Abstract

Previous studies on color constancy have found that the color appearance of a test surface varies both as a function of the illumination in the image and as a function of the image surfaces. To what extent these two effects interact is investigated here. To address this issue theoretically, a restrictive von Kries model is formulated that assumes that the scaling of the cone signals in response to an illuminant change does not depend on image surfaces. Subjects saw CRT simulations of illuminated surfaces and, for a number of different illuminants and surface collections, adjusted a test light so that it appeared achromatic and had a certain brightness. Consistent with previous studies, the settings showed a high degree of illuminant adjustment and also showed an adjustment to the surfaces in the image. The proposed von Kries model provided a good, although not perfect, description of the data, thus indicating that the illuminant adjustment was largely the same under the different surface collections. These results together with those from several previous studies suggest that image surfaces play only a minor role in the illuminant adjustment of our visual system.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K.-H. Bäuml, “Illuminant changes under different surface collections: examining some principles of color appearance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 261–271 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K.-H. Bäuml, “Simultaneous color constancy: how surface color perception varies with the illuminant,” Vision Res. 39, 1531–1550 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, “Asymmetric color-matching: how color appearance depends on the illuminant,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1433–1448 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. H. Brainard, W. A. Brunt, J. M. Speigle, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. I. Asymmetric matches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2091–2110 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E.-J. Chichilnisky, B. A. Wandell, “Photoreceptor sensitivity changes explain color appearance shifts induced by large uniform backgrounds in dichoptic matching,” Vision Res. 35, 239–254 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. D. Fairchild, P. Lennie, “Chromatic adaptation to natural and incandescent illuminants,” Vision Res. 32, 2077–2085 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. von Kries, “Die Gesichtsempfindungen,” in Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen, W. Nagel, ed. (Vieweg, Braunschweig, Germany, 1905), Vol. 3, pp. 109–279.
  8. J. Werner, J. Walraven, “Effect of chromatic adaptation on the achromatic locus: the role of contrast, luminance and background color,” Vision Res. 22, 929–943 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K.-H. Bäuml, “Color appearance: effects of illuminant changes under different surface collections,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 531–543 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Buchsbaum, “A spatial processor model for object color perception,” J. Franklin Inst. 310, 1–26 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. L. Dannemiller, “Computational approaches to color constancy: adaptive and ontogenetic considerations,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 255–266 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. H. Land, J. J. McCann, “Lightness and retinex theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1–11 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, T. H. Taylor, “Quantitative studies in retinex theory: a comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the ‘color Mondrian’ experiments,” Vision Res. 16, 445–458 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. O. Brown, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Color appearance depends on the variance of surround colors,” Curr. Biol. 7, 844–849 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. W. Jenness, S. K. Shevell, “Color appearance with sparse chromatic context,” Vision Res. 35, 797–805 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. M. Kraft, D. H. Brainard, “Mechanisms of color constancy under nearly natural viewing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 307–312 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Q. Zaidi, B. Spehar, J. S. DeBonet, “Adaptation to textured chromatic fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 23–32 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. H. Brainard, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. 2. Achromatic loci,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 307–325 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Helson, W. C. Michels, “The effect of chromatic adaptation on achromaticity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1025–1032 (1948).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. Irtel, “PXL: a library for psychological experiments on IBM PC type computers,” Spatial Vis. 10, 467–469 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).
  22. D. B. Judd, D. L. MacAdam, G. W. Wyszecki, “Spectral distribution of typical daylight as a function of correlated color temperature,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1031 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. T. Maloney, “Evaluation of linear models of surface spectral reflectance with small numbers of parameters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1673–1683 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. The surfaces employed in this study spanned most of the range of luminance and chromaticities that could be achieved on the monitor under the three experimental illuminants. As with most monitors, this range of chromaticity coordinates does not approach the spectrum locus.
  25. B. A. Wandell, Foundations of Vision (Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass., 1995).
  26. V. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 700 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. W. L. Sachtler, Q. Zaidi, “The efficacy of chromatic and luminance signals in discrimination tasks involving memory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 877–894 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. Arend, A. Reeves, J. Schirillo, R. Goldstein, “Simultaneous color constancy: patterns with diverse Munsell values,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 661–672 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. In this method two Euclidean distances are actually measured: the distance between the test surfaces and perfectly color-constant matches (u), and the distance between perfectly color-constant matches and the matches that the subject set under the test illuminant. On the basis of these distances the term 1-v/u is then interpreted as a constancy index. The distances were computed with CIELUV metric with the color coordinates of the respective test illuminant as the nominally white light.21
  30. K.-H. Bäuml, B. A. Wandell, “Color appearance of mixture gratings,” Vision Res. 36, 2849–2864 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. A. B. Poirson, B. A. Wandell, “The appearance of colored patterns: pattern-color separability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2458–2470 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. (to be published).
  33. I found mean errors of 2.56 units (AS) and 3.36 units (GR) for the difference-based independence hypothesis compared with mean errors of 2.05 units (AS) and 2.20 units (GR) for the von Kries–based independence hypothesis (see Subsection 3.C). The fact that there is a clearer difference between the two hypotheses for subject GR than for subject AS has to do with the fact that subject GR used a much higher brightness level for her matches than subject AS (see Table 1).
  34. The effect of image surfaces on subjects’ achromatic settings is smaller in Brainard’s study than in the present one. This difference might have to do with the fact that in the present study subjects adjusted the test surface to appear achromatic and to have a certain brightness level, whereas in Brainard’s study subjects did achromatic settings with a fixed luminance level. Indeed, the effect of image surfaces on the settings’ chromaticity coordinates was also fairly small in the present experiment (see Subsection 3.A).
  35. J. Schirillo, A. Reeves, L. Arend, “Perceived lightness, but not brightness, of achromatic surfaces depends on perceived depth information,” Percept. Psychophys. 48, 82–90 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. M. P. Lucassen, J. Walraven, “Color constancy: a method for recovering surface spectral reflectances,” Vision Res. 36, 2699–2711 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. M. E. Gorzynski, “Achromatic perception in color image displays,” M.S. thesis (Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, 1992).
  38. J. Walraven, “Colour signals from incremental and decremental light stimuli,” Vision Res. 17, 71–76 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. R. Mausfeld, R. Niederee, “An inquiry into the relational concepts of colour, based on incremental principles of colour coding for minimal relational stimuli,” Perception 22, 427–462 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  40. E. J. Chichilnisky, B. A. Wandell, “Seeing gray through the ON and OFF pathways,” Visual Neurosci. 13, 591–596 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  41. L. Arend, A. Reeves, “Simultaneous color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1743–1751 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. I. Kuriki, K. Uchikawa, “Limitations of surface-color and apparant-color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1622–1636 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  43. S. M. C. Nascimento, D. H. Foster, “Detecting natural changes in cone-excitation ratios in simple and complex coloured images,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 264, 1395–1402 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1999

K.-H. Bäuml, “Simultaneous color constancy: how surface color perception varies with the illuminant,” Vision Res. 39, 1531–1550 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Kraft, D. H. Brainard, “Mechanisms of color constancy under nearly natural viewing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 307–312 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1997

D. H. Brainard, W. A. Brunt, J. M. Speigle, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. I. Asymmetric matches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2091–2110 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. M. C. Nascimento, D. H. Foster, “Detecting natural changes in cone-excitation ratios in simple and complex coloured images,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 264, 1395–1402 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Brown, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Color appearance depends on the variance of surround colors,” Curr. Biol. 7, 844–849 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Irtel, “PXL: a library for psychological experiments on IBM PC type computers,” Spatial Vis. 10, 467–469 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. P. Lucassen, J. Walraven, “Color constancy: a method for recovering surface spectral reflectances,” Vision Res. 36, 2699–2711 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Chichilnisky, B. A. Wandell, “Seeing gray through the ON and OFF pathways,” Visual Neurosci. 13, 591–596 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Bäuml, B. A. Wandell, “Color appearance of mixture gratings,” Vision Res. 36, 2849–2864 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Kuriki, K. Uchikawa, “Limitations of surface-color and apparant-color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1622–1636 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

K.-H. Bäuml, “Illuminant changes under different surface collections: examining some principles of color appearance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 261–271 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Jenness, S. K. Shevell, “Color appearance with sparse chromatic context,” Vision Res. 35, 797–805 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E.-J. Chichilnisky, B. A. Wandell, “Photoreceptor sensitivity changes explain color appearance shifts induced by large uniform backgrounds in dichoptic matching,” Vision Res. 35, 239–254 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

1993

R. Mausfeld, R. Niederee, “An inquiry into the relational concepts of colour, based on incremental principles of colour coding for minimal relational stimuli,” Perception 22, 427–462 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Poirson, B. A. Wandell, “The appearance of colored patterns: pattern-color separability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2458–2470 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

1990

J. Schirillo, A. Reeves, L. Arend, “Perceived lightness, but not brightness, of achromatic surfaces depends on perceived depth information,” Percept. Psychophys. 48, 82–90 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

D. L. Dannemiller, “Computational approaches to color constancy: adaptive and ontogenetic considerations,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 255–266 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

1982

J. Werner, J. Walraven, “Effect of chromatic adaptation on the achromatic locus: the role of contrast, luminance and background color,” Vision Res. 22, 929–943 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

G. Buchsbaum, “A spatial processor model for object color perception,” J. Franklin Inst. 310, 1–26 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977

J. Walraven, “Colour signals from incremental and decremental light stimuli,” Vision Res. 17, 71–76 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976

J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, T. H. Taylor, “Quantitative studies in retinex theory: a comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the ‘color Mondrian’ experiments,” Vision Res. 16, 445–458 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

V. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 700 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971

1964

1948

Agostini, T.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. (to be published).

Annan, V.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. (to be published).

Arend, L.

Bäuml, K.-H.

K.-H. Bäuml, “Simultaneous color constancy: how surface color perception varies with the illuminant,” Vision Res. 39, 1531–1550 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-H. Bäuml, B. A. Wandell, “Color appearance of mixture gratings,” Vision Res. 36, 2849–2864 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-H. Bäuml, “Illuminant changes under different surface collections: examining some principles of color appearance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 261–271 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Bäuml, “Color appearance: effects of illuminant changes under different surface collections,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 531–543 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bonato, F.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. (to be published).

Brainard, D. H.

Brown, R. O.

R. O. Brown, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Color appearance depends on the variance of surround colors,” Curr. Biol. 7, 844–849 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brunt, W. A.

Buchsbaum, G.

G. Buchsbaum, “A spatial processor model for object color perception,” J. Franklin Inst. 310, 1–26 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cataliotti, J.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. (to be published).

Chichilnisky, E. J.

E. J. Chichilnisky, B. A. Wandell, “Seeing gray through the ON and OFF pathways,” Visual Neurosci. 13, 591–596 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chichilnisky, E.-J.

E.-J. Chichilnisky, B. A. Wandell, “Photoreceptor sensitivity changes explain color appearance shifts induced by large uniform backgrounds in dichoptic matching,” Vision Res. 35, 239–254 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dannemiller, D. L.

D. L. Dannemiller, “Computational approaches to color constancy: adaptive and ontogenetic considerations,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 255–266 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeBonet, J. S.

Economou, E.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. (to be published).

Fairchild, M. D.

M. D. Fairchild, P. Lennie, “Chromatic adaptation to natural and incandescent illuminants,” Vision Res. 32, 2077–2085 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, D. H.

S. M. C. Nascimento, D. H. Foster, “Detecting natural changes in cone-excitation ratios in simple and complex coloured images,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 264, 1395–1402 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, A.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. (to be published).

Goldstein, R.

Gorzynski, M. E.

M. E. Gorzynski, “Achromatic perception in color image displays,” M.S. thesis (Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, 1992).

Helson, H.

Irtel, H.

H. Irtel, “PXL: a library for psychological experiments on IBM PC type computers,” Spatial Vis. 10, 467–469 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jenness, J. W.

J. W. Jenness, S. K. Shevell, “Color appearance with sparse chromatic context,” Vision Res. 35, 797–805 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Judd, D. B.

Kossyfidis, C.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. (to be published).

Kraft, J. M.

J. M. Kraft, D. H. Brainard, “Mechanisms of color constancy under nearly natural viewing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 307–312 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuriki, I.

Land, E. H.

Lennie, P.

M. D. Fairchild, P. Lennie, “Chromatic adaptation to natural and incandescent illuminants,” Vision Res. 32, 2077–2085 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. (to be published).

Lucassen, M. P.

M. P. Lucassen, J. Walraven, “Color constancy: a method for recovering surface spectral reflectances,” Vision Res. 36, 2699–2711 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacAdam, D. L.

MacLeod, D. I. A.

R. O. Brown, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Color appearance depends on the variance of surround colors,” Curr. Biol. 7, 844–849 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maloney, L. T.

Mausfeld, R.

R. Mausfeld, R. Niederee, “An inquiry into the relational concepts of colour, based on incremental principles of colour coding for minimal relational stimuli,” Perception 22, 427–462 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McCann, J. J.

J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, T. H. Taylor, “Quantitative studies in retinex theory: a comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the ‘color Mondrian’ experiments,” Vision Res. 16, 445–458 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Land, J. J. McCann, “Lightness and retinex theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1–11 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKee, S. P.

J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, T. H. Taylor, “Quantitative studies in retinex theory: a comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the ‘color Mondrian’ experiments,” Vision Res. 16, 445–458 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Michels, W. C.

Nascimento, S. M. C.

S. M. C. Nascimento, D. H. Foster, “Detecting natural changes in cone-excitation ratios in simple and complex coloured images,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 264, 1395–1402 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Niederee, R.

R. Mausfeld, R. Niederee, “An inquiry into the relational concepts of colour, based on incremental principles of colour coding for minimal relational stimuli,” Perception 22, 427–462 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Poirson, A. B.

Pokorny, J.

V. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 700 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reeves, A.

Sachtler, W. L.

Schirillo, J.

L. Arend, A. Reeves, J. Schirillo, R. Goldstein, “Simultaneous color constancy: patterns with diverse Munsell values,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 661–672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Schirillo, A. Reeves, L. Arend, “Perceived lightness, but not brightness, of achromatic surfaces depends on perceived depth information,” Percept. Psychophys. 48, 82–90 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shevell, S. K.

J. W. Jenness, S. K. Shevell, “Color appearance with sparse chromatic context,” Vision Res. 35, 797–805 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, V.

V. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 700 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spehar, B.

Q. Zaidi, B. Spehar, J. S. DeBonet, “Adaptation to textured chromatic fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 23–32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. (to be published).

Speigle, J. M.

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Taylor, T. H.

J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, T. H. Taylor, “Quantitative studies in retinex theory: a comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the ‘color Mondrian’ experiments,” Vision Res. 16, 445–458 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Uchikawa, K.

von Kries, J.

J. von Kries, “Die Gesichtsempfindungen,” in Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen, W. Nagel, ed. (Vieweg, Braunschweig, Germany, 1905), Vol. 3, pp. 109–279.

Walraven, J.

M. P. Lucassen, J. Walraven, “Color constancy: a method for recovering surface spectral reflectances,” Vision Res. 36, 2699–2711 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Werner, J. Walraven, “Effect of chromatic adaptation on the achromatic locus: the role of contrast, luminance and background color,” Vision Res. 22, 929–943 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Walraven, “Colour signals from incremental and decremental light stimuli,” Vision Res. 17, 71–76 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wandell, B. A.

E. J. Chichilnisky, B. A. Wandell, “Seeing gray through the ON and OFF pathways,” Visual Neurosci. 13, 591–596 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Bäuml, B. A. Wandell, “Color appearance of mixture gratings,” Vision Res. 36, 2849–2864 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E.-J. Chichilnisky, B. A. Wandell, “Photoreceptor sensitivity changes explain color appearance shifts induced by large uniform backgrounds in dichoptic matching,” Vision Res. 35, 239–254 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Poirson, B. A. Wandell, “The appearance of colored patterns: pattern-color separability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2458–2470 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, “Asymmetric color-matching: how color appearance depends on the illuminant,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1433–1448 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Wandell, Foundations of Vision (Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass., 1995).

Werner, J.

J. Werner, J. Walraven, “Effect of chromatic adaptation on the achromatic locus: the role of contrast, luminance and background color,” Vision Res. 22, 929–943 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Wyszecki, G. W.

Zaidi, Q.

Curr. Biol.

R. O. Brown, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Color appearance depends on the variance of surround colors,” Curr. Biol. 7, 844–849 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Franklin Inst.

G. Buchsbaum, “A spatial processor model for object color perception,” J. Franklin Inst. 310, 1–26 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

W. L. Sachtler, Q. Zaidi, “The efficacy of chromatic and luminance signals in discrimination tasks involving memory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 877–894 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Kuriki, K. Uchikawa, “Limitations of surface-color and apparant-color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1622–1636 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Bäuml, “Color appearance: effects of illuminant changes under different surface collections,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 531–543 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zaidi, B. Spehar, J. S. DeBonet, “Adaptation to textured chromatic fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 23–32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. 2. Achromatic loci,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 307–325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, W. A. Brunt, J. M. Speigle, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. I. Asymmetric matches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2091–2110 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Maloney, “Evaluation of linear models of surface spectral reflectance with small numbers of parameters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1673–1683 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Arend, A. Reeves, “Simultaneous color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1743–1751 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Arend, A. Reeves, J. Schirillo, R. Goldstein, “Simultaneous color constancy: patterns with diverse Munsell values,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 661–672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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In this method two Euclidean distances are actually measured: the distance between the test surfaces and perfectly color-constant matches (u), and the distance between perfectly color-constant matches and the matches that the subject set under the test illuminant. On the basis of these distances the term 1-v/u is then interpreted as a constancy index. The distances were computed with CIELUV metric with the color coordinates of the respective test illuminant as the nominally white light.21

M. E. Gorzynski, “Achromatic perception in color image displays,” M.S. thesis (Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, 1992).

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I found mean errors of 2.56 units (AS) and 3.36 units (GR) for the difference-based independence hypothesis compared with mean errors of 2.05 units (AS) and 2.20 units (GR) for the von Kries–based independence hypothesis (see Subsection 3.C). The fact that there is a clearer difference between the two hypotheses for subject GR than for subject AS has to do with the fact that subject GR used a much higher brightness level for her matches than subject AS (see Table 1).

The effect of image surfaces on subjects’ achromatic settings is smaller in Brainard’s study than in the present one. This difference might have to do with the fact that in the present study subjects adjusted the test surface to appear achromatic and to have a certain brightness level, whereas in Brainard’s study subjects did achromatic settings with a fixed luminance level. Indeed, the effect of image surfaces on the settings’ chromaticity coordinates was also fairly small in the present experiment (see Subsection 3.A).

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

The surfaces employed in this study spanned most of the range of luminance and chromaticities that could be achieved on the monitor under the three experimental illuminants. As with most monitors, this range of chromaticity coordinates does not approach the spectrum locus.

B. A. Wandell, Foundations of Vision (Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass., 1995).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Visual display. Subjects saw CRT simulations of a collection of 24 flat matte foreground surfaces (rectangular regions) and a test surface (circular region), both presented against a large background surface. The array of foreground surfaces and the background surface were rendered under the same spatially uniform illumination. The subjects pressed buttons to adjust the appearance of the test surface. The foreground regions subtended 2 deg of visual angle, both vertically and horizontally, and were separated by 1 deg, again both vertically and horizontally. The whole background region subtended 24 vertical by 38 horizontal deg of visual angle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental surface collections. Each panel shows the CIE xy chromaticity coordinates of one of the five collections of foreground surfaces (C1C5) that were used in the experiment. The coordinates of the surfaces that result when the surfaces are rendered under the neutral illuminant (see text) are shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean achromatic settings as a function of illumination and image surfaces. The Smith–Pokorny26 LMS cone coordinates of the two subjects’ achromatic settings as a function of the five foreground collections (C1C5) and the two background surfaces (B1, B2) are shown. (A) Settings of subject AS made under the neutral (●) and the blue (○) illuminants. (B) Settings of subject GR made under the neutral (●) and the yellow (▹) illuminants. The dashed curves represent the settings the two subjects would have set if they had adjusted the settings perfectly to the change from neutral to bluish or yellowish illumination.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean achromatic settings as a function of illumination and image surfaces. For each of the two background surfaces (B1, B2) and each of the three experimental illuminants (neutral, blue, yellow) the CIE xy chromaticity coordinates of the two subjects’ achromatic settings are shown [(C1(), C2(), C3(), C4(), C5()]. The chromaticity coordinates of the three experimental illuminants are also shown (×). (A) Settings of subject AS. (B) Settings of subject GR.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cone ratios as a function of image surfaces. The same data as in Fig. 3 are plotted. This time, however, for each cone type and each surface condition the ratios of coordinates (A) Lblue/Lneutral, Mblue/Mneutral, Sblue/Sneutral, and (B) Lyellow/Lneutral, Myellow/Mneutral, Syellow/Sneutral are plotted together with a theoretical, constant cone ratio. If the illuminant adjustment of the two subjects were completely independent of the image surfaces, all ratios would fall on the theoretical line.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scatterplots of independence fit. The three graphs compare the LMS coordinates of subject AS’s (●) and subject GR’s (○) mean achromatic settings with the predictions of a model, which assumes that the von Kries scalings for an illuminant change do not depend on the image surfaces. To the extent that the data fall on the diagonal line, they indicate that the illuminant adjustment is independent of the image surfaces.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scatterplot of independence fit. These graphs show a reanalysis of data from a previous study of mine.9 They compare the mean LMS coordinates of the two subjects’ achromatic settings (AH, ●; MP, ○) with the predictions of a model that assumes that the von Kries scalings for an illuminant change do not depend on the image surfaces. To the extent that the data fall on the diagonal line, they indicate that the illuminant adjustment is independent of the image surfaces.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Mean Achromatic Settings a

Equations (2)

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mc=Knc.

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