Abstract

We investigated how transient changes of background color influence the L- and M- (long- and middle-wavelength-sensitive-) cone signals in the luminance pathway. Motion identification thresholds were measured for a drifting sinusoidal grating (1 cycle/deg) modulated along different vector directions in L- and M-cone contrast space. The color of a central 4-deg-diameter region was briefly altered (500 ms) by incrementing or decrementing either L- or M-cone excitation. Incrementing L-cone and decrementing M-cone excitation produced a field that appeared reddish relative to the yellow surround. Likewise, incrementing M-cone and decrementing L-cone produced a field that appeared greenish. Motion identification thresholds were obtained on the yellow field following the brief color transitions. The results show that the threshold for the L-cone direction was selectively elevated by the background substitution of incrementing L-cone and decrementing M-cone excitation (shift toward reddish color). The same substitution, however, did not affect the threshold in the M-cone direction. Similarly, the threshold for the M-cone direction was selectively elevated by the background substitution of incrementing M-cone, decrementing L-cone excitation (shift toward greenish) without affecting the threshold in the L-cone direction. Experiments using the motion quadrature paradigm confirmed that these effects occur within the luminance mechanism. These results indicate that the activation of L-on plus M-off signals suppresses the L-cone signal and that the activation of L-off plus M-on signals suppresses the M-cone signals in the luminance pathway. We propose a retinal model based on the experimental results.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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  16. S. M. Anstis, P. Cavanagh “A minimum motion technique for judging equiluminance,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London1983), pp. 156–166.
  17. V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,” J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).
    [PubMed]
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1997 (1)

C. F. Stromeyer, A. Chaparro, A. S. Tolias, R. E. Kronauer, “Colour adaptation modifies the long-wave versus middle-wave cone weights and temporal phases in human luminance (but not red–green) mechanism,” J. Physiol. (London) 499, 227–254 (1997).

1996 (1)

S. J. Cropper, A. M. Derrington, “Rapid colour-specific detection of motion in human vision,” Nature (London) 379, 72–74 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. F. Stromeyer, R. E. Kronauer, A. Ryu, A. Chaparro, R. T. Eskew, “Contributions of human long-wave and middle-wave cones to motion detection,” J. Physiol. (London) 485, 221–243 (1995).

1993 (4)

1992 (1)

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,” J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).
[PubMed]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

1975 (1)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the forveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1948 (1)

H. L. de Vries, “The luminosity curve of the eye as determined by measurements with the flicker photometer,” Physica (Amsterdam) 14, 319–348 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Anstis, S. M.

S. M. Anstis, P. Cavanagh “A minimum motion technique for judging equiluminance,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London1983), pp. 156–166.

Boynton, R. M.

Cavanagh, P.

S. M. Anstis, P. Cavanagh “A minimum motion technique for judging equiluminance,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London1983), pp. 156–166.

Chaparro, A.

C. F. Stromeyer, A. Chaparro, A. S. Tolias, R. E. Kronauer, “Colour adaptation modifies the long-wave versus middle-wave cone weights and temporal phases in human luminance (but not red–green) mechanism,” J. Physiol. (London) 499, 227–254 (1997).

C. F. Stromeyer, R. E. Kronauer, A. Ryu, A. Chaparro, R. T. Eskew, “Contributions of human long-wave and middle-wave cones to motion detection,” J. Physiol. (London) 485, 221–243 (1995).

Cole, G. R.

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cropper, S. J.

S. J. Cropper, A. M. Derrington, “Rapid colour-specific detection of motion in human vision,” Nature (London) 379, 72–74 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de Vries, H. L.

H. L. de Vries, “The luminosity curve of the eye as determined by measurements with the flicker photometer,” Physica (Amsterdam) 14, 319–348 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Derrington, A. M.

S. J. Cropper, A. M. Derrington, “Rapid colour-specific detection of motion in human vision,” Nature (London) 379, 72–74 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Derrington, G. B. Henning, “Detecting and discriminating the direction of motion of luminance and colour gratings,” Vision Res. 33, 799–811 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisner, A.

Eskew, R. T.

C. F. Stromeyer, R. E. Kronauer, A. Ryu, A. Chaparro, R. T. Eskew, “Contributions of human long-wave and middle-wave cones to motion detection,” J. Physiol. (London) 485, 221–243 (1995).

Gouras, P.

P. Gouras, “Precortical physiology of colour vision,” in The Perception of Color, P. Gouras, ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1991), Vol. 6, pp. 163–178.

Henning, G. B.

A. M. Derrington, G. B. Henning, “Detecting and discriminating the direction of motion of luminance and colour gratings,” Vision Res. 33, 799–811 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirai, Y.

S. Tsujimura, S. Shioiri, Y. Hirai, “Effect of phase on threshold contour in cone contrast space for motion identification: estimation of intrinsic phase shift between L and M cones,” in Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the International Colour Association 97 (Color Science Association of Japan, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 263–266.

Jin, Q.

Kronauer, R. E.

C. F. Stromeyer, A. Chaparro, A. S. Tolias, R. E. Kronauer, “Colour adaptation modifies the long-wave versus middle-wave cone weights and temporal phases in human luminance (but not red–green) mechanism,” J. Physiol. (London) 499, 227–254 (1997).

C. F. Stromeyer, R. E. Kronauer, A. Ryu, A. Chaparro, R. T. Eskew, “Contributions of human long-wave and middle-wave cones to motion detection,” J. Physiol. (London) 485, 221–243 (1995).

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. B.

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,” J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).
[PubMed]

Lindsey, D. T.

MacLeod, D. I. A.

Martin, P. R.

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,” J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).
[PubMed]

Pokorny, J.

Ryu, A.

C. F. Stromeyer, R. E. Kronauer, A. Ryu, A. Chaparro, R. T. Eskew, “Contributions of human long-wave and middle-wave cones to motion detection,” J. Physiol. (London) 485, 221–243 (1995).

Shioiri, S.

S. Tsujimura, S. Shioiri, Y. Hirai, “Effect of phase on threshold contour in cone contrast space for motion identification: estimation of intrinsic phase shift between L and M cones,” in Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the International Colour Association 97 (Color Science Association of Japan, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 263–266.

Smith, V. C.

Stockman, A.

Stromeyer, C. F.

C. F. Stromeyer, A. Chaparro, A. S. Tolias, R. E. Kronauer, “Colour adaptation modifies the long-wave versus middle-wave cone weights and temporal phases in human luminance (but not red–green) mechanism,” J. Physiol. (London) 499, 227–254 (1997).

C. F. Stromeyer, R. E. Kronauer, A. Ryu, A. Chaparro, R. T. Eskew, “Contributions of human long-wave and middle-wave cones to motion detection,” J. Physiol. (London) 485, 221–243 (1995).

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, W. H.

Tolias, A. S.

C. F. Stromeyer, A. Chaparro, A. S. Tolias, R. E. Kronauer, “Colour adaptation modifies the long-wave versus middle-wave cone weights and temporal phases in human luminance (but not red–green) mechanism,” J. Physiol. (London) 499, 227–254 (1997).

Tsujimura, S.

S. Tsujimura, S. Shioiri, Y. Hirai, “Effect of phase on threshold contour in cone contrast space for motion identification: estimation of intrinsic phase shift between L and M cones,” in Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the International Colour Association 97 (Color Science Association of Japan, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 263–266.

Valberg, A.

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,” J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).
[PubMed]

Vivien, J. A.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

J. Physiol. (1)

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,” J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).
[PubMed]

J. Physiol. (London) (2)

C. F. Stromeyer, R. E. Kronauer, A. Ryu, A. Chaparro, R. T. Eskew, “Contributions of human long-wave and middle-wave cones to motion detection,” J. Physiol. (London) 485, 221–243 (1995).

C. F. Stromeyer, A. Chaparro, A. S. Tolias, R. E. Kronauer, “Colour adaptation modifies the long-wave versus middle-wave cone weights and temporal phases in human luminance (but not red–green) mechanism,” J. Physiol. (London) 499, 227–254 (1997).

Nature (London) (1)

S. J. Cropper, A. M. Derrington, “Rapid colour-specific detection of motion in human vision,” Nature (London) 379, 72–74 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Physica (Amsterdam) (1)

H. L. de Vries, “The luminosity curve of the eye as determined by measurements with the flicker photometer,” Physica (Amsterdam) 14, 319–348 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (3)

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the forveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Derrington, G. B. Henning, “Detecting and discriminating the direction of motion of luminance and colour gratings,” Vision Res. 33, 799–811 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

S. Tsujimura, S. Shioiri, Y. Hirai, “Effect of phase on threshold contour in cone contrast space for motion identification: estimation of intrinsic phase shift between L and M cones,” in Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the International Colour Association 97 (Color Science Association of Japan, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 263–266.

S. M. Anstis, P. Cavanagh “A minimum motion technique for judging equiluminance,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London1983), pp. 156–166.

P. Gouras, “Precortical physiology of colour vision,” in The Perception of Color, P. Gouras, ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1991), Vol. 6, pp. 163–178.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Hypothetical threshold of the luminance mechanism and its change in slope in L- and M-cone contrast space. A straight line with negative slope of -1 represents a threshold contour detected by the luminance mechanism. When the L-cone signals are selectively suppressed by background substitution, the threshold along the L-cone axis should be elevated, with the consequence that the threshold contour will have a flatter slope. On the other hand, when the M-cone signals are selectively suppressed, the threshold contour will have a steeper slope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spatial and temporal configuration of the stimulus in the experiments. The test grating was displayed in a circular field with a diameter of 2° at the center of the display surrounded by a uniform field of the same color as the average of the test grating. In each trial the preceding background was presented in a circular field of 4° at the center of the display for 500 ms, and then the moving test grating with a yellow concurrent background replaced the field.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Five colors of preceding backgrounds used in the experiments in L- and M-cone-excitation coordinates (cone luminance space). Two colors are ±3.0 cd/m2 away from the average color of the test grating (yellow) along the L-cone axis (-L and +L), and the other two colors are ±3.0 cd/m2 away along the M-cone axis (-M and +M). We also used as a control a yellow preceding background (Y) that is the same as the concurrent background color. The five substitutions are named +L to Y, -L to Y, +M to Y, -M to Y, and Y. The directions of color and brightness change are indicated by arrows.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Motion threshold contours in five substituting conditions in L- and M-cone contrast space for observer ST. The arrangement of the panels corresponds to the arrangement of the preceding background colors in Fig. 3. The value at the upper right of each panel represents the slope of the threshold contour.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Motion threshold contours in five substituting conditions in L- and M-cone contrast space for observer YT. The arrangement of the panels corresponds to the arrangement of the preceding background colors in Fig. 3. Configurations are the same as in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The thresholds for L- and M-cone direction for two observers. The top row represents the thresholds for L-cone direction (L-cone thresholds), and the bottom row represents the thresholds for M-cone direction (M-cone thresholds). The -L to Y substitution elevated the L-cone thresholds, but it had little effect on M-cone thresholds. The +M to Y substitution also elevated the L-cone thresholds, whereas the substitution had no effect for L-cones. Similarly, +L to Y and -M to Y substitutions elevated the M-cone thresholds, with little effect for L-cone thresholds.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The spatiotemporal properties of the stimulus in the quadrature protocol. The red–green test stimulus was added to the light–dark yellow pedestal stimulus with a shift of 90° in temporal and spatial phase. Neither of these stimuli alone produces any net motion, and only the interaction of the two stimuli can produce the motion perception. A net rightward motion will be perceived in this case because the luminance of red light is greater than that of green light. Note that rectangular gratings are used to simplify the illustration. The actual stimulus consisted of sinusoidal gratings.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Motion identification contours assessed by the quadrature protocol in Y and +M to Y conditions for observer ST (top row) and observer YT (bottom row). The values at the upper right of each panel represent the slope of the fitted line and the correlation coefficient. The arrow represents the pedestal grating used. The fact that the threshold contour in the +M to Y condition had a flatter slope than that in the Y condition suggests that the +M to Y substitution suppressed the L-cone signals.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Retinal model for cone selective suppression in the magnocellular pathway. The first stage is an input layer composed of cones. The second stage consists of a luminance cell that projects to the cells at the higher stage of the magnocellular pathway. The third stage consists of two types of cells, named L-+M+ and L++M- cone-opponent cells. The L-+M+ cell receives the signals from the cell that is sensitive to decrements in the L-cone signal and the cell that is sensitive to increments in the M-cone signal. Similarly, L++M- cell receives the signals from the cell that is sensitive to increments in the L-cone signal and the cell that is sensitive to decrements in the M-cone signal.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Six colors of preceding backgrounds of the luminance and equiluminance axes in L- and M-cone luminance space (hatched disks). Two colors are for the equiluminance conditions (-L+M to Y and +L-M to Y), and the rest are for the luminance conditions (+L+M to Y, -L-M to Y, +Y to Y, and -Y to Y). The +L+M and -L-M preceding backgrounds are chosen along a 45–225-deg axis in cone-excitation space and appear bright green or dim red. The +Y and -Y preceding backgrounds are chosen along a monochromatic axis so that the color is not changed. The white disks represent the preceding backgrounds used in experiment 1.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Thresholds for L- and M-cone direction in the four luminance conditions. The thresholds in the Y, +L to Y, +M to Y, -L to Y, and -M to Y conditions of experiment 1 are also shown for comparison. The upper panels show the L-cone and the M-cone thresholds in the +L+M to Y and +Y to Y conditions. The lower panels show the L-cone and the M-cone thresholds in the -L-M to Y and -Y to Y conditions. In all conditions the L- and M-cone thresholds are elevated. In the +L+M to Y and +Y to Y conditions, the amount of L-cone threshold elevation is similar to that produced by the +M preceding background. In the -L-M to Y and -Y to Y conditions, the amount of M-cone threshold elevation is similar to that produced by the -L preceding background. See text.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Threshold for L- and M-cone direction in two equiluminant conditions. The threshold in the Y condition of experiment 1 is also shown for comparison. The panel on the left represents the thresholds for the L-cone direction (L-cone thresholds) and the panel on the right represents the thresholds for the M-cone direction (M-cone thresholds). The results show that the L-cone threshold is elevated only by the (-L+M)/2 preceding background and the M-cone threshold is elevated only by the (+L-M)/2 preceding background.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D=aL+bM,
D2=(aL)2+(bM)2+2ab cos(φ)LM,
Sl(ϕ, ai)
=2ai cos(φ)ai2-1-[ai4-2ai2+1+4ai2 cos2(φ)]1/2,
ai=a/b,

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