Abstract

The ion-beam-sputtering method was used to deposit TiO2-SiO2 mixed films on silica substrates. The SiO2 concentration ranged from 0 to 17%, and the refractive index ranged from ∼2.7 to ∼2.3 in visible wavelength. All the structures of the as-deposited films were amorphous. The refractive index and the extinction coefficient decreased with increased SiO2 concentration. High temperature annealing reduced the optical absorption for all films. There was a phase transition from amorphous to polycrystalline anatase at high temperature. Surface roughness, and thus optical scattering, increased drastically with the appearance of the phase transition. The phase transition temperature was higher for films with higher SiO2 concentration. The ion-beam-sputtered TiO2-SiO2 mixed film could sustain higher temperature annealing, resulting in lower extinction coefficient, than that of the ion-beam-sputtered pure TiO2 film. The phase diagram of the mixed film system was given.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Chao, W. L. Lim, J. A. Hammond, “Lock-in growth in a ring laser gyro,” in Physics of Optical Ring Gyros, S. F. Jacobs, J. E. Killpatrick, V. Sanders, M. Sargent, M. O. Scully, J. Simpson, eds., Proc. SPIE487, 50–57 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. T. Wei, “Ion beam interference coating for ultralow optics loss,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2813–2816 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. M. Bennett, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, C. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, A. Saxer, “Comparison of the properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3303–3317 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W.-H. Wang, S. Chao, “Annealing effect on ion beam sputtered titanium dioxide film,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1417–1419 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Chao, C.-K. Chang, J.-S. Chen, “TiO2-SiO2 mixed films prepared by the fast alternating sputter method,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3233–3238 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J.-S. Chen, S. Chao, J.-S. Kao, H. Niu, C.-H. Chen, “TiO2-SiO2 mixed films prepared by the double electron beam coevaporation method,” Appl. Opt. 35, 90–96 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. M. Elson, J. P. Rahn, J. M. Bennett, “Relationship of the total integrated scattering from multilayer-coated optics to angle of incidence, polarization, correlation length, and roughness cross-correlation properties,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3207–3219 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. E. Bennett, “Scattering characteristics of optical materials,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 17, 480–488 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

1989 (2)

1983 (2)

1978 (1)

H. E. Bennett, “Scattering characteristics of optical materials,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 17, 480–488 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Albrand, G.

Allen, T. H.

Bennett, H. E.

H. E. Bennett, “Scattering characteristics of optical materials,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 17, 480–488 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

Borgogno, J. P.

Carniglia, C. K.

Chang, C.-K.

Chao, S.

Chen, C.-H.

Chen, J.-S.

Elson, J. M.

Guenther, K. H.

Hammond, J. A.

S. Chao, W. L. Lim, J. A. Hammond, “Lock-in growth in a ring laser gyro,” in Physics of Optical Ring Gyros, S. F. Jacobs, J. E. Killpatrick, V. Sanders, M. Sargent, M. O. Scully, J. Simpson, eds., Proc. SPIE487, 50–57 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kao, J.-S.

Lazarides, B.

Lim, W. L.

S. Chao, W. L. Lim, J. A. Hammond, “Lock-in growth in a ring laser gyro,” in Physics of Optical Ring Gyros, S. F. Jacobs, J. E. Killpatrick, V. Sanders, M. Sargent, M. O. Scully, J. Simpson, eds., Proc. SPIE487, 50–57 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Niu, H.

Pelletier, E.

Rahn, J. P.

Saxer, A.

Schmell, R. A.

Swanepoel, R.

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tuttle-Hart, T.

Wang, W.-H.

Wei, D. T.

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Phys. E (1)

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) (1)

H. E. Bennett, “Scattering characteristics of optical materials,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 17, 480–488 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

S. Chao, W. L. Lim, J. A. Hammond, “Lock-in growth in a ring laser gyro,” in Physics of Optical Ring Gyros, S. F. Jacobs, J. E. Killpatrick, V. Sanders, M. Sargent, M. O. Scully, J. Simpson, eds., Proc. SPIE487, 50–57 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractive-index and extinction-coefficient spectra of mixed films with various SiO2 concentrations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Refractive index at 632.8 nm, (b) extinction coefficient at 450 nm, (c) cutoff frequency, (d) relative x-ray intensity of anatase (101) peak, (e) surface roughness versus annealing temperature for mixed films with various SiO2 concentration; the annealing time was 24 h.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

X-ray intensity distribution versus annealing temperature for mixed film with 5% SiO2 concentration. The main peak is TiO2 anatase (101).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface morphology of mixed films with (a) 0% and (b) 17% SiO2 concentration, scanned by AFM after 300 °C annealing for 24 h.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic illustration of extinction coefficient k, absorption coefficient (αa), and scattering coefficient (αs) versus annealing temperature for pure TiO2 film and mixed film.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Phase diagram for the TiO2-SiO2 mixed film.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Thickness changes versus annealing temperature for mixed films with various SiO2 concentrations.

Metrics