matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1213–1221 (1994).
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J. S. Werner, B. E. Schefrin, “Loci of achromatic points throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1509–1516 (1993).
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B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in the color appearance of broadband surfaces,” Color Res. Appl. 18, 380–389 (1993).
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B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, M. Plach, N. Utlaut, E. Switkes, “Sites of age-related sensitivity loss in a short-wave cone pathway,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 355–363 (1992).
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B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Loci of spectral unique hues throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 305–311 (1990).
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J. S. Werner, V. G. Steele, “Sensitivity of human foveal color mechanisms throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2122–2130 (1988).
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J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
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J. S. Werner, “Development of scotopic sensitivity and the absorption spectrum of the human ocular media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 247–258 (1982).
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J. S. Werner, B. R. Wooten, “Opponent-chromatic mechanisms: relation to photopigments and hue naming,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 422–434 (1979).
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M. L. Bieber, J. S. Werner, “The spatial distribution of human macular pigment,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. I of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 10–13.

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G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
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Willett, W.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Willett, W. C.

W. S. Stryker, L. A. Kaplan, E. A. Stein, M. J. Stampfer, A. Sober, W. C. Willett, “The relation of diet, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption to plasma beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol levels,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 127, 283–296 (1988).
[PubMed]

Williams, T. P.

J-L. Schremser, T. P. Williams, “Photoreceptor plasticity in the albino rat retina following unilateral optic nerve section,” Exp. Eye Res. 55, 393–399 (1992).
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T. P. Williams, J. S. Penn, R. A. Bush, C. L. Makino, “Renewal of rod outer segment and regulation of daily photon catch by the rat retina,” in Proceedings of the Yamada Conference XXI (Yamada Science Foundation, Kyoto, Japan, 1988), pp. 255–260.

Wolter, J. R.

E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).

Wooten, B. R.

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Preservation of visual sensitivity of older subjects: association with macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 397–406 (1998).

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Individual variations in the spatial profile of the human macular pigment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187–1196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Cigarette smoking and retinal carotenoids: implications for age-related macular degeneration,” Vision Res. 36, 3003–3009 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, B. R. Wooten, “Opponent-chromatic mechanisms: relation to photopigments and hue naming,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 422–434 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Wooten, G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Yannuzzi, L. A.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yeum, K-J.

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K-J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

Adv. Pharmacol. (San Diego) (1)

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, M. D. Kilburn, “The macular pigment: a possible role in protection from age-related macular degeneration,” Adv. Pharmacol. (San Diego) 38, 537–556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Clin. Nutr. Suppl. (1)

D. M. Snodderly, “Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. Suppl. 62, 1448S–1461S (1995).

Am. J. Epidemiol. (3)

W. S. Stryker, L. A. Kaplan, E. A. Stein, M. J. Stampfer, A. Sober, W. C. Willett, “The relation of diet, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption to plasma beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol levels,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 127, 283–296 (1988).
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G. Block, A. M. Hartman, C. M. Dresser, M. D. Carroll, J. Gannon, L. Gardner, “A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testing,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 124, 453–469 (1986).
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G. Block, L. M. Coyle, A. M. Hartman, S. M. Scoppa, “Revision of dietary analysis software for the Health Habits and History Questionnaire,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 139, 1190–1196 (1994).
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Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

E. Rimm, G. Colditz, “Smoking, alcohol, and plasma levels of carotenes and vitamin E,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 686, 323–333 (1993).
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Annu. Rev. Psychol. (1)

J. D. Mollon, “Color vision,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 33, 41–85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Clin. Vision Sci. (1)

G. L. Savage, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, A. J. Adams, S. E. Hewlett, “Age changes in the optical density of human ocular media,” Clin. Vision Sci. 8, 97–108 (1993).

Color Res. Appl. (1)

B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in the color appearance of broadband surfaces,” Color Res. Appl. 18, 380–389 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Eye Res. (2)

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, H. Joa, M. D. Kilburn, L. L. Moore, K. E. Sprague, “A one year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 57–62 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J-L. Schremser, T. P. Williams, “Photoreceptor plasticity in the albino rat retina following unilateral optic nerve section,” Exp. Eye Res. 55, 393–399 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (5)

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Preservation of visual sensitivity of older subjects: association with macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 397–406 (1998).

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K-J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, J. J. Weiter, “Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394–2404 (1998).

J. Am. Med. Assoc. (1)

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

B. R. Wooten, G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (13)

S. Otake, C. M. Cicerone, “L and M cone relative numerosity and red–green opponency from fovea to mid-periphery in human retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 615–627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kraft, J. S. Werner, “Spectral efficiency across the life span: flicker photometry and brightness matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1213–1221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. A. van Esch, E. E. Lokdenhof, A. J. van Doorn, J. J. Koenderink, “Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination of the human peripheral visual field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 443–450 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Kraft, J. S. Werner, “Aging and the saturation of colors: 1. Colorimetric purity discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 223–230 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kraft, J. S. Werner, “Aging and the saturation of colors: 2. Scaling of color appearance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 231–235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Individual variations in the spatial profile of the human macular pigment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187–1196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Werner, V. G. Steele, “Sensitivity of human foveal color mechanisms throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2122–2130 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, J. D. Twelker, J. M. Quigg, “Age-related changes in the central visual field for short-wavelength-sensitive pathways,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2131–2139 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, “Short-wavelength-sensitive-cone sensitivity loss with aging: a protective role for macular pigment?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2140–2144 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Loci of spectral unique hues throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 305–311 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, M. Plach, N. Utlaut, E. Switkes, “Sites of age-related sensitivity loss in a short-wave cone pathway,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 355–363 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, R. H. Webb, “Mapping cone photopigment optical density,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 52–58 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, B. E. Schefrin, “Loci of achromatic points throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1509–1516 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Physiol. (London) (2)

R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,” J. Physiol. (London) 395, 577–587 (1988).

G. S. Brindley, J. J. Du Croz, W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497–500 (1966).

Nature (London) (1)

V. Kadlecová, M. Peles̆ka, A. Vas̆ko, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 18, 1520–1521 (1958).
[CrossRef]

NeuroReport (1)

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 22, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

S. Beatty, K. Hui-Hiang, D. Carden, I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment optical density measurement: a novel compact instrument,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 19, 105–111 (1999).

Prog. Retinal Eye Res. (1)

J. S. Werner, “Visual problems of the retina during ageing: compensation mechanisms and colour constancy across the life span,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 15, 621–645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Psychol. Bull. (1)

S. E. Maxwell, H. D. Delaney, “Bivariate median splits and spurious statistical significance,” Psychol. Bull. 113, 181–190 (1993).
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Psychol. Methods (1)

C. M. Judd, G. H. McClelland, E. R. Smith, “Testing treatment by covariate interactions when treatment varies within subjects,” Psychol. Methods 1, 366–378 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (14)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Stockman, D. I. A. MacLeod, D. D. DePriest, “The temporal properties of the human short-wave photoreceptors and their associated pathways,” Vision Res. 31, 189–208 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hibino, “Red–green and yellow–blue opponent-color responses as a function of retinal eccentricity,” Vision Res. 32, 1955–1964 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Cigarette smoking and retinal carotenoids: implications for age-related macular degeneration,” Vision Res. 36, 3003–3009 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. van Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Wandell, E. N. Pugh, “A field-additive pathway detects brief-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes,” Vision Res. 20, 613–624 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Wandell, E. N. Pugh, “Detection of long-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes by a chromatically coded pathway,” Vision Res. 20, 625–636 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Pease, A. J. Adams, E. Nuccio, “Optical density of human macular pigment,” Vision Res. 27, 705–710 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. J. Starr, “Variability of color mixture data—II. The effect of viewing field size on the unit coordinates,” Vision Res. 16, 1095–1098 (1976).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Knau, H. Jägle, “Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity functions,” Vision Res. 38, 3233–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Swanson, G. E. Fish, “Age-related changes in the color-match-area effect,” Vision Res. 36, 2079–2085 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (12)

H. Knau, H. Jägle, L. T. Sharpe, “L/M cone ratios as a function of retinal eccentricity,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

F. Viénot, “Can variation in macular pigment account for the variation of colour matches with retinal position?” in Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 107–116.

J. D. Moreland, P. Bhatt, “Retinal distribution of macular pigment,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies VII, G. Verriest, ed. (Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands, 1984), pp. 127–132.

R. A. Bone, Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, Fla. 33199, August1999 (personal communication for λ<420 nm).

S. L. Polyak, The Retina (U. of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 1941).

T. P. Williams, J. S. Penn, R. A. Bush, C. L. Makino, “Renewal of rod outer segment and regulation of daily photon catch by the rat retina,” in Proceedings of the Yamada Conference XXI (Yamada Science Foundation, Kyoto, Japan, 1988), pp. 255–260.

J. J. Vos, Tabulated Characteristics of a Proposed 2° Fundamental Observer (Institute for Perception, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 1978).

R. A. Weale, The Senescence of Human Vision (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1992).

M. L. Bieber, J. S. Werner, “The spatial distribution of human macular pigment,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. I of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 10–13.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

C. M. Judd, G. H. McClelland, Data Analysis: A Model Comparison Approach (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, San Diego, Calif., 1989).

The nutrients were calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium, vitamin A (IU), vitamin A (RE), thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin, vitamin C, saturated fat, oleic acid, linoleic acid, cholesterol, dietary fiber, folate, vitamin E α-TE, zinc, zinc from animal, vitamin B6, magnesium, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, retinol, and provitamin A carotinoids.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical density (OD) of the ocular media at 400 nm plotted in the upper panel as a function of age. The best-fitting linear fit (solid line, OM400=0.0366A+0.4381, where OM400 is the ocular media density at 400 nm and A is age in years), a quadratic fit (dotted curve, OM400=-0.0198A+0.00056A2+1.638), and a bilinear fit constrained to an inflection at 60 years [dashed function, OM400=max(0.0242A+0.8767,0.0663A-1.6526)] are shown. The lower panel presents foveal MP density at 460 nm plotted as a function of age. The solid line (MPf,460=0.0035A+0.2989) shows the best-fitting linear function.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Log relative threshold (quanta s-1 deg-2) plotted as a function of log background intensity (quanta s-1 deg-2) for conditions that isolated S-, M-, and L-cone mechanisms of one observer. Test (λ), background (μ), and auxiliary (μaux) wavelengths are noted in each panel. Filled circles, squares, and unfilled circles represent data obtained at 0°, 4°, and 8° temporal retinal eccentricity, respectively. The solid curves represent Stiles’s ζ(x) function. Each dataset has been arbitrarily spaced along the ordinate for clarity. Arrows indicate the range of background intensities that were used in measuring increment thresholds for all observers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Left and right panels show test sensitivities obtained from two observers (ages 42 and 27 years, respectively) for background intensities corresponding to thresholds on the plateau of the individual tvi functions for S-cone (triangles), M-cone (squares), and L-cone (circles) mechanisms. Log relative sensitivity (quanta) is plotted as a function of wavelength. Smooth curves represent the Smith–Pokorny42 cone fundamentals. Each action spectrum is arbitrarily spaced along the ordinate for clarity. The wavelengths of the adapting backgrounds were those used to measure increment thresholds of all observers; arrows indicate the test wavelengths used for the increment threshold measurements for all observers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Log increment threshold plotted as a function of retinal eccentricity for groups of younger (12–34 years, unfilled circles) and older (65–88 years, filled circles) observers. Upper panels present thresholds specified at the cornea for each cone mechanism; lower panels show the data specified at the retina.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Log relative (retinal) thresholds of individual observers plotted as a function of age for S-, M-, and L-cone isolation conditions. Filled circles, squares, and unfilled circles represent data measured at 0°, 4°, and 8° retinal eccentricity, respectively. Data for 4° and 8° have been scaled upward along the ordinate by 1.5 and 3.0 log units, respectively. Functions are based on a least-squares linear regression; parameters are presented in Table 2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Log relative threshold at the fovea plotted as a function of age for conditions of S-cone mechanism isolation. Filled and unfilled symbols represent data, and solid and dashed lines represent linear regressions, for low and high peak MP groups, respectively. Regression lines are based on a least-squares criterion.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Log sensitivity difference (0°-8°) for S-cone isolation condition plotted in separate panels as a function of peak MP density (left) and as a function of age (right). The regression line differs from zero only for the data in the left panel. This line is described by S0°-8°=0.475MPf,460-0.174, where S0°-8° is the log sensitivity difference between S cones of the fovea and 8° and MPf,460 is the foveal MP density at 460 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

MP density in the fovea (460 nm) plotted as a function of dietary lutein-intake level (μg). The equation for the regression line is MPf,460=0.0000741L+0.318. See the text for analysis of a possible outlying point.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated effects [Eqs. (A1)–(A3)] of photopigment OD differences between foveal and parafoveal M and L cones on psychophysical measurements of MP. The key denotes reductions in parafoveal OD of 10%, 25%, and 50% compared with that of the fovea. The solid curve is Vos’s22 template. Model data in the upper panel illustrate effects on the shape of the density spectrum with normalization to a peak density of 0.33 at 460 nm. Model data in the lower panel illustrate effects of photopigment OD differences between foveal and parafoveal M and L cones on overall MP density when all datasets are normalized to 0.0 at 550 nm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Symbols show MP density spectra for two observers compared with three MP templates in the literature: solid curve,22 dotted curve,66,67 and dashed curve.41 Data and functions are normalized to 0.33 at 460 nm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

MP density plotted as a function of temporal retinal eccentricity along the horizontal meridian for five observers. Methods were as in the main experiment but with the use of parafoveal reference of 12°.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Ocular Media and MP Densities of the Sample

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Table 2 Parameters of Linear Regression of Log Threshold (Retina) versus Age

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Table 3 Summary of Studies Reporting Age-Related Increases in the Thresholds of Isolated-Cone Mechanisms

Equations (3)

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Fovealsensitivity(λ)=log10[M(λ)+2L(λ)]-ODL(λ)-ODMP(λ).
Parafovealsensitivity(λ)=log10[M(λ)+2L(λ)]-ODL(λ).
MPdensity=(Parafovealsensitivity)-(Fovealsensitivity).

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